LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS Lauren Martin RD, LDN Rachel Sedgwick Intern.

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Transcript of LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS Lauren Martin RD, LDN Rachel Sedgwick Intern.

  • LONG TERM COMPLICATIONSLauren Martin RD, LDNRachel Sedgwick Intern


  • GENERAL SKIN CONDITIONS1. Bacterial Infections2. Fungal InfectionsStyesBoilsFolliculitisCarbunclesInfections around nailsCandida albicans (yeast-like fungus)Jock itchAthletes footRingworm

  • GENERAL SKIN CONDITIONS3. ItchingLocalizedCaused by dry skin, yeast infection, poor circulationUse mild soap with moisturizer & apply skin cream after bathing

  • SKIN CARE TIPSTalcum powder for skin-skin contact (armpits, etc.)Avoid extremely hot baths or showersUse mild shampoos and soapsMoisturize often, especially in cold or windy weatherTreat cuts immediately to prevent further infectionCheck feet daily for sores or cuts


  • DIABETES & YOUR FEETDecreased circulation causes slow healing of injuriesPeripheral neuropathy: nerve damage in legs & feetCauses little or no feeling in feet risk for undetected trauma/injuryUntreated problems may lead to infection & possible amputation very preventable!Examine your feet every day!

  • PREVENTION OF FOOT PROBLEMSWear shoes and socks that fit & allow feet to breatheLook for areas of redness when taking shoes off sign of improper fitting shoeAvoid going barefoot & use hard-soled slippersGet tested for sensation in your feet: monofilamentThis should be done once every year Tell doctor if any areas of feet are numb


  • DAILY FOOT CAREWash with mild soap & water daily & dry completelyLook at tops & bottoms of feet (use mirror as needed)Fissures, cracks, calluses, red spots, cuts, bruisesUse lotion for dry feet or powder for sweaty feetRemove calluses by gently rubbing with emery board or pumice stoneDo not use chemical removers or sharp instrumentsTrim toenails to follow curve of toe & be even with end of toeNails are softer & easier to cut after bathing

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  • THE EYEWhen you look at an objectThe image is sent from the lens vitreous (area filled with clear gel-like fluid) retinaRetina = thin membrane at back of eye that receives imagesOptic nerve = transmits image from retina to brainMacula = center of vision of retina

  • Optomap Technology www.optos.com

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHYWeak spots develop in walls of smallest blood vessels & balloon-like outpouchings occur microaneurysmsIf the outpouchings cause swelling in the retina vision impairmentVision impairment from retinopathy blurred vision from high glucose levels

  • PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHYNew, smaller blood vessels form to help blood flowNeovascularizationVery fragile & break easilyBleeding can occur between the retina & vitreous or into vitreousVisual loss or total blindness if untreated

  • RETINAL DETACHMENTScars may develop & attach the retina & vitreousIf scars contractRetina torn away from back surface of eye & cause blank spots in visionImmediate care is necessary!

  • PREVENTION & TREATMENTDilated eye exam by eye specialistRegular eye exams at diagnosis & yearly thereafterKeep blood pressure within recommended targets

    Diabetes is the leading cause of new blindness

    Get checked!

  • CATARACTSAccumulation of sugars in the lens of the eye causing swelling & clouding

  • GLAUCOMAIncreased pressure in the eye causing damage to optic nerve in back of eyeTunnel visionDiabetics 2x as likely to develop


  • Diabetes and Oral healthNearly 26 million Americans who have gum disease have unexpected oral health problemsOral Health Problems is added to the list of other complications associated with diabetesBlood sugar levels that are poorly controlled may lead to oral health problems

  • Types of Oral Health ProblemsPlaque/Tartar the bad guy of gum diseaseGingivitis early stage of gum diseasePeriodontitis severe gum diseaseThrush fungal infectionDry Mouth increased risk of cavitiesPoor healing of ulcers

  • Warning signs Bleeding gums even if there is no painRed, swollen, or tender gumsGums that have pulled away from teethPuss between teeth and gumsBad breathLoose teethChanges in biteIll fitting dentures

  • Is This A Two Way Street?Yes!The relationship between serious gum disease & diabetes goes two waysThose with diabetes are more susceptible to serious gum diseaseANDSerious gum disease can affect blood sugar control and contribute to the progression of diabetes

  • How can I prevent Oral Health Problems?Good Blood Sugar ControlTake good care of your teeth, gums & tongueBrush and flossRegular dental check-upsEvery 6 monthsAvoid smokingRemove and clean dentures regularly