Lesson 8 operant conditioning

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Transcript of Lesson 8 operant conditioning

  • 1.Reward and Punishment

2. Marnieis a nurse at a country hospital. Jimmy, an 8-year-old boy, attends thehospital each fortnight for treatment. On his rst visit, Marnie gave him aninjection which was very painful. Now he screams when he is approached bya nurse, even if he does not need an injection. According to the classicalconditioning model of learning, identify the i. unconditioned stimulusii. conditioned stimulusiii. unconditioned responseiv. conditioned response 3. i. unconditioned stimulus: Pain from the needle (pain)ii. conditioned stimulus: Approach of nurse (nurse/sight of approachingnurse)iii. unconditioned response: Fear of pain from injection (scream becauseof pain)iv. conditioned response: Fear of nurse (scream at approach of nurse)In previous assessment reports it has been emphasised that it is necessary to distinguish between the unconditioned response and the conditioned response.Therefore, in parts iii. and iv., responses were required to bedifferentiated by identifying the origin as in fear from the pain of theinjection and fear due to the approach of the nurse. 4. Explain the three-phase model of operantconditioning as informed by B.F. Skinner:positive and negative reinforcement, responsecost, punishment and schedules ofreinforcement 5. A learning process by which the likelihood ofa particular behaviour occurring isdetermined by the consequences of thatbehaviour Theory of Operant Conditioning - Behaviouroperates on the environment and ourbehaviour is instrumental in producing theconsequences - Rewards/Punishments 6. American Psychologist, B.F Skinner (1904 1990) believed behaviour can be reduced tothe relationships between the behaviour, itsantecedents (the events that precede it), andits consequences Operant - a response (or set or responses)that occurs in the absence of any stimulusand acts upon the environment in the sameway each time 7. Any stimulus (event or action) thatsubsequently strengthens or increases thelikelihood of the response (behaviour) that itfollows. The reinforcer comes after the response(behaviour) Reinforcement makes things stronger 8. Positive Reinforcer PLUS something GOOD A stimulus which strengthens a response byproviding a pleasant or satisfyingconsequence Skinners experiment = food pellets Money Grades Applause 9. Negative Reinforcer MINUS something BAD A stimulus that strengthens a response by thereduction, removal or prevention of anunpleasant stimulus The behaviour that removes reduces or preventsand unpleasant stimulus is strengthened by theconsequence Skinners experiment = electric shock Taking Panadol for headache Driving slow to avoid fine 10. Positive reinforcement add good Negative reinforcement take away bad Both STRENGTHEN a response Overall outcome is desirable to organism, justhave achieved it in different ways 11. Positive punishment - the delivery of a stimulus following anundesirable response PLUS BAD Negative punishment the removal of a stimulus following anundesired response MINUS GOOD Punisher an unpleasant stimulus that when paired with a responseweakens the response or decreases the rate of responding over time Punishers reduce unwanted behaviour It is usually more effective to reinforce alternative desirable behaviourthan it is to punish undesirable behaviour 12. MINUS GOOD Negative punishment often referred to asresponse cost When a valued stimulus removed Eg. If you drink drive we will take away yourliscence 13. Continuous Reinforcement necessary for aresponse to become learned Partial Reinforcement can be more effectiveat maintaining a response 14. Fixed Ratio Fixed number of correct responses Being paid $5 for every 100 newspapers deliveredVariable Ratio Variable number of correct responses Poker machinesFixed Interval Fixed time period Teachers at Woodleigh pain every fortnightVariable Interval Variable time period Fishing 15. The variable ratio schedule is the mostresistant to extinction It leads to the fastest rate of responding Gambling addiction is explicable throughvariable ratio reinforcement 16. Order of presentation reinforcement needs tooccur after the desired response not before! So theorganism associates the reinforcement with thebehaviour Timing Reinforcers need to occur as close in time tothe desired response as possible. Most effectivereinforcement occurs immediately after the desiredresponse Appropriateness of the reinforcer For a stimulus tobe a reinforcer it must provide a pleasing or satisfyingconsequence for its recipient. 17. Stimulus generalization -occurs when the correctresponse is made toanother stimulus which issimilar to the stimulus forwhich reinforcement isobtained Stimulus discrimination -organism makes responseto a stimulus for whichreinforcement is obtainedbut not for any othersimilar stimulus 18. Extinction the gradual decrease in thestrength or rate of responding after a periodof non- reinforcement. Extinction occurs afterthe termination of reinforcement Spontaneous recovery the response is(after a rest period) again shown in theabsence of reinforcement