Lesson 3 talking about teaching language to young learners
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- 1.Talking about TeachingLanguage to Young LearnersLesson 3
2. OVERVIEW Start to look more closely at the practical side ofteaching young language learners Think about ways to approach teaching vocabulary,grammar and pronunciation Look at how to create a supportive environment thatencourages young learners to learn about and reflect ontheir learning Consider the use of topic and activity-based teaching Think about planning activities across topic areas 3. Capture the YLs Monitor the learninginterest & that may, or may not,motivate thembe taking place &with appropriate provide scaffoldingand engagingPlanning and guidance for allactivitiesactivities aspects of their for YLlanguage learningShow them how tolearn to learn, helpingthem become more Encourage them toaware of what they take a more reflectiveare doing in class approach to learningactivities the language 4. When Introducing Vocabulary to Young Learners. When Introducing Vocabulary to Young Learners.the meaning of the wordsthe meaning of the words.a lot of vocabulary is learned .a lot of vocabulary is learnedhas to be made clear & has to be made clear &in chunks and phrasesin chunks and phrasesbe supported by flashcards, be supported by flashcards,E.g., Can I/have aa...?E.g., Can I/have ...?pictures, gestures or realia. pictures, gestures or realia.(Can IIhave a...?) (Can have a...?).by uttering only one or two words, .by uttering only one or two words,there can be aasentence full of meaning there can be sentence full of meaning expressed if the child is supportedexpressed if the child is supported and encouraged to use communicativeand encouraged to use communicative intonation and gestures E.g., Repeat, please.intonation and gestures E.g., Repeat, please. 5. 1. Picture & flashcards 1. Picture & flashcardsshown to children as shown to children asthey hear words they hear words2. Stories with new 2. Stories with newThe Thecontextualized contextualizedVocabularymeaning of meaning of TheVocabulary Thelanguage languageneeds to be the words the wordscontextneeds to be should becontext3. Games, where the taught intaught inshould becould be could be3. Games, where thecontext clear to the clear to the given need to use the words, need to use the words, contextyounggivenchunks or phrases is youngthrough: through:chunks or phrases islearner learnerlinked to the linked to themotivation motivation4. Songs, where the new 4. Songs, where the newlanguage is repeated language is repeatedin aafun way in fun way 6. TEACHING PRONUNCIATIONStudents need to hear lots of target language from to likedifferent speakers -- different speakershear the music of thesongs, chants, songs, chants,their teacher, their teacher,target language andstories, role-plays stories, role-playsvoices from video voices from video imitate the sound of and games that and games thatand audio and audio English through theencourage them to encourage them torecordings, or any recordings, or anywords they are interact with the interact with theguest to the class guest to the classlearning.language by language bythat speaks English that speaks Englishlistening to and listening to andwith them. with them. using it. using it. 7. Considerations to be taken into accountwhen Teaching Pronunciation If children learn a foreign or second languageearly in their lives, they can attain near native-like pronunciation, but only if the models theyhear are near native-like, too. Just like adults, children may have troublepronouncing certain English-language sounds,often they do not know how to form their lips andmouths to correctly articulate some sounds. 8. Considerations to be taken into account when Teaching Grammar For younger children, due to their YLs under the age of 8 or 9level of cognitive development, it benefit from many repetitionsis not conceptually appropriateof a grammar point into present grammar as a set of different, meaningful contextsexplicit rules and forms to beanalyzed. For more older children with more developed powers of YLs benefit from noticing andanalysis, grammar shouldpaying attention to features ofcontinue to be presented ingrammar presented as chunksmeaningful contexts and mayof language in familiar contexts include brief details about thesuch as songs, dialogues,grammar points for studentsstories, and other contexts. to notice and think about. Few YLs benefit from memorizingrules and analyzing forms.The balance between fluency and accuracy in activities is what helps children acquire the grammar of English. 9. Teaching Grammar to Very YLs (listen & identify)Teacher Talk: (Wave your hand over the page.) Look! I see apark. I see boys and girls. The boys and girls are in the park.Repeat. The boys and girls are in the park.1. Teacher: (Point 3. Childrensto the slide. AskResponse:children to listen,(Listen, point,point, and repeat) and repeat.)This is a slide. This is a slide.2. Teacher: (Point 4. Childrensto the swings. Ask Response:children to listen,(Listen, point,point, and repeat.)and repeat.) These are These areswings.swings. 