Linguistics: Basic Grammatical Terminology Review

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Linguistics: Basic Grammatical Terminology Review. Educ 4683 Dr. David Piper.  Dr. David Piper & Krista Yetman. Definitions of terms Word classes Nouns, pronouns & determiners Adjectives, verbs & adverbs. Prepositions, conjunctions & exclamations Subject, predicate & object - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Linguistics: Basic Grammatical Terminology Review

    Educ 4683 Dr. David Piper Dr. David Piper & Krista Yetman

  • Select for ReviewPrepositions, conjunctions & exclamationsSubject, predicate & objectTransitivityOther rules & definitionsDefinitions of termsWord classesNouns, pronouns & determinersAdjectives, verbs & adverbs

  • Definitions of Terms:Spoken English may be thought of in terms of 4 levels

  • Word ClassesExamples

    Classes

    Definitions

    Nouns

    A person, place or thing

    Pronouns

    The name that replaces a noun

    Determiners

    Class of words which precede nouns & adjectives

    Adjectives

    Descriptive words that qualify & describe nouns

    Verbs

    Words that express action, processes or states

    Adverbs

    Adverbs modify verbs or adjectives

    Prepositions

    Function words; describe relationships between things

    Conjunctions

    Joining words

  • Nouns, determiners & pronounsClick button of choice:

    Nouns

    Determiners

    Pronouns

    Skip to Adjectives

  • Nouns (in English)Nouns can be singular or plural (s) i.e: ant + s = ants, city + s = cities, glass + s = glasses, mouse + s = mice, life + s = lives, deer + s = deerNouns are either masculine (man, bull, boxer), feminine (woman, mare, actress), or neuter (table, flower, book)Nouns can be possessive i.e.: boys, boys, CharlessNouns are common (book, fly, tree) or proper (Erica, Acadia University, Nigerian, French)Return to Noun menu

  • Determiners: 5 TypesReturn to Noun menu

  • 8 types of Pronouns:Select belowPersonalPossessiveReflexiveDemonstrativeInterrogativeRelativeDistributiveIndefiniteSkip pronounsReturn to Noun menu

  • Personal pronouns: these reflect number and case, and are divided into first, second & third personPronoun Menu

  • Possessive pronouns:mine (singular)yours (singular)his(singular, masculine)hers (singular, feminine)its (singular, neuter)ours (plural)yours (plural)theirs (plural)Pronoun Menu

  • Reflexive pronounsPronoun Menu

    Singular

    Plural

    myself

    ourselves

    yourself

    yourselves

    himself (masc)

    herself (fem)

    themselves

    itself (neut)

  • Demonstrative pronouns:used to indicate closeness or remoteness from speakerSPEAKERThis is a book.That is a book.Those are books.These are books.Pronoun Menu

  • Interrogative pronouns: Questions wordsWhoWhomWhoseWhichWhatPronoun Menu

  • Relative pronouns: these introduce clauses that which who whom whoseIve just sat on the hat that I bought.The letter which he sent has not arrived.John was the man who ate the pie.The people on whom we rely are kind.The boy whose father died has runaway.Pronoun Menu

  • Distributive pronouns(often these pronouns are followed by of you or of them)Pronoun MenuAllBothEachEitherNeitherSome

  • Indefinite pronounsPronoun Menu- I dont want any jelly beans.- Take some. - I dont think so.- Has anyone eaten the beans?- Someone was eating them.- Such is way of the world!

  • Adjectives, verbs & adverbs:Select belowThe brown dog runs quickly. Adjectives

    Verbs

    AdverbsSkip to prepositions

  • Adjectives: Words that describe nounsReturn to adj., verb & adv. menu

  • Verbs! Verbs! Verbs!(select from menu below)Past tensePresent tenseGeneral InfoFuture tenseAuxiliary verbsReturn to adj., verb & adv. menu

  • AdverbsReturn to adj., verb & adv. menuThese words can modify verbs:She sang loudly.Sentences:Certainly, we shall win.Adjectives: She was exceptionally pretty.And other adverbs:She sang very loudly.

    These words can also be:comparative (earlier)i.e.: She arrived earlier than Joe.superlative (most often)about time (soon)about place (near)about reason (since)about manner (well)about condition (if)question words (when)

  • Verb: General Info. There are regular & irregular verbs. Regular verbs can take the endings: s, ing and ed. Irregular verbs can take the ing endings.

