LS-DYNA Manual Vol1

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LS-DYNA ® KEYWORD USER'S MANUAL VOLUME I LS-DYNA R8.0 03/23/15 (r:6319) LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)
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Ls-dyna 971 Manual

Transcript of LS-DYNA Manual Vol1

  • LS-DYNA KEYWORD USER'S MANUAL

    VOLUME I

    LS-DYNA R8.0 03/23/15 (r:6319)

    LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)

  • Corporate Address

    Livermore Software Technology Corporation P. O. Box 712 Livermore, California 94551-0712

    Support Addresses

    Livermore Software Technology Corporation7374 Las Positas Road Livermore, California 94551 Tel: 925-449-2500 Fax: 925-449-2507 Email: [email protected] Website: www.lstc.com

    Livermore Software Technology Corporation 1740 West Big Beaver Road Suite 100 Troy, Michigan 48084 Tel: 248-649-4728 Fax: 248-649-6328

    Disclaimer

    Copyright 1992-2015 Livermore Software Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

    LS-DYNA, LS-OPT and LS-PrePost are registered trademarks of Livermore Software Technology Corporation in the United States. All other trademarks, product names and brand names belong to their respective owners.

    LSTC reserves the right to modify the material contained within this manual without prior notice.

    The information and examples included herein are for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to be exhaustive or all-inclusive. LSTC assumes no liability or responsibility whatsoever for any direct of indirect damages or inaccuracies of any type or nature that could be deemed to have resulted from the use of this manual.

    Any reproduction, in whole or in part, of this manual is prohibited without the prior written approval of LSTC. All requests to reproduce the contents hereof should be sent to [email protected]

  • Patents

    LSTC products are protected under the following patents:

    US Patents: 7167816, 7286972, 7308387, 7382367, 7386425, 7386428, 7392163, 7395128, 7415400, 7428713, 7472602, 7499050, 7516053, 7533577, 7590514, 7613585, 7640146, 7657394, 7660480, 7664623, 7702490, 7702494, 7945432, 7953578, 7987143, 7996344, 8050897, 8069017, 8126684, 8150668, 8165856, 8180605, 8190408, 8200458, 8200464, 8209157, 8271237, 8296109, 8306793, 8374833, 8423327, 8467997, 8489372, 8494819, 8515714, 8521484, 8577656, 8612186, 8666719, 8744825, 8768660, 8798973, 8898042

    Japan Patents: 5090426, 5281057, 5330300, 5373689, 5404516, 5411013, 5411057, 5431133, 5520553, 5530552, 5589198, 5601961

    China Patents: ZL200910207380.5, ZL200910165817.3, ZL200910221325.1, ZL200910246429.8, ZL201010128222.3, ZL201010132510.6, ZL201010155066.X, ZL201010171603.X, ZL201010174074.9, ZL201010287263.7, ZL201110037461.2, ZL201010533046.1

    EPO Patents: EP219192881

    and pending patents applications.

    AES

    AES. Copyright 2001, Dr Brian Gladman < [email protected]>, Worcester, UK. All rights reserved. LICENSE TERMS The free distribution and use of this software in both source and binary form is allowed (with or without changes) provided that:

    1. distributions of this source code include the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer;

    2. distributions in binary form include the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other associ-ated materials;

    3. the copyright holder's name is not used to endorse products built using this software without specific written permission.

    DISCLAIMER This software is provided 'as is' with no explicit or implied warranties in respect of any properties, including, but not limited to, correctness and fitness for purpose.

    Issue Date: 21/01/2002 This file contains the code for implementing the key schedule for AES (Rijndael) for block and key sizes of 16, 24, and 32 bytes.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-1 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................. 0-1

    INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 1-1 CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY ...................................................................................................... 1-1

    1989-1990 ....................................................................................................................... 1-2 1991-1992 ....................................................................................................................... 1-4 1993-1994 ....................................................................................................................... 1-5 1995 ................................................................................................................................. 1-6 950 ................................................................................................................................... 1-9 960 ................................................................................................................................. 1-12 970 ................................................................................................................................. 1-17 971 ................................................................................................................................. 1-23 971R6 ............................................................................................................................ 1-31 97R6.1 ........................................................................................................................... 1-37 R7.0 ............................................................................................................................... 1-41 R7.1 ............................................................................................................................... 1-56 R8.0 ............................................................................................................................... 1-73

    MATERIAL MODELS .................................................................................................................. 1-95 SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION ....................................................................................................... 1-97 CONTACT-IMPACT INTERFACES ........................................................................................... 1-100 INTERFACE DEFINITIONS FOR COMPONENT ANALYSIS .................................................... 1-101 PRECISION ............................................................................................................................... 1-102

    GETTING STARTED................................................................................................................................... 2-1 DESCRIPTION OF KEYWORD INPUT.......................................................................................... 2-1 SUMMARY OF COMMONLY USED OPTIONS .......................................................................... 2-12 EXECUTION SYNTAX ................................................................................................................. 2-13 SENSE SWITCH CONTROLS ..................................................................................................... 2-16 Procedure for LS-DYNA/MPP .................................................................................................... 2-17 FILES .......................................................................................................................................... 2-18 RESTART ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................. 2-20 VDA/IGES DATABASES ............................................................................................................. 2-22 LS-PrePost .............................................................................................................................. 2-23 EXECUTION SPEEDS ................................................................................................................. 2-25 UNITS ......................................................................................................................................... 2-25

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    0-2 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    GENERAL CARD FORMAT ........................................................................................................ 2-26

    *AIRBAG .................................................................................................................................................... 3-1 *AIRBAG ....................................................................................................................................... 3-2

    Core Cards ...................................................................................................................... 3-3 *AIRBAG_SIMPLE_PRESSURE_VOLUME .................................................................... 3-10 *AIRBAG_SIMPLE_AIRBAG_MODEL ............................................................................ 3-12 *AIRBAG_ADIABATIC_GAS_MODEL ............................................................................ 3-15 *AIRBAG_WANG_NEFSKE ............................................................................................ 3-17 *AIRBAG_LOAD_CURVE ............................................................................................... 3-33 *AIRBAG_LINEAR_FLUID .............................................................................................. 3-34 *AIRBAG_HYBRID ......................................................................................................... 3-36 *AIRBAG_HYBRID_JETTING ......................................................................................... 3-36 *AIRBAG_HYBRID_CHEMKIN ....................................................................................... 3-45

