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  • Language teaching

    Language teachingdoi:10.1017/S0261444805212636

    04421 Allen, Susan (U. Maryland, USA;Email: [email protected]). An analyticcomparison of three models of reading strategyinstruction. International Review of AppliedLinguistics for Language Teaching (Berlin,Germany), 41 (2003), 319338.

    This literature review discusses the most efficient anduseful reading comprehension strategies for L2 and FLlearners. After in introductory section on definitionsand explanations of learning strategies, the reviewgoes on to present three different models for readingcomprehension strategy instruction: Reciprocal Teach-ing Approach, Transactional Strategy Instruction, andthe Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach.The comparison is based on the design of eachapproach, their primary theoretical orientation, majorpurpose, main research hypotheses, typical researchdesigns and main variables, and strategy instructionpractices. The final part of the review looks at the impli-cations for teaching reading strategies, where it is sug-gested strategy instruction is useful for diverse groupsof learners and that a flexible, strategy-rich teachingmethod is also valuable.

    04422 Angelini, Eileen M. (Philadelphia U.,USA). La simulation globale dans les cours deFrancais. [Global simulation activities in Frenchcourses] Journal of Language for InternationalBusiness (Glendale, Arizona, USA), 15, 2 (2004),6681.

    A step-by-step description is provided of how toconduct a global simulation activity in French, includingpre-activity work, group selection, and an explanationof a five-stage approach where students are set differenttasks which re-create what they are likely to face whenthey start their professional careers. These stages includemaking decisions about the type of product and locationof offices, company structure, advertising, personnelstructure, and daily operations of the company. Theactivity relies heavily on teamwork and is designed toimprove students FL skills, further their knowledgeof the culture of international business, and showparticipants the benefits and struggles involved whenworking together in a diverse environment.

    04423 Beaudoin, Martin (U. of Alberta, Canada;Email: [email protected]). A principle-based approach to teaching grammar on theweb. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 2 (2004),462474.

    The author suggests that grammar teaching is oftenover-emphasised in the language classroom, while com-

    munication skills are often neglected. This articlesuggests grammatical competence may be taught separ-ately using computer programmes, thus allowing moretime for teachers to focus on communication skills.The article explores principles concerned with build-ing grammar teaching programmes which may then beplaced on an internet website; it uses the example ofPomme, an interactive French grammar database, todo this. The article looks firstly at general website designprinciples such as clarity, interactivity, possibility ofreviewing past performance and ability to accommodatedifferent learning styles. It then looks at designprinciples specific to teaching grammar, such as theprovision for scaffolding of concepts, offering the optionof inductive or deductive learning and working ineither exploratory or preset mode. The article describesevaluation sessions of how users navigated throughvarious features of Pomme and concludes furtherresearch should focus on increasing levels of interactivityon both this and other French grammar websites.

    04424 Bianchi, Sebastian (U. Cambridge, UK;Email: [email protected]). El gran salto: de GCSEa AS level. [The big jump: GCSE to AS level] VidaHispanica (Rugby, UK), 30 (2004), 1217.

    A discussion is presented of the perceived difficultiesencountered by secondary-school teachers and studentsbeginning a course leading to AS level Spanish havingjust completed GCSE level. It is suggested that thereis a significant difference in what is required of thestudent and that these differences need to be met withspecifically focused activities. A number of such activ-ities are presented here, based on the principle that thestudents require bottom-up activities which build on,rather than replace, the base work done at GCSE level.Two reading comprehension exercises and one grammarexercise are discussed as examples of this methodology,each of which is used as a springboard to other, moretaxing, classroom activities.

    04425 Burden, Peter (Okayama Shoka U.,Japan; Email: [email protected]). Do wepractice what we teach? Influences ofexperiential knowledge of learning Japanese onclassroom teaching of English. The LanguageTeacher (Tokyo, Japan), 28, 10 (2004), 39.

