Laboratory role in petroleum industry
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- Laboratory Role in petroleum industry By : Chem / Fouad Agamy Oil Lab Dept. Manager MIDOR Refinery Alex. Egypt
- What Is Quality? One definition which is accepted by experts in the field is : the degree of excellence or its ability to meet or exceed customer needs and expectations
- The operational techniques -such as testing in the laboratory- used to fulfil requirements for quality. Products have many properties. Only a few are needed to describe quality. Thus only a few tests are required to ensure that the product will meet customer quality requirements as well as meet government and industry specifications. What Is Quality Control (QC)?
- Why we need QC ? ( Laboratory Role) The overall function of the Laboratory Department Ensures appropriate quality control for refinery finished products and individual unit operations and provides necessary laboratory support for activities such as operations analysis.
- Performs routine testing of process and utility unit streams to monitor quality and unit performance. Performs routine testing to monitor blending operations and to certify finished product quality for shipment Why we need QC ? ( Laboratory Role)
- Performs necessary testing of line samples and compartment samples from ships and tank trucks to monitor potential contamination in loading operations. Performs necessary testing of purchased raw materials such as crude oil, natural gas, and delivered process chemicals. Why we need QC ? ( Laboratory Role)
- Performs routine testing to monitor performance of environmental control facilities, and the quality of water effluents. Collects routine samples from process units, tank farm and loading rack. Performs special sampling such as pressurised bomb samples, bladder and tube samples. Why we need QC ? ( Laboratory Role)
- Performs laboratory functions in support of operations analysis, troubleshooting unit problems, performance evaluation of equipment, catalysts and additives Provides technical and experimental service directed at solving plant operating or quality problems associated with the development of new products. Why we need QC ? ( Laboratory Role)
- Provides miscellaneous other laboratory services, including sample shipping for customer Why we need QC ? ( Laboratory Role)
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS What Are Product Specifications? A product specification is a schedule of minimum performance requirements for a particular product. Each class of products, such as gasoline, jet fuels and Diesel fuels, has its own specification schedule.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Why Are We Concerned With Specifications? It is always important to provide a product that is uniform in quality. The only way to ensure product uniformity is to establish requirements for a particular product and to ensure that every shipment or batch of that product conforms to those requirements. If product quality is not specified, one batch of product could be out of quality and be of no value for its end use. Also, another batch could be of higher quality than necessary for its end use, and in this case, the supplier would be giving away quality.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS How Are Product Specifications Defined? Product specifications are defined by the quality needed in a product in order for it to accomplish its purpose. Gasoline must meet certain criteria for volatility, and anti- knock quality, as well as other criteria. The specifications must include requirements so that the engine which will use this gasoline will start easily on cold days and run smoothly after it has started. These requirements must be carefully described in the specifications for the product.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Other specifications are defined by storage conditions and shipping restrictions. For example, jet fuels must meet certain criteria for gum content and particulate contaminations. Specifications can also be influenced by environmental factors. Certain components which would be found in the natural state, such as sulphur in crude oil, would not be environmentally acceptable.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Who Is Responsible For Product Specifications? The Manufacturer or Supplier The supplier would have a major interest in maintaining specifications on his product to provide a quality product and to supply a competitive product at a competitive price. The Customer or End User The customer sets specifications on the products he buys so that the product will perform at the levels he requires in his particular application. He contracts with the supplier to provide a product of a given quality or specification level.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS How Are Specifications Controlled? Specifications are controlled by performing a series of evaluations or tests on the products at various points in their manufacture or shipment. These tests are specially designed to define a particular characteristic of the product. The supplier can use the test results as a means to adjust his manufacturing conditions to produce a product of satisfactory quality. He can also use the results to correct the quality of batches of materials that do not conform to specifications and would, therefore, be unacceptable to his customer. The customer uses the specification tests to assure that the product he has received will perform as expected in his application. He may also use the tests to determine the quality of the product after it has been in storage for an extended period.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Specifications are subject to much negotiation. In order to overcome many of the problems associated with a variety of tests to specify the same characteristic in a product, several Standards organizations have been established. These organizations are sponsored by those people who need standardized tests. The Standards organization compiles testing methods and standardizes them according to good statistical practices. These methods then become the standard against which specifications can be measured. Since the Standards organization has no direct connection with the suppliers or the end user, it enjoys a position of independence and integrity.
- PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS The Standards organizations that are responsible for most of the methods used in the petroleum industry are American Society For Testing and Materials (ASTM) American Petroleum Institute (API) Institute of Petroleum (IP) Universal Oil Products (UOP)
- LPG Quality Control 1-Vapor Pressure ASTM D1267 measure of the amount of the most volatile material present in the product. It can also be used as a means for predicting the maximum pressures which may be experienced at fuel tank temperatures. Vapour pressure becomes more significant when it is related to volatility.
- LPG Quality Control 2- Volatility ASTM D 1837 Expressed in terms of the 95 % evaporated temperature of the product, is a measure of the amount of least volatile fuel component present in the product. Coupled with a vapor pressure limit, it serves to assure essentially single-component products in the cases of commercial propane and commercial butane fuel types. 3-Relative Density ASTM D1657 relative density is of importance in meeting transportation and storage requirements
- LPG Quality Control 4- Residue ASTM D2158 A measure of the concentration of soluble hydrocarbon materials present in the product which are substantially less volatile than the liquefied petroleum gas. 5- Copper Corrosion ASTM D1838 Limits are for the purpose of providing assurance that difficulties will not be experienced in the deterioration of the copper and copper-alloy fittings and connections which are commonly used in many types of utilization, storage, and transportation equipment. The copper corrosion test will detect the presence of hydrogen sulfide, which is highly toxic. The copper corrosion limits also provide assurance that the LP-Gas will not contain H2S in such quantities as to present a health and safety hazard.
- Crude Oil Quality Control 1- Density ASTM D 5002 or ASTM D 1298 (Hydrometer) Density : is the mass of liquid per unit volume at 15C Relative density or specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of liquid at 15C to the mass of an equal volume of pure water at the same temperature . API gravity ( degree ) = 141.5 / (sp gr 60/60F) - 131.5
- Crude Oil Quality Control Density according to ASTM D 1298 The sample is brought to the specific temperature and transferred to a cylinder at approximately the same temperature . The appropriate hydrometer is lowered into the sample an