    *AIRBAG_ALE ............................................................................................................................. 3-51 *AIRBAG_INTERACTION ............................................................................................................ 3-65 *AIRBAG_PARTICLE................................................................................................................... 3-67 *AIRBAG_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY ......................................................................................... 3-80 *AIRBAG_SHELL_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY ............................................................................ 3-83

    *ALE ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-1 *ALE_AMBIENT_HYDROSTATIC.................................................................................................. 4-3 *ALE_COUPLING_NODAL_CONSTRAINT ................................................................................... 4-6 *ALE_COUPLING_NODAL_DRAG ................................................................................................ 4-9 *ALE_COUPLING_NODAL_PENALTY ........................................................................................ 4-13 *ALE_COUPLING_RIGID_BODY ............................................................................................... 4-16 *ALE_ESSENTIAL_BOUNDARY ................................................................................................. 4-18 *ALE_FAIL_SWITCH_MMG ........................................................................................................ 4-20 *ALE_FSI_PROJECTION ............................................................................................................ 4-22 *ALE_FRAGMENTATION ............................................................................................................ 4-25 *ALE_FSI_SWITCH_MMG .......................................................................................................... 4-27 *ALE_FSI_TO_LOAD_NODE ....................................................................................................... 4-32 *ALE_MULTI-MATERIAL_GROUP .............................................................................................. 4-33 *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_CURVE ....................................................................................... 4-37 *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_GROUP ...................................................................................... 4-39 *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_NODE ......................................................................................... 4-47 *ALE_REFERENCE_SYSTEM_SWITCH ..................................................................................... 4-49 *ALE_REFINE .............................................................................................................................. 4-51

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-3 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *ALE_SMOOTHING .................................................................................................................... 4-52 *ALE_SWITCH_MMG.................................................................................................................. 4-54 *ALE_TANK_TEST ...................................................................................................................... 4-60 *ALE_UP_SWITCH ...................................................................................................................... 4-64

    *BOUNDARY .............................................................................................................................................. 5-1 *BOUNDARY_ACOUSTIC_COUPLING ........................................................................................ 5-3 *BOUNDARY_ACOUSTIC_MAPPING .......................................................................................... 5-6 *BOUNDARY_ALE_MAPPING ...................................................................................................... 5-7 *BOUNDARY_AMBIENT_EOS .................................................................................................... 5-13 *BOUNDARY_CONVECTION ..................................................................................................... 5-15 *BOUNDARY_COUPLED ............................................................................................................ 5-17 *BOUNDARY_CYCLIC ................................................................................................................ 5-19 *BOUNDARY_FLUX .................................................................................................................... 5-22 *BOUNDARY_MCOL .................................................................................................................. 5-27 *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING ............................................................................................. 5-29 *BOUNDARY_NON_REFLECTING_2D....................................................................................... 5-31 *BOUNDARY_PAP ...................................................................................................................... 5-33 *BOUNDARY_PORE_FLUID ....................................................................................................... 5-35 *BOUNDARY_PRECRACK ......................................................................................................... 5-37 *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_ACCELEROMETER_RIGID ......................................................... 5-38 *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_FINAL_GEOMETRY .................................................................... 5-40 *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION ...................................................................................... 5-42 *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_ORIENTATION_RIGID ................................................................. 5-49 *BOUNDARY_PRESSURE_OUTFLOW ...................................................................................... 5-55 *BOUNDARY_PWP ..................................................................................................................... 5-56 *BOUNDARY_RADIATION .......................................................................................................... 5-60

    *BOUNDARY_RADIATION_SEGMENT ......................................................................... 5-62 *BOUNDARY_RADIATION_SEGMENT_VF ................................................................... 5-64 *BOUNDARY_RADIATION_SET .................................................................................... 5-66 *BOUNDARY_RADIATION_SET_EF .............................................................................. 5-68 *BOUNDARY_RADIATION_SET_VF .............................................................................. 5-69

    *BOUNDARY_SLIDING_PLANE ................................................................................................. 5-72 *BOUNDARY_SPC ..................................................................................................................... 5-73 *BOUNDARY_SPC_SYMMETRY_PLANE .................................................................................. 5-76 *BOUNDARY_SPH_FLOW ......................................................................................................... 5-78 *BOUNDARY_SPH_SYMMETRY_PLANE .................................................................................. 5-81

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    0-4 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *BOUNDARY_SYMMETRY_FAILURE ........................................................................................ 5-82 *BOUNDARY_TEMPERATURE .................................................................................................. 5-83 *BOUNDARY_THERMAL_BULKFLOW ...................................................................................... 5-85 *BOUNDARY_THERMAL_BULKNODE ...................................................................................... 5-86 *BOUNDARY_THERMAL_WELD ................................................................................................ 5-88 *BOUNDARY_USA_SURFACE ................................................................................................... 5-92

    *BOUNDARY_ELEMENT_METHOD .......................................................................................................... 5-1 *BOUNDARY_ELEMENT_METHOD_CONTROL .......................................................................... 6-2 *BOUNDARY_ELEMENT_METHOD_FLOW ................................................................................. 6-4 *BOUNDARY_ELEMENT_METHOD_NEIGHBOR ........................................................................ 6-6 *BOUNDARY_ELEMENT_METHOD_SYMMETRY ..................................................................... 6-10 *BOUNDARY_ELEMENT_METHOD_WAKE ............................................................................... 6-11

    *CASE ........................................................................................................................................................ 7-1

    *COMMENT ............................................................................................................................................... 8-1

    *COMPONENT ........................................................................................................................................... 9-1 *COMPONENT_GEBOD ............................................................................................................... 9-2 *COMPONENT_GEBOD_JOINT ................................................................................................... 9-4 *COMPONENT_HYBRIDIII............................................................................................................ 9-8 *COMPONENT_HYBRIDIII_JOINT ............................................................................................. 9-11

