Life, cells, domains biotechnology

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Transcript of Life, cells, domains biotechnology

  • Classical Biotechnology Mass food production Genetics Enhanced drugs Structure of the DNA
  • Modern Biotechnology Genetic modification Cloning New life forms Stem cells, bionics, transgenics
  • What is a living organism?
  • How are the two different?What does it mean to be alive?
  • 8 Growth
  • 9 Development
  • 10 Reproduction
  • 11 Energy Processing
  • 12 Homeostasis
  • 13 Response to the Environment
  • 14 Evolution
  • 15 Organization
  • Growth and Development Reproduction Energy Processing (Metabolism) Regulation (Homeostasis) Response to the Environment (Irritability) Evolution Organization Characteristics of Life
  • 17 Cells All living things are composed of cells
  • CELL Smallest unit of life that can carry out all the functions of a living thing.
  • Unicellular vs. multicellular Uni one Bacteria Multi many Most organisms we are familiar with. Humans, pets, plants, etc.
  • Cell extremes Smallest Mycoplasma Largest Unfertilized Ostrich Egg Longest Neurons of the colossal squid
  • Microscopes In the early years, people knew only about organisms they could see. The invention of the microscope was one of the most important breakthroughs in biology.
  • Cell theory The invention of the microscope led to many advances in cytology. These advances led to the development of the cell theory.
  • Matthias Schleiden A German botanist, he continued with the work of Brown on the nucleus Believed that the nucleus was the most important part of the cell called it cytoblast All PLANTS are made up of cells
  • Theodor Schwann a German zoologist, noted the resemblance of animal cells to plant cells. If the nucleus was important to plants should be important to animals as well All ANIMALS are composed of cells.
  • Henri Dutrochet formulated one of the fundamental tenets of modern cell theory by declaring that "The cell is the fundamental element of organization
  • Henri Dutrochet Credited to have disvcovered osmosis, respiration, and the effect of light in plants.
  • Cell theory (1839) by Schleiden, Schwann, and Dutrochet Schwann summarized his observations into three conclusions about cells: The cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things. The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms.
  • Rudolf Virchow A German physician, found that cells divide to form new cells In 1858, he concluded that cells came from pre- existing cells Omni cellula e cellula
  • Modern Cell Theory 1. All organisms are made up of cells. 2. New cells are always produced from pre- existing cells. 3. The cell is a structural and functional unit of all living things.
  • Modern Cell Theory 4. The cell contains hereditary information which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities.
  • Biologists examine life at different levels. Studying Biology
  • Molecules Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Molecules Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Water DNA
  • Cells Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Cells Smallest functional unit of life Nerve cell
  • Tissues Organs Organ Systems Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Groups of Cells Tissues, organs, and organ systems Copyright Pearson Prentice HallNervous tissue Brain Nervous system Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems
  • Organisms Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Individual living thing Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Organisms Bison
  • Populations Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Bison herd Populations
  • Communities Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Populations that live together in a defined area Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass Communities
  • Ecosystems Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • Ecosystems Community and its nonliving surroundings Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air
  • Ecosystems Some of the levels in which life can be studies are:
  • The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems Biosphere