Kraus Chapter04

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    Recreation and

    Leisure in the

    Modern Era

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    Discuss the ways in which recreation and leisureservices expanded in the years immediatelyfollowing World War II.

    Discuss the social and demographic changes thatinitiated many changes in recreation and leisureservices in the years following World War II.

    Identify the ways in which the recreation and

    leisure movement participated in and aided manyof the causes taken up by the youth countercultureof the 1960s and 1970s.

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    Objectives (contd)

    Identify the social trends that brought a decline in

    the perceived value of leisure during the late

    1970s and 1980s.Discuss the prospects for the future of recreation

    and leisure, based upon the prevalent trends at the

    close of the twentieth century.

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    Introduction (contd)

    Emergence of specialized disciplines andprofessional groups serving


    Private membership groups

    Economic austerity of the 80s and 90s, andthe following upsurge in the nationaleconomy

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    Post-World War II


    Expanding definition of leisure in the 1950s

    and 1960s

    Focus on the future showed expansive leisure


    Rand Corporation

    Hudson Institute

    National Commission on Technology

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    Post-World War II

    Expectations (contd)

    Assumption that leisure would become

    increasingly important to preserving value

    Agreement that work ethic was declining

    Work becoming more specialized

    Leisure seen as having great potential for

    confronting social problems

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    Post-World War II

    Expectations (contd)

    Widespread downsizing in the mid-1990s

    Economic pessimism

    Late 1990s recovery and growth improved

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    Expansion of Recreation and


    Influence of National Affluence

    Rising GNP following WWII

    Americans were spending billions per year on

    leisure pursuits

    Until the mid 1970s government increased:Budgets Personnel

    Facilities Programs

    Growing professional curricula

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    Expansion of Recreation and

    Leisure (contd)

    National Recreation and Park Association

    created from National Recreation Association

    American Recreation Society

    American Institute of Park Executives

    Effect of Demographic Changes

    Move from cities to surrounding suburbs

    following WWII

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    Expansion of Recreation and

    Leisure (contd)

    Suburbs established their own recreation

    services and plans

    Inner city population experienced immigrant


    Many accustomed to rural living with few job skills Posed problems of health, housing, welfare and

    social control

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    Trends in Program


    Physical Fitness Emphasis

    Response to many draft rejections during


    Schools strengthened physical fitness programs

    Public recreation departments expanded fitnessofferings

    Canada establishes similar programs

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)

    Environmental Concerns

    Critical need to preserve and rehabilitate


    Pollution was invading the environment

    Outdoor Recreation Resources ReviewCommission

    Created under President Eisenhower

    Appointed to investigate environmental problems

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)

    Government Acts

    Federal Water Pollution Control Administration Water Quality Act of 1965

    Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966

    Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965

    Highway Beautification Act of 1965

    Mining Reclamation Act of 1968

    Wilderness Act 1964

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)

    Budget cuts in the 1980s

    Regulations relaxed under Secretary of the Interior,James Watt

    National outdoor recreation planning ends in 1981

    Meeting Age-Group Needs

    Three changes in population Rise in birth rate

    Longer life spans

    Increasing divorce/single parent households

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)Special Recreation for Persons with


    Provision of services expanded and


    Federal government increased aid for special


    Therapeutic recreation emerges

    National Recreation Society 1960s

    American Therapeutic Recreation Association 1980s

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)

    Increased Interest in the Arts

    Expansion of cultural centers following WWII Follow-up to attention given to arts during GreatDepression

    Expanded interest and participation

    Community arts activities in the 1970s and1980s

    National Endowment for the Arts

    Declining federal support in the 1980s

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)

    Linkage of Antipoverty and Race-Related

    ProgrammingRiots of 1960s caused by frustration over

    Continuing job and educational discrimination

    Protests against justice system

    Poor community services

    Inadequate recreation and park programs andfacilities

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    Trends in Program

    Sponsorship (contd)

    Antipoverty programs attempted to address

    concerns Emphasis on minority groups and urban slums

    Grants to local governments and organizations

    Community Action Programs emerged

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    Counterculture: Youth in