    *CONSTRAINED ...................................................................................................................................... 10-1 *CONSTRAINED_ADAPTIVITY ................................................................................................... 10-3 *CONSTRAINED_BEAM_IN_SOLID ........................................................................................... 10-4 *CONSTRAINED_BUTT_WELD .................................................................................................. 10-7 *CONSTRAINED_COORDINATE .............................................................................................. 10-10 *CONSTRAINED_EULER_IN_EULER ....................................................................................... 10-14 *CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES ............................................................................................ 10-16 *CONSTRAINED_GENERALIZED_WELD ................................................................................. 10-18 *CONSTRAINED_GLOBAL ....................................................................................................... 10-30 *CONSTRAINED_INTERPOLATION ......................................................................................... 10-32 *CONSTRAINED_INTERPOLATION_SPOTWELD .................................................................... 10-37 *CONSTRAINED_JOINT ........................................................................................................... 10-44 *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_COOR ............................................................................................... 10-61 *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_STIFFNESS ...................................................................................... 10-68 *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_USER_FORCE .................................................................................. 10-81 *CONSTRAINED_LAGRANGE_IN_SOLID ................................................................................ 10-82

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-5 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *CONSTRAINED_LINEAR_GLOBAL ....................................................................................... 10-104 *CONSTRAINED_LINEAR_LOCAL ......................................................................................... 10-107 *CONSTRAINED_LOCAL ........................................................................................................ 10-110 *CONSTRAINED_MULTIPLE_GLOBAL .................................................................................. 10-112 *CONSTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY ................................................................................ 10-115 *CONSTRAINED_NODE_INTERPOLATION ........................................................................... 10-124 *CONSTRAINED_NODE_SET ................................................................................................. 10-126 *CONSTRAINED_POINTS ...................................................................................................... 10-129 *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODIES ........................................................................................... 10-131 *CONSTRAINED_RIGID_BODY_STOPPERS ......................................................................... 10-133 *CONSTRAINED_RIVET ......................................................................................................... 10-136 *CONSTRAINED_SHELL_TO_SOLID ..................................................................................... 10-138 *CONSTRAINED_SPLINE ....................................................................................................... 10-140 *CONSTRAINED_SPR2 .......................................................................................................... 10-142 *CONSTRAINED_SPOTWELD ................................................................................................ 10-149 *CONSTRAINED_TIE-BREAK ................................................................................................. 10-153 *CONSTRAINED_TIED_NODES_FAILURE ............................................................................. 10-155

    *CONTACT ............................................................................................................................................... 11-1 *CONTACT .................................................................................................................................. 11-2

    Options for *Contact keyword ....................................................................................... 11-2 Additional cards for *CONTACT keyword ..................................................................... 11-8 ID Card......................................................................................................................... 11-10 MPP Cards: ................................................................................................................. 11-11 Card 1. ......................................................................................................................... 11-15 Card 2. ......................................................................................................................... 11-18 Card 3. ......................................................................................................................... 11-23 Card 4: AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TIEBREAK .............................................................. 11-25 Card 4: SINGLE_SURFACE_TIED ............................................................................... 11-30 Card 4: CONSTRAINT__TO_SURFACE................................................................... 11-31 Card 4: DRAWBEAD .................................................................................................... 11-32 Card 4: ERODING_..._SURFACE ................................................................................ 11-42 Card 4: SURFACE_INTERFERENCE ........................................................................... 11-44 Card 4: RIGID_TO_RIGID ............................................................................................ 11-46 Card 4: TIEBREAK_NODES......................................................................................... 11-48 Card 4: TIEBREAK_SURFACE .................................................................................... 11-49 Card 4: CONTRACTION_JOINT .................................................................................. 11-51

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    0-6 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    THERMAL: ................................................................................................................... 11-53 THERMAL FRICTION:.................................................................................................. 11-55 ORTHO FRICTION: ...................................................................................................... 11-58 Optional Card A: .......................................................................................................... 11-61 Optional Card B: .......................................................................................................... 11-68 Optional Card C: .......................................................................................................... 11-71 Optional Card D: .......................................................................................................... 11-76 Optional Card E: .......................................................................................................... 11-79 General Remarks: ........................................................................................................ 11-82 Contact Examples: ...................................................................................................... 11-93

    *CONTACT_ADD_WEAR .......................................................................................................... 11-96 *CONTACT_AUTO_MOVE ........................................................................................................ 11-98 *CONTACT_COUPLING ......................................................................................................... 11-105 *CONTACT_ENTITY................................................................................................................ 11-107 *CONTACT_GEBOD ............................................................................................................... 11-116 *CONTACT_GUIDED_CABLE ................................................................................................. 11-119 *CONTACT_INTERIOR ........................................................................................................... 11-121 *CONTACT_RIGID_SURFACE ................................................................................................ 11-123 *CONTACT_1D ....................................................................................................................... 11-127 *CONTACT_2D ....................................................................................................................... 11-128

    *CONTACT_2D_[SLIDING, TIED, & PENALTY] ......................................................... 11-131 *CONTACT_2D_[AUTOMATIC, & FORCE_TRANSDUCER] ...................................... 11-137 *CONTACT_2D_NODE_TO_SOLID ........................................................................... 11-145

    *CONTROL .............................................................................................................................................. 12-1 *CONTROL_ACCURACY ............................................................................................................ 12-6 *CONTROL_ADAPSTEP ............................................................................................................. 12-8 *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE ............................................................................................................... 12-9 *CONTROL_ADAPTIVE_CURVE ............................................................................................... 12-18 *CONTROL_ALE ....................................................................................................................... 12-20 *CONTROL_BULK_VISCOSITY ................................................................................................ 12-26 *CONTROL_CHECK_SHELL .................................................................................................... 12-28 *CONTROL_COARSEN ............................................................................................................ 12-30 *CONTROL_CONTACT ............................................................................................................ 12-32 *CONTROL_COUPLING ........................................................................................................... 12-45 *CONTROL_CPU ...................................................................................................................... 12-47 *CONTROL_CPM ..................................................................................................................... 12-48

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-7 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *CONTROL_DEBUG ................................................................................................................. 12-50 *CONTROL_DISCRETE_ELEMENT .......................................................................................... 12-51 *CONTROL_DYNAMIC_RELAXATION ..................................................................................... 12-54 *CONTROL_EFG ....................................................................................................................... 12-59 *CONTROL_ENERGY ............................................................................................................... 12-61 *CONTROL_EXPLOSIVE_SHADOW_{OPTION} ....................................................................... 12-63 *CONTROL_FORMING ............................................................................................................. 12-64

