Liquid Rocket Engines Centrifugal Flow Turbo Pumps

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Transcript of Liquid Rocket Engines Centrifugal Flow Turbo Pumps

NASA SPACE VEHICLE DESIGNRITERIA C (CHEMICAL PROPULSION)

NASA SP-8109

LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE F CENTRIFUGAL LOW TURBOPUMPS

J

,.L

DECEMBER 1973

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS

AND

SPACE

ADMINISTRATION

FOREWORD

NASA experience has indicated a need for uniform criteria for the design of space vehicles. Accordingly, criteria are being developed in the following areas of technology: Environment Structures Guidance and Control Chemical Propulsion

Individual components of this work will be issued as separate monographs as soon as they are completed. This document, part of the series on Chemical Propulsion, is one such monograph. A list of all monographs issued prior to this one can be found on the final pages of this document. These monographs are to be regarded except as may be specified in formal these documents, revised as experience uniform design practices as guides to design and not as NASA requirements, project specifications. It is expected, however, that may indicate to be desirable, eventually will provide

for NASA space vehicles.

This monograph, "Liquid Rocket Engine Centrifugal Flow Turbopumps", was prepared under the direction of Howard W. Douglass, Chief, Design Criteria Office, Lewis Research Center; project management was by Harold Schmidt. The monograph was written by R. B. Furst of Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, and was edited by Russell B. Keller, Jr. of Lewis. Significant contributions to the text were made by H. Campen and F. Viteri of Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company. To assure technical accuracy this document, scientists and engineers throughout the technical community participated of in

interviews, consultations, and critical review of the text. In particular, Mario Messina of Bell Aerospace Company; Glen M. Wood of United Aircraft Corporation; and C. H. Hauser and Dean D. Scheer of the Lewis Research Center individually and collectively reviewed the text in detail. Comments concerning National Aeronautics Office), December Cleveland, 1973 the and technical content of this monograph will be welcomed Space Administration, Lewis Research Center (Design by the Criteria

OH 44135.

For sale by the Nationai _'echnical Springfield, Virginia 22151 Price$4.50

Information

Service

GUIDE

TO

THE

USE OF THIS

MONOGRAPH

The purpose of this monograph is to organize and present, for effective use in design, the significant experience and knowledge accumulated in development and operational programs to date. It reviews and assesses current design practices, and from them establishes firm guidance for achieving greater consistency in design, increased reliability in the end product, and greater efficiency in the design effort. The monograph is organized into two major sections that are preceded by a brief introduction and complemented by a set of references. The State of the Art, section identifies which design elements current tecnnology pertaining to best available references are cited. background material and Recommended Practices. The Design limitation, successful project The Criter&, shown 2, reviews and discusses the total design problem, and are involved in successful design. It describes succinctly the these elements. When detailed information is required, the This section serves as a survey of the subject that provides a proper technological base for the Design Criteria and

prepares

in italics

in section

3, state

clearly

and briefly

what rule, guide,

or standard must design. The Design

be imposed on each essential design element to assure Criteria can serve effectively as a checklist of rules for the a design or in assessing 3, state its adequacy. how to satisfy each of the criteria.

manager

to use in guiding Practices,

Recommended

also in section

Whenever possible, the best procedure is described; when this cannot be done concisely, appropriate references are provided. The Recommended Practices, in conjunction with the Design Criteria, provide positive guidance to the practicing designer on how to achieve successful design. have been organized into decimally numbered subsections so that the subjects

Both sections

within similarly numbered subsections correspond from section to section. The format for the Contents displays this continuity of subject in such a way that a particular aspect of design can be followed through both sections as a discrete subject. The design criteria monograph is not intended to be a design handbook, a set of

specifications, or a design manual. It is a summary and a systematic ordering of the large and loosely organized body of existing successful design techniques and practices. Its value and its merit should be judged on how effectively it makes that material available to and useful to the designer.

iii

CONTENTSPage INTRODUCTION ..................... ................... and Recommended ............................ of U. S. Customary Units to SI Units ............. Practices ......... 1 3 61 87 95 97 103

1.

2. 3.

STATE OF THE ART DESIGN CRITERIA

APPENDIX APPENDIX

A Glossary B Conversion

REFERENCES

.............................. Design Criteria Monographs Issued to Date ...........

