Linguistics: Basic Grammatical Terminology Review
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Linguistics: Basic Grammatical Terminology Review
Educ 4683 Dr. David Piper Dr. David Piper & Krista Yetman
Select for ReviewPrepositions, conjunctions & exclamationsSubject, predicate & objectTransitivityOther rules & definitionsDefinitions of termsWord classesNouns, pronouns & determinersAdjectives, verbs & adverbs
Definitions of Terms:Spoken English may be thought of in terms of 4 levels
A person, place or thing
The name that replaces a noun
Class of words which precede nouns & adjectives
Descriptive words that qualify & describe nouns
Words that express action, processes or states
Adverbs modify verbs or adjectives
Function words; describe relationships between things
Nouns, determiners & pronounsClick button of choice:
Skip to Adjectives
Nouns (in English)Nouns can be singular or plural (s) i.e: ant + s = ants, city + s = cities, glass + s = glasses, mouse + s = mice, life + s = lives, deer + s = deerNouns are either masculine (man, bull, boxer), feminine (woman, mare, actress), or neuter (table, flower, book)Nouns can be possessive i.e.: boys, boys, CharlessNouns are common (book, fly, tree) or proper (Erica, Acadia University, Nigerian, French)Return to Noun menu
Determiners: 5 TypesReturn to Noun menu
8 types of Pronouns:Select belowPersonalPossessiveReflexiveDemonstrativeInterrogativeRelativeDistributiveIndefiniteSkip pronounsReturn to Noun menu
Personal pronouns: these reflect number and case, and are divided into first, second & third personPronoun Menu
Possessive pronouns:mine (singular)yours (singular)his(singular, masculine)hers (singular, feminine)its (singular, neuter)ours (plural)yours (plural)theirs (plural)Pronoun Menu
Reflexive pronounsPronoun Menu
Demonstrative pronouns:used to indicate closeness or remoteness from speakerSPEAKERThis is a book.That is a book.Those are books.These are books.Pronoun Menu
Interrogative pronouns: Questions wordsWhoWhomWhoseWhichWhatPronoun Menu
Relative pronouns: these introduce clauses that which who whom whoseIve just sat on the hat that I bought.The letter which he sent has not arrived.John was the man who ate the pie.The people on whom we rely are kind.The boy whose father died has runaway.Pronoun Menu
Distributive pronouns(often these pronouns are followed by of you or of them)Pronoun MenuAllBothEachEitherNeitherSome
Indefinite pronounsPronoun Menu- I dont want any jelly beans.- Take some. - I dont think so.- Has anyone eaten the beans?- Someone was eating them.- Such is way of the world!
Adjectives, verbs & adverbs:Select belowThe brown dog runs quickly. Adjectives
AdverbsSkip to prepositions
Adjectives: Words that describe nounsReturn to adj., verb & adv. menu
Verbs! Verbs! Verbs!(select from menu below)Past tensePresent tenseGeneral InfoFuture tenseAuxiliary verbsReturn to adj., verb & adv. menu
AdverbsReturn to adj., verb & adv. menuThese words can modify verbs:She sang loudly.Sentences:Certainly, we shall win.Adjectives: She was exceptionally pretty.And other adverbs:She sang very loudly.
These words can also be:comparative (earlier)i.e.: She arrived earlier than Joe.superlative (most often)about time (soon)about place (near)about reason (since)about manner (well)about condition (if)question words (when)
Verb: General Info. There are regular & irregular verbs. Regular verbs can take the endings: s, ing and ed. Irregular verbs can take the ing endings.
Return to adj., verb & adv. menu
To look, to sing
Verbs: Present (non-past) tense Main UsageTo express truths, proverbial wisdom, realities i.e.: Wax makes crayons.Occurs in spontaneous commentaries i.e.: sport commentariesChosen for formulaic utterances i.e.: I declare...To describe habitual occurrences i.e.: He advises...Return to adj., verb & adv. menu
Verbs: Past tensePast tense is formed by adding ed or d to the base form.Past tense does not change according to person or number.Refers to actions, states or events which took place before.Is used in dependent clauses to refer to possibility.Is used in indirect speech i.e.: He said that he sang.Return to adj., verb & adv. menu
Verbs: Future tenseThere really is no future tense in English but reference to the future may be made in the following or many other ways:a) will/shall + base form of verbI shall go to London next week.b) going to + base form of verbIm going to drive to Halifax tomorrow.Return to adj., verb & adv. menu
Auxiliary verbs:These are also known as helping verbsThese are verbs which help make information more precise...Gives specific info about the (head)verb:I am painting.Painting is the headverb, while am is the auxiliary verb. Auxiliary verbs are also used in questions:Do you like art?(do is auxiliary, like is headverb)In negatives:Dont eat it! (dont is auxiliary, eat is headverb)For emphasis:You will paint.Return to adj., verb & adv. menu
Prepositions, conjunctions & exclamations: Select belowPrepositions
Skip to subject & predicate
Prepositions:There is a reason the word position is in prepositionA preposition is a word that describes the relationship between things (other words). The man is beside the boy. The radio is on the table. The girl is in front of the woman. The boys feet are in his shoes under the table.Return to Preposition menu
Conjunctions: Joining wordsReturn to Preposition menu
Exclamations!These are often referred to as involuntary interjections:Wow! Hey! Ouch! Oh!Occasionally words & phrases are exclamations:You fool!That silly dog!What a mess!How youve grown!Return to Preposition menu
Subject, predicate & objectSubject
Skip to Transivity
SubjectReturn to Subj., Pred. & Obj. Menu
Predicate:The verbal unit of a sentenceReturn to Subj., Pred. & Obj. Menu
This young man
minds the sheep.
sang a song.
hasn't any money.
Object: A noun-like unit which usually comes last in the predicate, following the main (transitive) verb.Return to Subj., Pred. & Obj. Menu*Please note: there are also indirect & direct objectsPredicate
The young man
TransitivityNominalsIntransitive verbsTransitive verbsActive voicePassive voiceSkip to additional info
NominalsThe term nominal is used to comprehend nouns, pronouns, proper names & noun phrases.Verbs may be classified by the number of nominals they require. For example: arrive requires only one nominal, so is called a one-place verb.Return to TransivityThe elephant arrived.Subject (nominal)One-place verb: only needs one nominal
Intransitive verbsOne-place verbs are intransitive because they do not take an object (they only need one nominal).For example: John died. (This is all you need to explain what happened to John).Return to TransivityJohn died.Subject (nominal)Intransitive verb
Transitive VerbsTwo-place and three-place verbs are transitive because they take a subject and an object (they require at least two nominals). For example: The verb hit requires two nominals (we need to know what is hit) , therefore is a transitive verb.Return to TransivityThe blue car hit the yellow car.SubjectObjectTransitive verb
Active voice:We say that a sentence is active when the subject is the agent of the action.Return to TransivityAmy baked the pie. (active)The pie was baked by Amy (passive)Notice that the object of the active sentence (the pie) becomes the subject of the passive sentence.*An active sentence must have at least two nominals.
Passive voice:We say that a sentence is passive when the subject receives the action.Return to TransivityThe violin was played by Rupert. (passive)In the passive sentence, the violin is the subject which receives the action.Rupert played the violin. (active)
*A passive sentence may only have one nominali.e.: The violin was played.
Additional Information:The information in this PowerPoint has been very basic. It has been designed to provide you with basic definitions only. Many of these definitions will be covered in more detail, and elaborated, within the course itself.
Meanwhile, if you have any remaining questions about basic grammatical terms, please note them down and bring them to class for discussion. Hope all this was usefulTry to enjoy the course!END