    *CONTROL_FORMING_AUTOCHECK ........................................................................ 12-65 *CONTROL_FORMING_AUTO_NET ........................................................................... 12-68 *CONTROL_FORMING_AUTOPOSITION_PARAMETER ............................................ 12-72 *CONTROL_FORMING_INITIAL_THICKNESS ............................................................ 12-79 *CONTROL_FORMING_MAXID ................................................................................... 12-82 *CONTROL_FORMING_ONESTEP ............................................................................. 12-84 *CONTROL_FORMING_OUTPUT ............................................................................... 12-98 *CONTROL_FORMING_PARAMETER_READ ........................................................... 12-107 *CONTROL_FORMING_POSITION ........................................................................... 12-110 *CONTROL_FORMING_PRE_BENDING ................................................................... 12-112 *CONTROL_FORMING_PROJECTION ..................................................................... 12-116 *CONTROL_FORMING_SCRAP_FALL ...................................................................... 12-118 *CONTROL_FORMING_STONING ............................................................................ 12-131 *CONTROL_FORMING_TEMPLATE ......................................................................... 12-138 *CONTROL_FORMING_TIPPING .............................................................................. 12-145 *CONTROL_FORMING_TRAVEL ............................................................................... 12-148 *CONTROL_FORMING_TRIM_MERGE ..................................................................... 12-150 *CONTROL_FORMING_TRIMMING .......................................................................... 12-153 *CONTROL_FORMING_UNFLANGING_{OPTION} ................................................... 12-154 *CONTROL_FORMING_USER .................................................................................. 12-164

    *CONTROL_HOURGLASS ..................................................................................................... 12-168 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT ............................................................................................................. 12-172

    *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO .................................................................................... 12-173 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_BUCKLE ............................................................................... 12-178 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_CONSISTENT_MASS ........................................................... 12-180 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_DYNAMICS ........................................................................... 12-181 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_EIGENVALUE ........................................................................ 12-184 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_FORMING ............................................................................. 12-188 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL ............................................................................. 12-203 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_INERTIA_RELIEF .................................................................. 12-207

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    0-8 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_JOINTS ................................................................................. 12-208 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_MODAL_DYNAMIC .............................................................. 12-209 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_MODAL_DYNAMIC_DAMPING ............................................ 12-211 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_MODAL_DYNAMIC_MODE .................................................. 12-213 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_MODES_{OPTION} ............................................................... 12-214 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_ROTATIONAL_DYNAMICS ................................................... 12-217 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION ............................................................................ 12-220 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER ................................................................................ 12-230 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_STABILIZATION_{OPTION} .................................................. 12-236 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_STATIC_CONDENSATION_{OPTION} ................................. 12-238 *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_TERMINATION...................................................................... 12-241

    *CONTROL_MAT .................................................................................................................... 12-243 *CONTROL_MPP .................................................................................................................... 12-244

    *CONTROL_MPP_CONTACT_GROUPABLE ............................................................ 12-246 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_ARRANGE_PARTS ...................................... 12-247 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_AUTOMATIC ................................................ 12-248 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_BAGREF ....................................................... 12-249 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_CHECK_SPEED ........................................... 12-250 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_CONTACT_DISTRIBUTE ............................. 12-251 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_CONTACT_ISOLATE ................................... 12-252 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_DISABLE_UNREF_CURVES ........................ 12-253 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_DISTRIBUTE_ALE_ELEMENTS ................... 12-254 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_DISTRIBUTE_SPH_ELEMENTS .................. 12-255 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_ELCOST ....................................................... 12-256 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_FILE .............................................................. 12-257 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_METHOD ...................................................... 12-258 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_NUMPROC .................................................. 12-259 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_OUTDECOMP .............................................. 12-260 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_PARTS_DISTRIBUTE ................................... 12-261 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_PARTSET_DISTRIBUTE ............................... 12-262 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_RCBLOG ...................................................... 12-263 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_SCALE_CONTACT_COST ........................... 12-264 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_SCALE_FACTOR_SPH ................................ 12-265 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_SHOW .......................................................... 12-266 *CONTROL_MPP_DECOMPOSITION_TRANSFORMATION .................................... 12-267 *CONTROL_MPP_IO_LSTC_REDUCE ...................................................................... 12-269 *CONTROL_MPP_IO_NOBEAMOUT ........................................................................ 12-270

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-9 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *CONTROL_MPP_IO_NOD3DUMP ........................................................................... 12-271 *CONTROL_MPP_IO_NODUMP ............................................................................... 12-272 *CONTROL_MPP_IO_NOFAIL ................................................................................... 12-273 *CONTROL_MPP_IO_NOFULL ................................................................................. 12-274 *CONTROL_MPP_IO_SWAPBYTES.......................................................................... 12-275 *CONTROL_MPP_MATERIAL_MODEL_DRIVER ...................................................... 12-276 *CONTROL_MPP_PFILE ........................................................................................... 12-277

    *CONTROL_NONLOCAL ........................................................................................................ 12-278 *CONTROL_OUTPUT ............................................................................................................. 12-279 *CONTROL_PARALLEL .......................................................................................................... 12-284 *CONTROL_PORE_FLUID ...................................................................................................... 12-287 *CONTROL_PORE_AIR .......................................................................................................... 12-293 *CONTROL_REFINE_ALE ....................................................................................................... 12-294 *CONTROL_REFINE_ALE2D .................................................................................................. 12-299 *CONTROL_REFINE_MPP_DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................... 12-304 *CONTROL_REFINE_SHELL .................................................................................................. 12-306 *CONTROL_REFINE_SOLID ................................................................................................... 12-311 *CONTROL_REMESHING ...................................................................................................... 12-315 *CONTROL_REQUIRE_REVISION .......................................................................................... 12-320 *CONTROL_RIGID .................................................................................................................. 12-322 *CONTROL_SHELL ................................................................................................................ 12-325 *CONTROL_SOLID ................................................................................................................. 12-337 *CONTROL_SOLUTION ......................................................................................................... 12-339 *CONTROL_SPH .................................................................................................................... 12-340 *CONTROL_SPOTWELD_BEAM ............................................................................................ 12-344 *CONTROL_START ................................................................................................................ 12-348 *CONTROL_STAGED_CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................... 12-349 *CONTROL_STEADY_STATE_ROLLING ............................................................................... 12-352 *CONTROL_STRUCTURED.................................................................................................... 12-354 *CONTROL_SUBCYCLE ........................................................................................................ 12-355 *CONTROL_TERMINATION ................................................................................................... 12-357 *CONTROL_THERMAL_EIGENVALUE ................................................................................... 12-359 *CONTROL_THERMAL_NONLINEAR .................................................................................... 12-360 *CONTROL_THERMAL_SOLVER ........................................................................................... 12-362 *CONTROL_THERMAL_TIMESTEP........................................................................................ 12-367 *CONTROL_TIMESTEP .......................................................................................................... 12-369 *CONTROL_UNITS ................................................................................................................. 12-375