NASA Space Vehicle

SUBJECT

STATE OF THE ART

DESIGN

CRITERIA

CONFIGURATION

SELECTION

2. I 2.2 2.2.1

3 6 6 8 11 13 14 14 15 18 20 22 -

3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.1.1 3.2.1.2 3.2.1.3 3.2.1.4 3.2.2 3.2.2.1 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.3 3.2.3 3.2.3.1 3.2.3.2

61 61 62 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 65

PUMP PERFORMANCE Speed Critical Speed Suction Specific Speed Turbine Limits Bearing and Seal Limits Efficiency Pump Size and Pumped Geometry Staging Flow Range Head-vs-Flow Impeller Characteristic Fluid

2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.3 2.2.1.4 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.3 2.2.3 -

Blade Number

SUBJECT

STATE

OF THE ART

DESIGN

CRITERIA

IMPELLER Hydrodynamic Design

2.3 2.3.1 2. 3.1.1 2.3.1.2 2.3.1.3 2. 3.1.4 2.3.2

25 25 27 28 29 33 34 -

3.3 3.3.1 3. 3.1.1 3.3.1.2 3.3.1.3 3. 3.1.4 3.3.2 3. 3.2. I 3.3.2.2 3.3.2.3 3.3.2.4 3.3.2.5 3.3.2.6 3. 3. 3 3.3.4 3.4 3.4.1 3. 4.1.1 3.4.1.2 3.4.1.2.1 3.4.1.2.2 3.4.1.2.3 3.4.1.3 3.4.1.3.1 3.4.1.3.2 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.3.1 3.4.3.2 3.4.3.3

66 66 66 66 67 67 68 68 68 69 69 70 71 71 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 75 76 76 76 77 78 78 79 80

Diameter Ratio Head and Flow Coefficients Blade Number and Blade Geometry Shrouding Mechanical Design

Axial Retention Piloting Fatigue Margin Tip Speed Shaft Torque Clearances Fabrication Materials HOUSING Hydrodynamic Casing Diffusion Design Capability -

2. 3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.4.1 2. 4.1.1 2.4.1.2 2.4.1.2.1 2.4.1.2.2 2.4.1.2.3 2.4.1.3 Cross-Sectional Area Off-Design Radial Load 2.4.1.3.1 2.4.1.3.2 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.3.1 2.4.3.2 2.4.3.3

38 39 39 41 41 41 41 42 46 47 47 48 50 51 51 53 53

System

Vaneless Diffuser Vaned Diffuser Interstage Flow Passage Volute

Structural Mechanical

Design Design

Joints and Static Seals Fasteners and Attachments Assembly Provisions

vi

SUBJECT Housing Liners Prevention of Errors in Assembly Fabrication Materials THRUST BALANCE SYSTEM

STATE OF THE ART 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.5 2.5.1 Balance 2.5.2 2.5.2.1 2.5.2.2 2.5.2.3 2.5.2.4 2.5.3 54 54 55 57 57 57 57 58 59 59

DESIGN CRITERIA 3.4.3.3.1 3.4.3.3.2 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.2.1 3.5.2.2 3.5.2.3 3.5.2.4 3.5.3 80 81 81 82 82 83 84 84 84 85 85 86

Unbalanced Methods

Forces

of Thrust

Impeller Wear Rings Impeller Balance Ribs Balance Pistons and Hydrostatic Ball Bearings Materials Bearings

vii

LIST OF

FIGURES

Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Title Elements Various of a centrifugal flow pump .................... for specified conditions ....... ......

Page 4 5 9 12 16 17 ............. .............. 18 19 19 20 21 greatly in size ..... 22 24 .......... 27 29 to discharge 30 streamlines for 32

kinds of pump speed limits illustrated Ns - D s diagram for centrifugal

Representative Summary Influence Influence Influence Influence Influence Geometries

and axial flow turbopumps

of empirical of impeller

data on suction diameter

performance

of various pumps and inducers ............

ratio on pump performance .................... efficiency (J-2S)

of pump size on efficiency of speed on hydrogen-pump of suction of suction specific

speed on pump geometry

specific speed on efficiency systems ....................

................ ................

for three types of diffusing flow passages

Basic types of interstage Performance comparison

of internal-crossover

pumps differing

Pump performance Influence Effect of impeller

as a function

of pump geometry on NPSH (various .................... angle related ....................

.............. fluids)

flow coefficient trailing edge

of filing impeller

Impeller blade number and discharge flow coefficient and head coefficient Calculated relative velocities impeller velocities

17

along hub and shroud ........................ along streamlines

12-gpm LF2-pump 18 Calculated impeller relative

for experimental ..................

F-1 fuel 32

with six full bt ,des and six splitters

viii

Figure 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2627 28 29

Title Calculated relativeelocities s