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  • Leadership across differences a report on research and findings

    Kelly M. Hannum William A. Gentry Todd J. Weber

    A Center for Creative Leadership Report

  • LEADERSHIP ACROSS DIFFERENCES

    A REPORT ON RESEARCH AND FINDINGS

    Kelly M. Hannum, William A. Gentry, and Todd J. Weber

    Center for Creative Leadership

    Greensboro, North Carolina, USA

  • ii

    The Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) is an international, nonprofit educational institution founded in 1970 to advance the understanding, practice, and development of leadership for the benefit of society worldwide. As a part of this mission, it publishes books and reports that aim to contribute to a general process of inquiry and understanding in which ideas related to leadership are raised, exchanged, and evaluated. The ideas presented in its publications are those of the author or authors. If you have comments, suggestions, or questions about any CCL Press publication, please contact the Publications Office at the address given below.

    Center for Creative Leadership Post Office Box 26300

    Greensboro, North Carolina 27438-6300 Telephone 336 288 7210 • www.ccl.org

    ©2010 Center for Creative Leadership

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

    [[CCL No. 193]]

    Director of Assessments, Tools, and Publications: Sylvester Taylor; Manager, Publication Development: Peter Scisco, Manager, Global Publication Dissemination: Kelly Lombardino; Associate Editor: Karen Lewis

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Hannum, Kelly. Leadership across differences : a report on research and findings / Kelly M. Hannum,

    William A. Gentry, and Todd J. Weber. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-60491-081-0 (print on demand) -- ISBN 978-1-60491-082-7 (ebook) 1. Leadership--Case studies. I. Gentry, William A. II. Weber, Todd J. III. Title.

    HD57.7.H358 2010 658.4'092--dc22

    2010028914

  • iii

    Table of Contents

    List of Tables

    Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………...1

    Sample Description……………………………………………………………………………2

    Measurement Creation and Administration………………………………………………..4

    Results…………………………………………………………………………………….......6

    Gender Scenario……………………………………………………………………….6

    Seriousness……………………………………………………………………………………………………7

    Helpful and Harmful Responses……………………………………………………………………13

    Who Should Be Involved………………………………………………………………………………98

    Religion Scenario…………………………………………………………………………………………………..116

    Seriousness………………………………………………………………………………………………..116

    Helpful and Harmful Responses………………………………………………………………….122

    Who Should Be Involved……………………………………………………………………………..206

    Race Scenario………………………………………………………………………………………………………...226

    Seriousness…………………………………………………………………………………………………226

    Helpful and Harmful Responses…………………………………………………………………..229

    Who Should Be Involved………………………………………………………………………………272

    Immigration/Language Scenario.…………………………………………………………………………….290

    Seriousness………………………………………………………………………………………………….291

    Helpful and Harmful Responses……………………………………………………………………294

    Who Should Be Involved……………………………………………………………………………….346

    References…………………………………………………………………………………….365

    Appendix A. Long Version of the Survey…………………………………………………..366

    Appendix B. Short Version of the Survey………………………………………………….393

  • iv

    List of Tables

    Table 1 Respondents by Country………………………………………………………… 3

    Table 2 Mean Ratings of Seriousness and Whether Action Should Be Taken…………… 8

    Table 3 Post Hoc Tests of Gender Scenario Seriousness Questions between Countries…. 8

    Table 4 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Helpful/Harmful Responses of Gender Scenario………………………………………………………………….. 13

    Table 5 Post Hoc Tests of Gender Scenario Helpful and Harmful Responses between Countries……………………………………………………………………… …. 23

    Table 6 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Whom to Involve Responses of Gender Scenario………………………………………………………………….. 98

    Table 7 Post Hoc Tests of Gender Scenario Whom to Involve between Countries……… 102

    Table 8 Mean Ratings of Seriousness and Whether Action Should Be Taken 117

    Table 9 Post Hoc Tests of Religion Scenario Seriousness Questions between Countries 117

    Table 10 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Helpful/Harmful Responses of Religion Scenario 122

    Table 11 Post Hoc Tests of Religion Scenario Helpful and Harmful Responses between Countries 132

    Table 12 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Whom to Involve Responses of Religion Scenario 207

    Table 13 Post Hoc Tests of Religion Scenario Whom to Involve between Countries 210

    Table 14 Mean Ratings of Seriousness and Whether Action Should Be Taken 226

    Table 15 Post Hoc Tests of Race Scenario Seriousness Questions between Countries 227

    Table 16 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Helpful/Harmful Responses of Race Scenario 229

    Table 17 Post Hoc Tests of Race Scenario Helpful and Harmful Responses between Countries 237

    Table 18 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Whom to Involve Responses of Race Scenario 273

    Table 19 Post Hoc Tests of Race Scenario Whom to Involve between Countries 276

  • v

    Table 20 Mean Ratings of Seriousness and Whether Action Should Be Taken 291

    Table 21 Post Hoc Tests of Immigration Scenario Seriousness Questions between Countries 292

    Table 22 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Helpful/Harmful Responses of Immigration Scenario 295

    Table 23 Post Hoc Tests of Immigration Scenario Helpful and Harmful Responses between Countries 303

    Table 24 Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA Test of Whom to Involve Responses of Immigration Scenario 346

    Table 25 Post Hoc Tests of Immigration Scenario Whom to Involve between Countries 350

  • Leadership across Differences

    1

    INTRODUCTION

    The data shared in this report are drawn from the Leadership across Difference research

    project. Our research began in 2001 and continued through 2008. The international research team

    included Center for Creative Leadership faculty and research partners at various institutions

    around the world. We conducted our research using a multimethod research design. We gathered

    survey, interview, and archival data from for-profit and nonprofit organizations. We wanted to

    better understand what contributed to social identity tensions and conflicts in organizations and

    explore what leadership responses were desired and which were used. To learn more about this

    research, you can visit our Web site at http://www.ccl.org/leadership/research/lad/.

    We decided to create a technical report on our research as a way to summarize our

    research findings in a comprehensive manner. This report results from the efforts of many

    people. We would like to thank the individuals and organizations who contributed their stories,

    which form the foundation of this casebook, but who remain unnamed to honor our agreements

    with them. We also want to thank our research collaborators, including Chris Ernst, Kathryn

    Cartner, Rachael Foy, Bill Gentry, Sarah Glover, Michael Hoppe, Vijayan Munusamy, Patty

    Ohlott, Marian Ruderman, Joan Tavares, Maxine Dalton, Ancella Livers, Robbie Soloman, Jeff

    Yip, Donna Chrobot-Mason, David Dinwoodie, Claude Levy-Leboyer, Jonna Louvrier, Muhsen

    Makhamreh, Stella Nkomo, Lilach Sagiv, Sigmar Malvezzi, Shalom Schwartz, P