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    0-10 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *DAMPING ............................................................................................................................................... 13-1 *DAMPING_FREQUENCY_RANGE ............................................................................................ 13-2 *DAMPING_GLOBAL .................................................................................................................. 13-5 *DAMPING_PART_MASS ........................................................................................................... 13-7 *DAMPING_PART_STIFFNESS .................................................................................................. 13-9 *DAMPING_RELATIVE .............................................................................................................. 13-11

    *DATABASE ............................................................................................................................................. 14-1 *DATABASE ................................................................................................................................ 14-3 *DATABASE_ALE ...................................................................................................................... 14-12 *DATABASE_ALE_MAT ............................................................................................................ 14-14 *DATABASE_BINARY ............................................................................................................... 14-15 *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PROP ............................................................................................... 14-21 *DATABASE_CPM_SENSOR.................................................................................................... 14-22 *DATABASE_CROSS_SECTION .............................................................................................. 14-25 *DATABASE_EXTENT ............................................................................................................... 14-30

    *DATABASE_EXTENT_AVS ......................................................................................... 14-31 *DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY ................................................................................... 14-36 *DATABASE_EXTENT_D3PART .................................................................................. 14-47 *DATABASE_EXTENT_INTFOR ................................................................................... 14-50 *DATABASE_EXTENT_MOVIE ..................................................................................... 14-52 *DATABASE_EXTENT_MPGS ..................................................................................... 14-53 *DATABASE_EXTENT_SSSTAT .................................................................................. 14-54

    *DATABASE_FORMAT ............................................................................................................. 14-55 *DATABASE_FREQUENCY_BINARY ....................................................................................... 14-56 *DATABASE_FSI ....................................................................................................................... 14-60 *DATABASE_FSI_SENSOR ...................................................................................................... 14-64 *DATABASE_HISTORY ............................................................................................................. 14-67 *DATABASE_MASSOUT ........................................................................................................... 14-71 *DATABASE_NODAL_FORCE_GROUP ................................................................................... 14-72 *DATABASE_PAP_OUTPUT ..................................................................................................... 14-73 *DATABASE_PROFILE ............................................................................................................. 14-74 *DATABASE_PWP_FLOW ........................................................................................................ 14-77 *DATABASE_PWP_OUTPUT .................................................................................................... 14-78 *DATABASE_RCFORC_MOMENT ........................................................................................... 14-79 *DATABASE_SPRING_FORWARD ........................................................................................... 14-80 *DATABASE_SUPERPLASTIC_FORMING ............................................................................... 14-81

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-11 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *DATABASE_TRACER .............................................................................................................. 14-82 *DATABASE_TRACER_GENERATE ......................................................................................... 14-84

    *DEFINE ................................................................................................................................................... 15-1 *DEFINE_ADAPTIVE_SOLID_TO_DES ....................................................................................... 15-5 *DEFINE_ADAPTIVE_SOLID_TO_SPH ....................................................................................... 15-8 *DEFINE_BOX ........................................................................................................................... 15-11 *DEFINE_BOX_ADAPTIVE ........................................................................................................ 15-14 *DEFINE_BOX_COARSEN ........................................................................................................ 15-17 *DEFINE_BOX_DRAWBEAD ..................................................................................................... 15-20 *DEFINE_BOX_SPH .................................................................................................................. 15-22 *DEFINE_CONNECTION_PROPERTIES .................................................................................. 15-25 *DEFINE_CONSTRUCTION_STAGES ...................................................................................... 15-33 *DEFINE_CONTACT_EXCLUSION ........................................................................................... 15-34 *DEFINE_CONTACT_VOLUME ................................................................................................ 15-36 *DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES ............................................................................................. 15-39 *DEFINE_COORDINATE_SYSTEM ........................................................................................... 15-41 *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR ........................................................................................... 15-47 *DEFINE_CPM_BAG_INTERACTION ....................................................................................... 15-49 *DEFINE_CPM_CHAMBER ...................................................................................................... 15-50 *DEFINE_CPM_GAS_PROPERTIES ......................................................................................... 15-53 *DEFINE_CPM_VENT ............................................................................................................... 15-55 *DEFINE_CURVE ...................................................................................................................... 15-58 *DEFINE_CURVE_BOX_ADAPTIVITY ....................................................................................... 15-62 *DEFINE_CURVE_COMPENSATION_CONSTRAINT ............................................................... 15-67 *DEFINE_CURVE_DRAWBEAD ................................................................................................ 15-73 *DEFINE_CURVE_DUPLICATE ................................................................................................. 15-76 *DEFINE_CURVE_ENTITY ........................................................................................................ 15-77 *DEFINE_CURVE_FEEDBACK ................................................................................................. 15-79 *DEFINE_CURVE_FLC .............................................................................................................. 15-82 *DEFINE_CURVE_FUNCTION .................................................................................................. 15-85 *DEFINE_CURVE_SMOOTH ................................................................................................... 15-101 *DEFINE_CURVE_TRIM .......................................................................................................... 15-103 *DEFINE_DEATH_TIMES ........................................................................................................ 15-116 *DEFINE_DE_ACTIVE_REGION .............................................................................................. 15-119 *DEFINE_DE_BOND ............................................................................................................... 15-120 *DEFINE_DE_BY_PART .......................................................................................................... 15-122

