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  • 1.LANGUAGE LearningSecond Language Learning
    Presented to: Sir Nazir Malik
    Presented by: Tahira Akbar Sial

2. LANGUAGE LEARNING
Language Learning is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive ,produce and use words to under
stand and communicate.
The Learning of language is doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is ever required to perform. (Leonard Bloomfield, Language1993)
3. The capacity to learn language is deeply ingrained in us as a species ,just as the capacity to walk, to grasp objects, to recognize faces. We do not find any serious differences in children growing up in congested urban slums, in isolated mountain villages, or in privileged suburban villas.
(Dan slobin, The human language series2,1994)
4. Second Language L2 Learning deals with Learning of additional languages in both children and adults. They are referred to as L2 (Second Language), L3 (Third Language), L4 (Fourth Language) etc.
Second Language Learning:
5. After the Critical Period has passed around puberty it becomes very difficult to acquire another language fully.
Linguists are of the view that
children can acquire up to 5 or 6 languages by the age of 6 and have maximum ability.
From 6 to 7 their language learning ability gradually reduces a bit.
Learning a Second Language.Ability:
6. From the age of7 to 11 they have a verygood ability to acquire secondlanguage (s).
Their language learning ability remains good from the age of 12 to 17.
Their language learning ability gradually reduces from the age of 17 to 30 andalmost ends or ends by the age of 30 or 31.
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7. Similarities & Differences
8. Similarities & Differences
9. 10. Contextual Factors in Second Language Learning
L2
Role models
Diverse goals
Home Support
Diverse needs
Knowledge of second language
The learning process
Learning style
Native language proficiency
Language distance
Motivation & interaction
L1
L1
11. Stage 1: Silent Stage
Stage 2: Early Production
Stage 3: Emergence of Speech
Stage 4: Intermediate Ability
Stage 5: Advance Fluency
Stages
12. 13. 14. There are five main components of Krashens theory. Each of the components relates to a different aspect of the language learning process. The five components are as follows:
The Learning Learning Hypothesis
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The Input Hypothesis
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Five Components of Second Language Learning Theory
15. 16. This hypothesis actually fuses two fundamental theories of how individuals learn languages. Krashen has concluded that there are two systems of language Learning that are independent but related: the acquired system and the learned system.
The acquired system relates to the unconscious aspect of language Learning. When people learn their first language by speaking the language naturally in daily interaction with others who speak their native language, this acquired system is at work. In this system, speakers are less concerned with the structure of their utterances than with the act of communicating meaning. Krashen privileges the acquired system over the learned system.
The learned system relates to formal instruction where students engage in formal study to acquire knowledge about the target language. For example, studying the rules of syntax is part of the learned system.
The Learning-Learning Hypothesis
17. The Monitor Hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis seeks to elucidate how the acquired system is affected by the learned system. When second language learners monitor their speech, they are applying their understanding of learned grammar to edit, plan, and initiate their communication. This action can only occur when speakers have ample time to think about the form and structure of their sentences.
The amount of monitoring occurs on a continuum. Some language learners over-monitor and some use very little of their learned knowledge and are said to under-monitor. Ideally, speakers strike a balance and monitor at a level where they use their knowledge but are not overly inhibited by it.
18. This hypothesis argues that there is a natural order to the way second language learners acquire their target language. Research suggests that this natural order seems to transcend age, the learner's native language, the target language, and the conditions under which the second language is being learned. The order that the learners follow has four steps:
They produce single words.
They string words together based on meaning and not syntax.
They begin to identify elements that begin and end sentences.
They begin to identify different elements within sentences and can rearrange them to produce questions.
The Natural Order Hypothesis
19. 20. Learner acquire L2 by understanding message or receiving comprehensive input that is a bit ahead of their current level of acquired competence.
This hypothesis accounts for the existence of silent period from input to production.
Silent period may be the time during which learner build up competence by means of active listening through input.
The Input Hypothesis
21. 22. This hypothesis describes external factors that can act as a filter that impedes Learning. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. For example, if a learner has very low motivation, very low self-confidence, and a high level of anxiety, the affective filter comes into place and inhibits the learner from acquiring the new language. Students who are motivated, confident, and relaxed about learning the target language have much more success acquiring a second language than those who are trying to learn with the affective filter in place.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
23. According to second language Learning theory, the role of (/grammar-rules/effective-grammar-instruction.html grammar) in language Learning is useful only when the learner is interested in learning grammar. Otherwise, Krashen argues that studying grammar equates to language appreciation and does not positively influence language Learning.
A Final Point on Grammar
24. The mother tongue or L1 features Learning: takes over most of the language faculty with a resulting loss of flexibility or openness to receive the features of another language.
Bilingualism & Multilingualism.
Motivation.
Input & Output.
Sociolinguistic Competence:
Communicative Competence,
Strategic Competence,
Grammatical Competence.
FACTORS Affecting L2 Learning:
25. GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD. Or dull traditional method of teachinglearning.
Language diseases: Dyslexia & Aphasia.
The Affective Filter: a kind of barrier related to negative feelings due to being stressed, uncomfortable, self-consciousor unmotivated in learning. Usually in adults (from 17 to 30..)
Negative Factors:
26. CONCLUSIONS:
BEHIOURISM focuses on language learning mostly by social and environmental interaction and conditioning & reinforcement of BEHAVIOUR whereas Mentalism focuses mainly on language learning by hidden MENTAL ABILITY.
27. Piaget focuses on the Cognitive, Conceptual
& Intellectual Ability of children as useful in Language LearningLearning and focuses on Cognitivism. Whereas Bruner focuses mainly on language learningLearning by social interaction and teachings of the care giverscare takers of the child or Social Interaction.
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28. L1 Learning is different from L2 Learning Learning mainlythat L1 Learning takes place mostly unconsciously through natural abilities in a natural environment in a CRITICAL PERIOD whereas L2 or L3 Learning requires a conscious effort along with natural abilities.
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29. Grammar Translation
Direct Method
Audio Lingual
Natural Approach
Total Physical Response
Community Language Learning and Teaching
Second Language Teaching Methods