    Return to adj., verb & adv. menu

    Label

    Examples

    (regular, irregular)

    Base form

    Look, sing

    Past tense

    Looked, sang

    Non-past tense

    Look/looks, sing/sings

    Infinitive

    To look, to sing

    Present Participle

    Looking, singing

    Past Participle

    Looked, sung

  • Verbs: Present (non-past) tense Main UsageTo express truths, proverbial wisdom, realities i.e.: Wax makes crayons.Occurs in spontaneous commentaries i.e.: sport commentariesChosen for formulaic utterances i.e.: I declare...To describe habitual occurrences i.e.: He advises...Return to adj., verb & adv. menu

  • Verbs: Past tensePast tense is formed by adding ed or d to the base form.Past tense does not change according to person or number.Refers to actions, states or events which took place before.Is used in dependent clauses to refer to possibility.Is used in indirect speech i.e.: He said that he sang.Return to adj., verb & adv. menu

  • Verbs: Future tenseThere really is no future tense in English but reference to the future may be made in the following or many other ways:a) will/shall + base form of verbI shall go to London next week.b) going to + base form of verbIm going to drive to Halifax tomorrow.Return to adj., verb & adv. menu

  • Auxiliary verbs:These are also known as helping verbsThese are verbs which help make information more precise...Gives specific info about the (head)verb:I am painting.Painting is the headverb, while am is the auxiliary verb. Auxiliary verbs are also used in questions:Do you like art?(do is auxiliary, like is headverb)In negatives:Dont eat it! (dont is auxiliary, eat is headverb)For emphasis:You will paint.Return to adj., verb & adv. menu

  • Prepositions, conjunctions & exclamations: Select belowPrepositions

    Conjunctions

    Exclamations

    Skip to subject & predicate

  • Prepositions:There is a reason the word position is in prepositionA preposition is a word that describes the relationship between things (other words). The man is beside the boy. The radio is on the table. The girl is in front of the woman. The boys feet are in his shoes under the table.Return to Preposition menu

  • Conjunctions: Joining wordsReturn to Preposition menu

  • Exclamations!These are often referred to as involuntary interjections:Wow! Hey! Ouch! Oh!Occasionally words & phrases are exclamations:You fool!That silly dog!What a mess!How youve grown!Return to Preposition menu

  • Subject, predicate & objectSubject

    Predicate

    Object

    Skip to Transivity

  • SubjectReturn to Subj., Pred. & Obj. Menu

  • Predicate:The verbal unit of a sentenceReturn to Subj., Pred. & Obj. Menu

    Subject

    Predicate

    This young man

    minds the sheep.

    The girl

    sang a song.

    The balloons

    float.

    The girl

    hasn't any money.

  • Object: A noun-like unit which usually comes last in the predicate, following the main (transitive) verb.Return to Subj., Pred. & Obj. Menu*Please note: there are also indirect & direct objectsPredicate

    Subject

    Transitive verb

    Object

    The young man

    minds

    the sheep.

    The girl

    sang

    a song.

    The girl

    hasn't

    any money.

  • TransitivityNominalsIntransitive verbsTransitive verbsActive voicePassive voiceSkip to additional info

  • NominalsThe term nominal is used to comprehend nouns, pronouns, proper names & noun phrases.Verbs may be classified by the number of nominals they require. For example: arrive requires only one nominal, so is called a one-place verb.Return to TransivityThe elephant arrived.Subject (nominal)One-place verb: only needs one nominal

  • Intransitive verbsOne-place verbs are intransitive because they do not take an object (they only need one nominal).For example: John died. (This is all you need to explain what happened to John).Return to TransivityJohn died.Subject (nominal)Intransitive verb

  • Transitive VerbsTwo-place and three-place verbs are transitive because they take a subject and an object (they require at least two nominals). For example: The verb hit requires two nominals (we need to know what is hit) , therefore is a transitive verb.Return to TransivityThe blue car hit the yellow car.SubjectObjectTransitive verb

  • Active voice:We say that a sentence is active when the subject is the agent of the action.Return to TransivityAmy baked the pie. (active)The pie was baked by Amy (passive)Notice that the object of the active sentence (the pie) becomes the subject of the passive sentence.*An active sentence must have at least two nominals.

  • Passive voice:We say that a sentence is passive when the subject receives the action.Return to TransivityThe violin was played by Rupert. (passive)In the passive sentence, the violin is the subject which receives the action.Rupert played the violin. (active)

    *A passive sentence may only have one nominali.e.: The violin was played.

  • Additional Information:The information in this PowerPoint has been very basic. It has been designed to provide you with basic definitions only. Many of these definitions will be covered in more detail, and elaborated, within the course itself.

    Meanwhile, if you have any remaining questions about basic grammatical terms, please note them down and bring them to class for discussion. Hope all this was usefulTry to enjoy the course!END