10. Teaching Grammar to YLs (Present Simple) HelpingGrammar2. Listen, Point and say.Repetitions ofHands in context a grammar1. My father is a coach.point, using itHe teaches soccer. as chunks.1.Read, Listen and sing. 2. My sister is a secretary. HelpersShe types letters.There are many helpinghands in my family. 3. Point, Ask and Answer 4.We like to help eachWhat does Hes a coach.other and our community.Oral &your father do?writtenTeachers help us learn aproductionlot, and TV reporters, too.My mother is a teacher.What does your mother5. Look and write.do?. 1. What does she do? Shes a police officer. 2. What does he do? Hes a __________. 11. Making the English Classroom a Supportive Language Environment1. Encourage2. Develop an3. Supportlearners to speak learning environment of through theout (without fear trustof making organization ofmistakes)the classroom 4. Use a variety 5. Provide lots of of materials and comprehensible models to andpresent thecontextualized language language 12. Encourage learners to speak out (without fear of making mistakes) 1. What did1. What did2. IIgoed2. goed1.What 1.What2. IIgoed2. goed you doto thedid you do you doto the did you do to the to theyesterday? park.yesterday?yesterday? park. yesterday? park. park.3. Oh,3. Oh, 3. Oh,3. Oh, you wentyou went thats notthats not to theto the good. Itsgood. Its park!park! wrong towrong tosay I I saygoed. goed.The boy is hypothesizing the The boy is hypothesizing the The same situation but this time, the The same situation but this time, theregular past tense of the verb go. regular past tense of the verb go. modeled example given by the modeled example given by theThe teachers correction couldteacher would allow the child to teacher would allow the child toThe teachers correction coulddemotivate the learner discouraging continue on the hypothesis circle and continue on the hypothesis circle and demotivate the learner discouraginghim from trying to hypothesize in realize from this feedback that he realize from this feedback that he him from trying to hypothesize inEnglish again.needed to adjust what he had said. needed to adjust what he had said. English again. 13. Develop an environment of trustDevelop an environment of trustthe language classroom needs to be aaplace where the young learner does the language classroom needs to be place where the young learner does not feel threatened or frightenednot feel threatened or frightenedthe teacher needs to be patient as students trial things, and by modeling the teacher needs to be patient as students trial things, and by modeling back any changes they need to make in their languageback any changes they need to make in their languagecreating and posting English classroom rules that all the YLs have discussed creating and posting English classroom rules that all the YLs have discussedand agreed to. E.g.: We will listen to each other patiently. and agreed to. E.g.: We will listen to each other patiently. We will help each other say things in English.We will help each other say things in English.Support learning through the organization of the classroom Support learning through the organization of the classroom The English classroom should support the students learning by having:The English classroom should support the students learning by having:examples of students work on the walls examples of students work on the wallspicture dictionaries and storybooks available to be used picture dictionaries and storybooks available to be usedlists of different types of words on the wall, such as describing words, lists of different types of words on the wall, such as describing words,action words, joining words, question words, and so on action words, joining words, question words, and so onsongs and chants (written on chart paper) available to review songs and chants (written on chart paper) available to reviewlabels on classroom items in English (door, window, desk) to help prepare labels on classroom items in English (door, window, desk) to help preparebeginner students for the written language by introducing models of it beginner students for the written language by introducing models of it 14. Use aavariety of materials and models to present the languageUse variety of materials and models to present the languageUse aavariety of means to expose YLs to different language models. E.g. Use variety of means to expose YLs to different language models. E.g.CDs with aarange of different speakers CDs with range of different speakersvideos and DVDs that allow children to see the faces and mouths of those videos and DVDs that allow children to see the faces and