LEADING IN UNFAMILIAR R. ¢  i LEADING IN UNFAMILIAR TERRITORIES: Theological Reflections

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Transcript of LEADING IN UNFAMILIAR R. ¢  i LEADING IN UNFAMILIAR TERRITORIES: Theological Reflections

  • i

    LEADING IN UNFAMILIAR TERRITORIES: Theological Reflections on Spiritual Leadership in the Context of the Uniting

    Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa

    Ronald Matandakufa

    Student Number 1600508

    In partial fulfilment of the requirements of the International Master of Theology MA Degree

    At the

    Protestant Theological University

    Department of Intercultural Theology

    Supervisor

    Dr. Lieke Werkman

    August 2017

    Groningen, the Netherlands

  • i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    I. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    II. MAIN PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    III. RESEARCH QUESTION (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    IV. FRAMEWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    V. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    VI OVERVIEW OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    VII HYPOTHESIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    CHAPTER ONE: THE HISTORICAL CONNECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.2 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.3 CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.4 SOUTH AFRICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    1.4.1 BANTU PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    1.4.2 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF SOUTH AFRICA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    1.5 ZIMBABWE AND ZAMBIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.6 UNITING PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. . . . . . . . . 11

    1.7 CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    CHAPTER TWO: SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP IN THE UPCSA . . . . . . 13

    2.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    2.2 THE PRESBYTERIAN MODEL OF LEADERSHIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    2.2.1 MAIN FEATURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    2.3 CONTEXTUAL CHALLENGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.3.1 THE IMPACT OF MISSIONARIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2.3.2 THE IMPACT OF TRADITIONAL AFRICAN CULTURE. . . . . . . . . 19

    2.4 LEADERSHIP DILEMMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    2.5 INTERCULTURAL CHALLENGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    2.5.1 THE CULTURE OF THE LEADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    2.5.2 THE CULTURE OF OTHERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

  • ii

    2.5.3 POWER AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    2.6 EFFECTS OF MULTICULTURAL CHALLENGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    2.7 CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    CHAPTER THREE: THE MODEL OF TRUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    3.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    3.2 BACKGROUND OF THE MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    3.2.1 THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    3.2.2 SOCIAL GAME OF LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    3.3 MODEL OF TRUST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    3.4 THEOLOGICAL ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    3.4.1 KINGDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    3.4.1.1 VISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    3.4.1.2 WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    3.4.1.3 VALUES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    3.4.2 COVENANT RELATIONSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    3.4.2.1 THEOLOGY OF LEARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    3.4.2.2 THEOLOGY OF EMPOWERMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    3.5 BUILDING TRUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    3.6 CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    CHAPTER FOUR: THEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    4.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    4.2 POINTS OF DEPARTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    4.3 KINGDOM VISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    4.4 KINGDOM VALUES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    4.5 COVENANT COMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    4.6 IMPLICATIONS ON LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    4.7 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    CHAPTER FIVE: PRACTICAL MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    5.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    5.2 THE PRACTICE OF LEADERSHIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    5.2.1 DISESTEEM OF TRUST RELATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    5.2.2 LEADER AND FOLLOWER GAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

  • iii

    5.2.3 REDEFINING POWER AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    5.2.4 AFRICAN TRADITIONAL VIEW OF LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    5.3 LEADING IN UNFAMILIAR TERRITORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    5.4 FLASH FORWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    5.4 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    5.5 FUTURE RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

  • 1

    INTRODUCTION

    I. INTRODUCTION

    The Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa (UPCSA) is multicultural in nature. It is

    multicultural in that the composition of the church consists of ten South African tribes,

    thirteen Namibian tribes, seven Zimbabwean tribes, and seventy-two Zambian tribes; all

    making one church. Adding up the numbers we can generally conclude that the UPCSA

    draws its members from a hundred and two tribes in the south of Africa. However, this

    conclusion does not paint a complete picture of what is on the ground because some of these

    tribes have regional dialects and variants. It is definitely not an exaggeration to say that the

    UPCSA serves more than a hundred and twenty tribes and sub-tribes from the southern part

    of Africa, most of which are different in language and culture. Moreover, it extends its

    ministry in four totally independent countries, which are South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe

    and Zambia. In each country, there are Presbyteries and Synods which compose the General

    Assembly. All its work is coordinated by the Central Office in Johannesburg, South Africa, a

    location agreed upon because of its centrality and easy accessibility from the other three

    countries. 1 Hence, this enables it to sustain its life and work as one church.

    II. MAIN PROBLEM

    What creates a problem in this scenario is the fact that the UPCSA strongly believes that it

    does not train its ministerial leaders for a Presbytery, a county or a specific context, but for

    the multicultural denomination as a whole. In essence, what the church wants to see is a