    Inspiration for this paper came from the authorsexperiences of a Japanese class, in which the teacherencouraged learning through the use of activities thatcommunicative English teachers (like the author)would discourage in their English conversation class-rooms. The author enjoyed repeating after the teacher,made great use of a bilingual dictionary, and before each

    Lang. Teach. 37, 253293. Printed in the United Kingdom c 2004 Cambridge University Press 253

  • Language teaching class felt a sense of anticipation over the mini test ofthe previous weeks vocabulary and the concomitantexpectation of teacher praise. The author questionswhether this experience was a true expression of hislearning beliefs, rather than the so-called communi-cative method that he had been instilled with whengaining professional qualifications. The author contraststwo types of knowledge: received and experiential,and the different ways of learning that produce thesedifferent types of knowledge. The author questionswhether he is doing his students a disservice by denyingthem classroom tasks or activities because they aredeemed inappropriate in a so-called communicativeapproach to learning.

    04426 Coria-Sanchez, Carlos M. (U. NorthCarolina-Charlotte, USA). Learning culturalawareness in Spanish for business andinternational business courses: the presence ofnegative stereotypes in some trade books usedas textbooks. Journal of Language for InternationalBusiness (Glendale, Arizona, USA), 15, 2 (2004),4965.

    This paper uses the recent increase in Spanish forBusiness classes in American higher education to cast acritical eye over a number of tradebooks used to coverdifferent cultural aspects of doing business in Spanish-speaking countries. The pedagogical value of thesetradebooks is discussed, with specific analysis of theimportant cultural aspects of Mexican society discussedin a number of books. The conclusion is that thebooks are not sociological or anthropological texts basedon research. They might create broad and biasedgeneralisations, contradictions, and negative stereotypesand should not be used as a model for cultural awarenesswithout the proper input and analysis by those teachingthe course.

    04427 Cortes, Viviana (Iowa State U., USA).Lexical bundles in published and studentdisciplinary writing: Examples from history andbiology. English for Specific Purposes (Oxford,UK), 23, 4 (2004), 397423.

    The paper examines the importance of lexical bundles (aform of word combination in particular registers). Theauthor aims to improve understanding of the functionof lexical bundles in academic prose. The study uses acorpus of published writing from history and biologyjournals to identify lexical bundles and classifies themstructurally and functionally. The paper also comparesthe use of lexical bundles by published authors in historyand biology and by students at different levels. Theauthor suggests that the study shows that students rarelyuse these target bundles in their writing. In addition,the author claims that when students did use lexicalbundles, their use did not correspond to the uses ofbundles employed by professional authors. The authorspeculates on reasons why lexical bundles are not used

    by EAP students. The paper presents some pedagogicalimplications, including a suggestion that a systematiccoverage of lexical bundles needs to be developed. Thepaper calls for further studies to find ways to bridge thegap between published writing and student writing inacademic disciplines.

    04428 Cowley, Peter (U. of Sydney, Australia;Email: [email protected]) and Hanna,Barbara E. Cross-cultural skills crossing thedisciplinary divide. Language and Communication(Oxford, UK), 25, 1 (2005), 117.

    Courses in cross-cultural communication and in foreignlanguages, in Australian universities at least, often failto communicate across institutional and disciplinarybarriers. Starting from an analysis of two courses inintercultural communication (one undergraduate andone MBA), offered by a Faculty of Business this paperexamines how the courses foreground cultural differ-ence and where they locate it in relation to theclassroom. The analysis raises a number of issues relevantto the teaching of culture within language courses. Theauthors observe that courses in cross-cultural communi-cation tend to lay emphasis on analytical ability anddisplays of knowledge rather than on performance,whereas a language class deals with performance butmay not provide learners with theoretical knowledgeregarding the target culture. The benefits of an inter-disciplinary approach are explored with particularreference to the teaching of French.

    04429 Curado Fuentes, Alejandro(U. of Extremadura, Spain; Email: [email protected]).The use of corpora and IT in evaluating oral taskcompetence for Tourism English. CALICO Journal(Texas, USA), 22, 1 (2004), 522.

    In this study the oral competence of third-yearAmerican university students studying Tourism in Spainwas assessed by the use of two customised electroniccorpora, one based on formal oral reports on Businesstechnology, and the other on spontaneous speech instudent group discussion on Economics, thus coveringboth the form