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Transcript of Lesson 15 CCLS Determining Word M · PDF file Determining Word Meanings Lesson 15 CCLS RL.8.4:...

  • ©Curriculum Associates, LLC Copying is not permitted. 145L15: Determining Word Meanings

    Part 1: Introduction

    Theme: The Language of Poets

    Your friend sighs and says, “I’ve told you that a million times!” Does this mean that your friend actually told you the same thing one million times? Of course not! This expression is a hyperbole, or an exaggeration. Phrases like this are examples of figurative language, the creative use of words to express more than the literal, or usual, meaning.

    Authors often use figurative language to create unusual or interesting effects.

    • They may employ a simile, a comparison of two unlike things that uses like or as.

    • They may use a metaphor, which is the comparison of two unlike things without the use of like or as.

    • Personification, or giving human qualities to something nonhuman, is another technique authors use to make their writing more interesting.

    Study the cartoon below, which contains lines from a play by William Shakespeare.

    All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players.

    In the cartoon, circle the things being compared. Then decide how these things are alike. Check your answers against the chart below. Fill out the empty cell.

    Metaphor What’s Being Compared Meaning

    the world’s a stage world and stage Life is like a play.

    the men and women merely players

    people and actors

    Figurative language is a powerful tool authors often use to add humor, make descriptions more vivid, or to emphasize ideas. Shakespeare’s metaphors emphasize that in everyday life, people are playing their parts on the stage of the world.

    Determining Word Meanings Lesson 15 CCLS

    RL.8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings . . . .

  • Lesson 15Part 2: Modeled Instruction

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    L15: Determining Word Meanings146

    Genre: Sonnet

    Read the sonnet in which the speaker compares the person he loves to a summer’s day.

    Explore how to answer this question: “How does the speaker in this poem use figurative language to describe the person he cares about?”

    The speaker sets out to compare someone to a summer’s day. Use the chart below to analyze the specific types of figurative language the speaker uses.

    Figurative Language Example Meaning

    Personification “the eye of heaven shines” The sun beats down warmly.

    “thy eternal summer shall not fade”

    “nor shall death brag”

    With a partner, take turns rereading the poem aloud. Then discuss what the author’s purpose was in making the comparisons in the poem.

    Sonnet XVIII by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date: 5 Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm’d; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature’s changing course untrimm’d; But thy eternal summer shall not fade, 10 Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st, Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st; So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

  • Lesson 15Part 3: Guided Instruction

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    L15: Determining Word Meanings 147

    Genre: Free Verse

    Show Your Thinking

    Read this poem excerpt. Use the Close Reading and the Hint to help you answer the question.

    Circle the correct answer.

    Which of the following best describes the connotation of the meadows and gardens metaphor?

    A The metaphor is neutral and simply completes the image developed in the first three lines of the poem.

    B The metaphor is positive and starkly contrasts with the description in the first three lines of the poem.

    C The metaphor is frightening and creates a jarring image that is completely disconnected from the earlier description.

    D The metaphor is negative and reveals that the speaker is confused or in conflict with her feelings about the seeds.

    Hint Look at the words you underlined. Then think about how those words compare with the metaphor in line 4.

    Look at the answer you chose above. Explain how the words in the poem led you to make that choice.

    With a partner, discuss how the author uses connotations to create an element of surprise. Cite words or phrases from the poem to support your opinion.

    from “The Seed-Shop” by Muriel Stuart Here in a quiet and dusty room they lie, Faded as crumbled stone or shifting sand, Forlorn as ashes, shrivelled, scentless, dry— Meadows and gardens running through my hand.

    In addition to figurative language, writers may use words with strong connotations, or words that express positive, negative, or neutral feelings. Underline words with negative connotations.

    Close Reading

  • Lesson 15

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    L15: Determining Word Meanings148

    Part 4: Guided Practice

    Genre: Free Verse

    Read this poem, in which the speaker describes the sights and sounds of a winter twilight. Use the Study Buddy and Close Reading to guide your reading.

    A Winter Twilight by Angelina W. Grimke A silence slipping around like death, Yet chased by a whisper, a sigh, a breath; One group of trees, lean, naked and cold, 5 Inking their cress ‘gainst a sky green-gold;

    One path that knows where the corn flowers were; Lonely, apart, unyielding, one fir; 10 And over it softly leaning down, One star that I loved ere the fields went brown

    In the first stanza, the phrase “Inking their cress” is an odd one. Draw a box around it. Then circle nearby phrases that help you understand it.

    Close Reading

    If you draw with ink, what do the lines look like?

    Hints

    As I read, I will identify examples of figurative language. Then I will look for surrounding words or phrases to help me understand it.

    In the second stanza, what words or phrases have positive connotations? Circle them.

  • Lesson 15

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    L15: Determining Word Meanings 149

    Part 4: Guided Practice

    Use the Hints on this page to help you answer the questions.

    1 What do the words “inking their cress” describe as they are used in the poem?

    A dark clouds at sunset

    B long tree shadows

    C soft wind sounds

    D bare black branches

    2 Which phrase from the poem best helps the reader understand the meaning of “inking their cress,” which question 1 asked about?

    A “Yet chased by a whisper, a sigh”

    B “One group of trees, lean, naked and cold”

    C “Lonely, apart, unyielding, one fir”

    D “ere the fields went brown”

    3 In the second stanza, the speaker personifies a star. Describe who the speaker compares the star to. Then describe how this personification influences the mood of the poem. Use two details from the poem in your response.

    A Winter Twilight by Angelina W. Grimke A silence slipping around like death, Yet chased by a whisper, a sigh, a breath; One group of trees, lean, naked and cold, 5 Inking their cress ‘gainst a sky green-gold;

    One path that knows where the corn flowers were; Lonely, apart, unyielding, one fir; 10 And over it softly leaning down, One star that I loved ere the fields went brown

    In the first stanza, the phrase “Inking their cress” is an odd one. Draw a box around it. Then circle nearby phrases that help you understand it.

    Close Reading

    If you draw with ink, what do the lines look like?

    Hints

    Think about what, figuratively speaking, is doing the “inking” in the poem.

    What human quality or action does the poet give the star?

  • Lesson 15

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    L15: Determining Word Meanings150

    Part 5: Common Core Practice

    Read the poem. Then answer the questions that follow.

    The Lighthouse by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

    The rocky ledge runs far into the sea, And on its outer point, some miles away, The Lighthouse lifts its massive masonry, A pillar of fire by night, of cloud by day.

    5 Even at this distance I can see the tides, Upheaving, break unheard along its base, A speechless wrath, that rises and subsides In the white lip and tremor of the face.

    And as the evening darkens, lo! how bright, 10 Through the deep purple of the twilight air, Beams forth the sudden radiance of its light With strange, unearthly splendor in the glare!

    Not one alone; from each projecting cape And perilous reef along the ocean’s verge, 15 Starts into life a dim, gigantic shape, Holding its lantern o’er the restless surge.

    Like the great giant Christopher1 it stands Upon the brink of the tempestuous wave, Wading far out among the rocks and sands, 20 The night-o’ertaken mariner to save.

    And the great ships sail outward and return, Bending and bowing o’er the billowy swells, And ever joyful, as they see it burn, They wa