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    0-12 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *DEFINE_DE_HBOND ............................................................................................................. 15-124 *DEFINE_DE_INJECTION ....................................................................................................... 15-128 *DEFINE_DE_TO_BEAM_COUPLING .................................................................................... 15-130 *DEFINE_DE_TO_SURFACE_COUPLING .............................................................................. 15-132 *DEFINE_DE_TO_SURFACE_TIED ......................................................................................... 15-134 *DEFINE_ELEMENT_DEATH .................................................................................................. 15-136 *DEFINE_ELEMENT_GENERALIZED_SHELL ........................................................................ 15-138 *DEFINE_ELEMENT_GENERALIZED_SOLID ......................................................................... 15-143 *DEFINE_FILTER .................................................................................................................... 15-146 *DEFINE_FORMING_BLANKMESH........................................................................................ 15-148 *DEFINE_FRICTION ................................................................................................................ 15-154 *DEFINE_FRICTION_ORIENTATION ...................................................................................... 15-157 *DEFINE_FUNCTION .............................................................................................................. 15-164 *DEFINE_FUNCTION_TABULATED ....................................................................................... 15-166 *DEFINE_GROUND_MOTION ................................................................................................ 15-168 *DEFINE_HAZ_PROPERTIES ................................................................................................. 15-169 *DEFINE_HAZ_TAILOR_WELDED_BLANK ............................................................................ 15-171 *DEFINE_HEX_SPOTWELD_ASSEMBLY ............................................................................... 15-172 *DEFINE_MULTI_DRAWBEADS_IGES ................................................................................... 15-174 *DEFINE_PBLAST_GEOMETRY ............................................................................................. 15-176 *DEFINE_PLANE ..................................................................................................................... 15-178 *DEFINE_SD_ORIENTATION .................................................................................................. 15-180 *DEFINE_SET_ADAPTIVE ....................................................................................................... 15-182 *DEFINE_SPH_ACTIVE_REGION ........................................................................................... 15-183 *DEFINE_SPH_DE_COUPLING .............................................................................................. 15-187 *DEFINE_SPH_TO_SPH_COUPLING ..................................................................................... 15-189 *DEFINE_SPOTWELD_FAILURE_{OPTION} .......................................................................... 15-192 *DEFINE_SPOTWELD_FAILURE_RESULTANTS ................................................................... 15-196 *DEFINE_SPOTWELD_MULTISCALE .................................................................................... 15-198 *DEFINE_SPOTWELD_RUPTURE_PARAMETER................................................................... 15-199 *DEFINE_SPOTWELD_RUPTURE_STRESS .......................................................................... 15-202 *DEFINE_STAGED_CONSTRUCTION_PART ......................................................................... 15-204 *DEFINE_STOCHASTIC_ELEMENT_SOLID_VARIATION ...................................................... 15-206 *DEFINE_STOCHASTIC_VARIATION ..................................................................................... 15-207 *DEFINE_TABLE ..................................................................................................................... 15-212 *DEFINE_TABLE_2D ............................................................................................................... 15-215 *DEFINE_TABLE_3D: .............................................................................................................. 15-217

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    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-13 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *DEFINE_TABLE_MATRIX ...................................................................................................... 15-219 *DEFINE_TARGET_BOUNDARY ............................................................................................ 15-223 *DEFINE_TRACER_PARTICLES_2D....................................................................................... 15-225 *DEFINE_TRANSFORMATION ............................................................................................... 15-226 *DEFINE_TRIM_SEED_POINT_COORDINATES .................................................................... 15-230 *DEFINE_VECTOR .................................................................................................................. 15-232 *DEFINE_VECTOR_NODES .................................................................................................... 15-233 EXAMPLES ............................................................................................................................. 15-234

    *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID ..................................................................................................................... 16-1 *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID ........................................................................................................ 16-2 *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_AUTOMATIC .................................................................................. 16-3 *DEFORMABLE_TO_RIGID_INERTIA ......................................................................................... 16-8

    *EF ........................................................................................................................................................... 17-1 *EF_CONTROL ........................................................................................................................... 17-3 *EF_GRID .................................................................................................................................... 17-5 *EF_MATERIAL ........................................................................................................................... 17-6 *EF_TOGGLES ............................................................................................................................ 17-9

    *ELEMENT ............................................................................................................................................... 18-1 *ELEMENT_BLANKING .............................................................................................................. 18-3 *ELEMENT_BEAM ...................................................................................................................... 18-4 *ELEMENT_BEAM_PULLEY ..................................................................................................... 18-18 *ELEMENT_BEAM_SOURCE ................................................................................................... 18-20 *ELEMENT_BEARING ............................................................................................................... 18-21 *ELEMENT_DIRECT_MATRIX_INPUT ...................................................................................... 18-25 *ELEMENT_DISCRETE ............................................................................................................. 18-28 *ELEMENT_DISCRETE_SPHERE ............................................................................................. 18-31 *ELEMENT_GENERALIZED_SHELL ......................................................................................... 18-33 *ELEMENT_GENERALIZED_SOLID ......................................................................................... 18-35 *ELEMENT_INERTIA ................................................................................................................. 18-37 *ELEMENT_INTERPOLATION_SHELL ..................................................................................... 18-40 *ELEMENT_INTERPOLATION_SOLID ...................................................................................... 18-43 *ELEMENT_LANCING............................................................................................................... 18-46 *ELEMENT_MASS .................................................................................................................... 18-54 *ELEMENT_MASS_MATRIX ..................................................................................................... 18-55 *ELEMENT_MASS_PART ......................................................................................................... 18-57 *ELEMENT_PLOTEL ................................................................................................................. 18-59

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    0-14 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *ELEMENT_SEATBELT ............................................................................................................. 18-60 *ELEMENT_SEATBELT_ACCELEROMETER ........................................................................... 18-63 *ELEMENT_SEATBELT_PRETENSIONER................................................................................ 18-65 *ELEMENT_SEATBELT_RETRACTOR ..................................................................................... 18-71 *ELEMENT_SEATBELT_SENSOR ............................................................................................ 18-76 *ELEMENT_SEATBELT_SLIPRING .......................................................................................... 18-80 *ELEMENT_SHELL ................................................................................................................... 18-86 *ELEMENT_SHELL_NURBS_PATCH ....................................................................................... 18-93 *ELEMENT_SHELL_SOURCE_SINK ...................................................................................... 18-100 *ELEMENT_SOLID .................................................................................................................. 18-101 *ELEMENT_SPH ..................................................................................................................... 18-108 *ELEMENT_TRIM .................................................................................................................... 18-110 *ELEMENT_TSHELL_{OPTION} ............................................................................................. 18-111

    *EOS ........................................................................................................................................................ 19-1

