Line following using camera in webots LINE FOLLOWING USING CAMERA IN WEBOTS S.I.S P4. PROBLEMATIC...

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Transcript of Line following using camera in webots LINE FOLLOWING USING CAMERA IN WEBOTS S.I.S P4. PROBLEMATIC...

  • M A T H I E U V E R I T E R & F L A V I E M I A L O N

    LINE FOLLOWING USING

    CAMERA IN WEBOTS

    S.I.S P4

  • PROBLEMATIC

    • Make an e-puck robot :

    - follow a line

    - turn at a T-Shape

    - avoid obstacles

    • Use the Webot dedicated program to code and run the

    model simulation using multiple scenarios.

    • Additional feature : recognise if the robot arrives

    perpendicularly to the line or meets a cross section.

    2

  • METHOD

    IDEAS

    • Initial

    settings

    • Braitenberg

    structure

    TRY

    • Hierarchy

    • Initial

    conditions

    • Robot

    reactions

    OPTIMIZE• Run model

    • Observe

    difficulties

    3

  • INITIAL SETTINGS

    • Get_device and enable : 8 IR sensors + 1 camera

    • Variables: local and global

    • Convert image into greyscale matrix

    • Define states

    Values from 0 to 256

    4

  • CONDITIONS

    • Limit sensor value : 150

    • Camera Field of View : 1.7

    • Initial speed : 400

    • Time Step : 64

    • Braitenbergs’s coefficients

    5

  • STEP SEQUENCE

    1. Analyze the matrix

    2. Check for obstacles

    3. Follow the line

    4. Actuate wheel speed

    -> check for black pixels

    -> if yes initiate avoidance

    -> adjust the direction to

    be centered

    Analyze environment

    React and Adapt (while)

    New Wheel Speed

    6

  • STATES

    0 – search line

    1 – follow line

    2 – 180° turn

    3 – obstacle

    4 – perpendicular

    5 – cross section

    6 – board side

    7 – right angle

    8 – right side object

    9 – back right

    10 – left angle

    11 – back left

    12 – left side object

    • At the beginning of the main

    loop we check in which state

    we should go

    • To help, we use an oldstate

    variable and other parameters

    7

  • LINE FOLLOWING

    r – b + b/2

     position of the center of the segment detected

    Image Size : 52 x 39 px

    8

    position of last black pixel detected

    1 segment considered

  • Facing the line

    4 aligned points activated

    Cross Section

    7 cross points activated

    can also be the sides if diagonal

    T-end-of-line

    5 points activated

    9

  • OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE

    • Front detection

    • Adapt

    - angle -> turn right/left

    - side-following

    - new angle -> turn back right/left

    • Check if too close

    • Find line again

    10

  • PROBLEMS

    • Hierarchy

    • Cross Section Recognition

    • Oldstate actualisation

    • Simulation speed

    • Shadows

    11

  • RESULTS

    12

  • CONCLUSION

    13

    - Configuration issues

    - Conditions varability

    - Complex global organization

    IMPROVEMENTS : - optimization (order, functions)

    - line color