mouths of thosespeaking English speaking EnglishA variety of written models to stimulate the visual learning of the language A variety of written models to stimulate the visual learning of the languageincluding books, posters, examples of childrens work, pictures with captions, including books, posters, examples of childrens work, pictures with captions,and labeled objects and labeled objects Provide lots of comprehensible and contextualized languageProvide lots of comprehensible and contextualized languageTeachers must also remember the need to introduce lots of comprehensible Teachers must also remember the need to introduce lots of comprehensibleand contextualized language in the English class within meaningful and and contextualized language in the English class within meaningful andpurposeful activities purposeful activitiesClassroom instructions (used repeatedly and with gestures) enable Classroom instructions (used repeatedly and with gestures) enablestudents to respond to and use the language. (Johnny, please come here. students to respond to and use the language. (Johnny, please come here.Hand out the notebooks to the students.) Hand out the notebooks to the students.) 15. Topic and activity-based teaching is based on topics (like food, pets, house, colors, and so on) within activities which allow the language to be introduced, practiced, recycled, consolidated and acquired by YLs Many teachers and specialists in the EYL world believe that topic and activity-based teaching is the most suitable way for children to learn and use the target language. This is because of how children learn, develop and change during these early years. Many English textbooks for young learners are designed around this approach. A topic and activity-based approach to learning has children linking language to interactive experienceswhere children talk about what they are doing, what they are seeing and what they are experiencing. As teachers, we can encourage this interaction and natural way of language learning by planning suitableactivities and selecting topics that are especially interesting and relevant to our students. 16. These three activities present the topic of food, but are aimed at different age groups considering theircognitive stages and learning abilities 17. Topic - FoodFunction-Talkingabout likesand dislikes Teachers can teach the same topics to the same group ofTeachers can teach the same topics to the same group ofchildren over a number of years (and recycle the language), children over a number of years (and recycle the language),but as the children grow in age, linguistic ability and maturity, but as the children grow in age, linguistic ability and maturity,we will be looking at different aspects of these topics, so the we will be looking at different aspects of these topics, so the input never has to be the same.input never has to be the same. 18. Stage 1:Select the TopicWhen planning lessons around a specific topic , the teacher should consider five stages:1. Brainstorming is one of the best ways to plan a topic and the lessons that are linked to it. Put the topic title in the center of a page. 19. Stage 2:Think of appropriate activities linked to the topicBrainstorm thevariety ofactivities thatare suitable forthe age groupyou are thinkingabout and arelinked to thistopic.A lesson for 8to 10 year-old-student 20. Stage 3: Consider the language for each activityThink about what language (vocabulary and structures) will be used in eachactivity. 21. Stage 4: Plan the focus/approach for each activity Look at each of these activities and briefly consider the focus for each activity as well as the type of approach to take. Consider the class survey, and develop it as you would all the other activities in your brainstorm.Activity: Carry out a class survey of favorite food Language focus for this activity: What is your favorite food? Food vocabulary chicken Its (chicken). My favorite food is (chicken).Resources needed for the Outcome of activity:activity:Timing of the A list of favorite activity: Children need paper andfoods of childrenpencils / pens.10-15 minutes A result from survey Teacher needs a board orflipchart to gather results 22. Stage 5: Consider the order of activitiesLook at how the activities flow together, considering vocabulary andstructures and the challenges required in completing each activity. If youlook at the brainstorm chart below, you will see that the activities havebeen ordered by how the language is introduced and developed.After determining After determiningthe desired the desiredoutcome of each outcome of eachactivity, the activity, theteacher will put teacher will puttogether more together moredetailed lesson detailed lessonplans that look plans that lookmore closely at the more closely at thesteps required to steps required toachieve the achieve theproposed goals. proposed goals.