    *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN .......................................................................................................................... 20-1 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_ACCELERATION_UNIT ..................................................................... 20-2 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_ACOUSTIC_BEM ............................................................................... 20-4 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_ACOUSTIC_FEM ............................................................................. 20-14 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_ACOUSTIC_INCIDENT_WAVE ........................................................ 20-20 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_ACOUSTIC_SOUND_SPEED ......................................................... 20-21 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_FRF .................................................................................................. 20-22 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_MODE .............................................................................................. 20-29 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_PATH ............................................................................................... 20-31 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_RANDOM_VIBRATION .................................................................... 20-33 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_RESPONSE_SPECTRUM ................................................................ 20-45 *FREQUENCY_DOMAIN_SSD.................................................................................................. 20-50

    *HOURGLASS ......................................................................................................................................... 21-1

    *INCLUDE ................................................................................................................................................ 22-1 *INCLUDE_AUTO_OFFSET ........................................................................................................ 22-2 *INCLUDE ................................................................................................................................... 22-4 *INCLUDE_COMPENSATION................................................................................................... 22-17 *INCLUDE_MULTISCALE_SPOTWELD.................................................................................... 22-27 *INCLUDE_TRIM ....................................................................................................................... 22-30 *INCLUDE_UNITCELL .............................................................................................................. 22-32

    *INITIAL .................................................................................................................................................... 23-1

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    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-15 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *INITIAL_AIRBAG_PARTICLE_POSITION .................................................................................. 23-3 *INITIAL_ALE_MAPPING ............................................................................................................ 23-4 *INITIAL_AXIAL_FORCE_BEAM ................................................................................................. 23-8 *INITIAL_DETONATION .............................................................................................................. 23-9 *INITIAL_FIELD_SOLID ............................................................................................................. 23-12 *INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY ............................................................................ 23-14 *INITIAL_GAS_MIXTURE .......................................................................................................... 23-15 *INITIAL_HYDROSTATIC_ALE.................................................................................................. 23-17 *INITIAL_IMPULSE_MINE ......................................................................................................... 23-20 *INITIAL_INTERNAL_DOF_SOLID ............................................................................................ 23-24 *INITIAL_LAG_MAPPING .......................................................................................................... 23-26 *INITIAL_MOMENTUM ............................................................................................................. 23-29 *INITIAL_PWP_DEPTH ............................................................................................................. 23-30 *INITIAL_STRAIN_SHELL ......................................................................................................... 23-31 *INITIAL_STRAIN_SOLID .......................................................................................................... 23-33 *INITIAL_STRAIN_TSHELL ....................................................................................................... 23-34 *INITIAL_STRESS_BEAM ......................................................................................................... 23-35 *INITIAL_STRESS_DEPTH ........................................................................................................ 23-39 *INITIAL_STRESS_SECTION .................................................................................................... 23-41 *INITIAL_STRESS_SHELL ........................................................................................................ 23-43 *INITIAL_STRESS_SOLID ......................................................................................................... 23-48 *INITIAL_STRESS_SPH ............................................................................................................ 23-53 *INITIAL_STRESS_TSHELL ...................................................................................................... 23-54 *INITIAL_TEMPERATURE ......................................................................................................... 23-57 *INITIAL_VEHICLE_KINEMATICS ............................................................................................. 23-59 *INITIAL_VELOCITY .................................................................................................................. 23-62 *INITIAL_VELOCITY_NODE ...................................................................................................... 23-65 *INITIAL_VELOCITY_RIGID_BODY .......................................................................................... 23-66 *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION ......................................................................................... 23-67 *INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION_START_TIME .................................................................. 23-70 *INITIAL_VOID ........................................................................................................................... 23-71 *INITIAL_VOLUME_FRACTION ................................................................................................ 23-72 *INITIAL_VOLUME_FRACTION_GEOMETRY........................................................................... 23-73

    *INTEGRATION ........................................................................................................................................ 24-1 *INTEGRATION_BEAM ............................................................................................................... 24-2 *INTEGRATION_SHELL ............................................................................................................ 24-17

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    0-16 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *INTERFACE ............................................................................................................................................ 25-1 *INTERFACE_BLANKSIZE .......................................................................................................... 25-3 *INTERFACE_COMPENSATION_NEW..................................................................................... 25-28 *INTERFACE_COMPONENT_FILE ........................................................................................... 25-49 *INTERFACE_COMPONENT .................................................................................................... 25-51 *INTERFACE_DE_HBOND ........................................................................................................ 25-53 *INTERFACE_LINKING_DISCRETE_NODE .............................................................................. 25-56 *INTERFACE_LINKING_EDGE.................................................................................................. 25-57 *INTERFACE_LINKING_FILE .................................................................................................... 25-58 *INTERFACE_LINKING_NODE ................................................................................................. 25-59 *INTERFACE_LINKING_SEGMENT .......................................................................................... 25-61 *INTERFACE_SPRINGBACK .................................................................................................... 25-62 *INTERFACE_SSI ...................................................................................................................... 25-67 *INTERFACE_SSI_AUX ............................................................................................................. 25-71 *INTERFACE_SSI_AUX_EMBEDDED ....................................................................................... 25-72 *INTERFACE_SSI_STATIC ....................................................................................................... 25-74

    *KEYWORD .............................................................................................................................................. 26-1

    *LOAD ...................................................................................................................................................... 27-1 *LOAD_ALE_CONVECTION ....................................................................................................... 27-3 *LOAD_BEAM ............................................................................................................................. 27-5 *LOAD_BLAST ............................................................................................................................ 27-7 *LOAD_BLAST_ENHANCED .................................................................................................... 27-10 *LOAD_BLAST_SEGMENT ....................................................................................................... 27-16 *LOAD_BLAST_SEGMENT_SET .............................................................................................. 27-17 *LOAD_BODY ........................................................................................................................... 27-18 *LOAD_BODY_GENERALIZED ................................................................................................. 27-23 *LOAD_BODY_POROUS .......................................................................................................... 27-27 *LOAD_BRODE ......................................................................................................................... 27-30 *LOAD_DENSITY_DEPTH......................................................................................................... 27-32 *LOAD_ERODING_PART_SET ................................................................................................. 27-34 *LOAD_GRAVITY_PART ........................................................................................................... 27-36 *LOAD_HEAT_CONTROLLER .................................................................................................. 27-38 *LOAD_HEAT_GENERATION ................................................................................................... 27-39 *LOAD_MASK ........................................................................................................................... 27-41 *LOAD_MOTION_NODE ........................................................................................................... 27-43 *LOAD_MOVING_PRESSURE .................................................................................................. 27-45

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    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-17 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *LOAD_NODE ........................................................................................................................... 27-47 *LOAD_REMOVE_PART ........................................................................................................... 27-50 *LOAD_RIGID_BODY ................................................................................................................ 27-52 *LOAD_SEGMENT .................................................................................................................... 27-55 *LOAD_SEGMENT_CONTACT_MASK ..................................................................................... 27-59 *LOAD_SEGMENT_FILE ........................................................................................................... 27-61 *LOAD_SEGMENT_FSILNK ...................................................................................................... 27-63 *LOAD_SEGMENT_NONUNIFORM ......................................................................................... 27-66 *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET ........................................................................................................... 27-69 *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET_ANGLE .............................................................................................. 27-71 *LOAD_SEGMENT_SET_NONUNIFORM ................................................................................. 27-73 *LOAD_SEISMIC_SSI ............................................................................................................... 27-75 *LOAD_SHELL .......................................................................................................................... 27-79 *LOAD_SPCFORC .................................................................................................................... 27-82 *LOAD_SSA .............................................................................................................................. 27-83 *LOAD_STEADY_STATE_ROLLING ......................................................................................... 27-87 *LOAD_STIFFEN_PART ............................................................................................................ 27-91 *LOAD_SUPERPLASTIC_FORMING ........................................................................................ 27-93 *LOAD_SURFACE_STRESS ..................................................................................................... 27-99 *LOAD_THERMAL .................................................................................................................. 27-101

    *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT ................................................................................ 27-102 *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_ELEMENT .............................................................. 27-104 *LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE .................................................................... 27-105 *LOAD_THERMAL_D3PLOT ...................................................................................... 27-106 *LOAD_THERMAL_LOAD_CURVE ............................................................................ 27-107 *LOAD_THERMAL_TOPAZ ........................................................................................ 27-108 *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE .................................................................................. 27-109 *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE_BEAM ...................................................................... 27-111 *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE_ELEMENT ................................................................ 27-113 *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE_NODE ...................................................................... 27-114 *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE_SHELL ..................................................................... 27-115

    *LOAD_VOLUME_LOSS ......................................................................................................... 27-117

    *NODE ...................................................................................................................................................... 28-1 *NODE ......................................................................................................................................... 28-2 *NODE_MERGE_SET.................................................................................................................. 28-4 *NODE_MERGE_TOLERANCE ................................................................................................... 28-5

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    0-18 (TABLE OF CONTENTS) LS-DYNA R8.0

    *NODE_RIGID_SURFACE ........................................................................................................... 28-6 *NODE_SCALAR ......................................................................................................................... 28-7 *NODE_THICKNESS ................................................................................................................... 28-9 *NODE_TRANSFORM .............................................................................................................. 28-10

    *PARAMETER .......................................................................................................................................... 29-1 *PARAMETER ............................................................................................................................. 29-2 *PARAMETER_DUPLICATION ................................................................................................... 29-5 *PARAMETER_EXPRESSION ..................................................................................................... 29-6 *PARAMETER_TYPE .................................................................................................................. 29-9

    *PART....................................................................................................................................................... 30-1 *PART ......................................................................................................................................... 30-2 *PART_ADAPTIVE_FAILURE .................................................................................................... 30-14 *PART_ANNEAL ....................................................................................................................... 30-15 *PART_COMPOSITE ................................................................................................................ 30-16 *PART_DUPLICATE .................................................................................................................. 30-23 *PART_MODES ......................................................................................................................... 30-25 *PART_MOVE ........................................................................................................................... 30-30 *PART_SENSOR ....................................................................................................................... 30-33

    *PARTICLE_BLAST .................................................................................................................................. 31-1

    *PERTURBATION .................................................................................................................................... 32-1 *PERTURBATION ....................................................................................................................... 32-2

    *RAIL ........................................................................................................................................................ 33-1 *RAIL_TRACK ............................................................................................................................. 33-2 *RAIL_TRAIN ............................................................................................................................... 33-8

    *RIGIDWALL ............................................................................................................................................ 34-1 *RIGIDWALL_FORCE_TRANSDUCER ....................................................................................... 34-2 *RIGIDWALL_GEOMETRIC ........................................................................................................ 34-4 *RIGIDWALL_PLANAR ............................................................................................................. 34-12

    *SECTION ................................................................................................................................................ 35-1 *SECTION_ALE1D ...................................................................................................................... 35-2 *SECTION_ALE2D ...................................................................................................................... 35-4 *SECTION_BEAM ....................................................................................................................... 35-6 *SECTION_BEAM_AISC ........................................................................................................... 35-23 *SECTION_DISCRETE .............................................................................................................. 35-26

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    LS-DYNA R8.0 0-19 (TABLE OF CONTENTS)

    *SECTION_POINT_SOURCE .................................................................................................... 35-29 *SECTION_POINT_SOURCE_MIXTURE .................................................................................. 35-32 *SECTION_SEATBELT .............................................................................................................. 35-38 *SECTION_SHELL .................................................................................................................... 35-40 *SECTION_SOLID ..................................................................................................................... 35-57 *SECTION_SPH ........................................................................................................................ 35-72 *SECTION_TSHELL .................................................................................................................. 35-75

    *SENSOR ................................................................................................................................................. 36-1 *SENSOR_CONTROL ................................................................................................................. 36-3 *SENSOR_CPM_AIRBAG ........................................................................................................... 36-6 *SENSOR_DEFINE_CALC-MATH............................................................................................... 36-7 *SENSOR_DEFINE_ELEMENT ................................................................................................... 36-9 *SENSOR_DEFINE_FORCE ...................................................................................................... 36-11 *SENSOR_DEFINE_FUNCTION ............................................................................................... 36-13 *SENSOR_DEFINE_MISC ......................................................................................................... 36-14 *SENSOR_DEFINE_NODE ........................................................................................................ 36-15 *SENSOR_SWITCH .................................................................................................................. 36-17 *SENSOR_SWITCH_CALC-LOGIC .......................................................................................... 36-18 *SENSOR_SWITCH_SHELL_TO_VENT .................................................................................... 36-20

    *SET ......................................................................................................................................................... 37-1 *SET_BEAM ....................................................................................