    Rejection of the Work Ethic

    Rejection of the notion of "making it" in

    professional world

    Retreat from Protestant work ethic

    Emphasis on holistic values of leisureLeisure in the pursuit of self-actualization

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    Drives for Equality by

    Disadvantaged Groups

    Racial and Ethnic Minorities

    Thrust for demanding fuller recreationalservices in the 1960s and 1970s

    Gradual desegregation during 1970s and 1980s

    Membership efforts of YMCA, Boy Scouts andGirl Scouts expanded to serve minorities

    Racial and ethnic minorities achieve success incollege and professional sports andentertainment

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    Drives for Equality by

    Disadvantaged Groups (contd)

    Progress for Women

    In the 1970s women mobilized around twoissues in recreation and leisure:

    Employment discrimination

    Program involvement

    Gays and Lesbians 1960s and 1970s saw homosexuals growing in force

    and influence

    Fight for equal representation and participation

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    Drives for Equality by

    Disadvantaged Groups (contd)

    Older Adults in Community Life

    Once treated as powerless and vulnerableAARP, Gray Panthers

    Administration on Aging

    Diversification of programsHealth care Housing and transportationSocial services Recreation


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    Drives for Equality by

    Disadvantaged Groups (contd)

    Programming for Persons with Disabilities

    People with disabilities began to mobilizepolitically

    Promotion of positive legislation

    Therapeutic recreation specialists expand focus

    Expansion of services Theater arts



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    Era of Austerity and Fiscal


    Expanding Use of Revenue Sources

    Acceptance of Marketing Orientation Recognition of the necessity to be aggressive

    Recreation emerges as an industry

    To compete effectively, agencies had to adoptbusinesslike strategies

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    Era of Austerity and Fiscal

    Cutbacks (contd)

    Impact of Funding Cuts

    National Urban Recreation Study of 1978 Majority of urban park and recreation departments

    had been cut back

    Small towns survived better than major cities

    Areas of greatest need often have the fewest

    recreation services

    Public and private recreation is equally scarce

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    Expansion of Other Recreation


    Commercial recreation is the largest

    component of leisure servicesOther major sectors of leisure involvement

    Travel and tourism

    Fitness spasProfessional sports and sports equipment

    Manufacture/sale of hobbies, toys and games

    Varied forms of popular entertainment

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    Expansion of Other Recreation

    Programs (contd)

    Specialized recreation programming grows

    steadilyTherapeutic recreation

    Employee services

    Campus recreationPrivate membership and residential leisure


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    Trends in the 1990sTrends in the 1990s

    Continuing Diversification

    Broader emphasis beyond the local public realm

    Overall need to broaden public awareness of thisfield

    Economic Stratification

    Implications for Leisure

    "Conspicuous consumption" Growing disparity between rich and poor

    Rich have greater access to better services andfacilities

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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    Growing Conservatism in Social Policy

    Withdrawal of assistance of welfare and inner

    city programs in the early 90sStriking down of Affirmative Action policies

    Curbs on immigration from third world nations

    Bilingual language programs discardedMove to reduce environmental protections

    Assaults on the NEA

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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)Number of those imprisoned rose as crimedecreased

    Vindictive attitude toward justice

    Few recreation services for the incarcerated

    New mandates for public welfare

    Child welfare

    Long-term care for older adults

    Health care Environmental protection enforcement

    Legal help for the urban poor

    Youth programs

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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    Commodification and Privatization of Leisure


    Commodification Process of commercialization through design and


    Packaging leisure


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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    Fee-based public recreation

    Annual or seasonal programs

    Classes, camps, tournaments, special events

    PrivatizationPrison industry grows in the 90s

    Central Park Conservancy

    Marks withdrawal of major portions of thepopulation

    Brought decline of "social capital"

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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    New Environmental Initiatives

    Decades of neglect and overcrowding left

    nation's park and forest system in a precariousstate

    National Park Trust

    Acquisition of new parks and wetlands

    Reported Decline of Leisure

    Disputed Findings

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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    Technological Impacts on Leisure


    Tourism planning and reservations

    Electronic guidance and navigation systems

    Home environments

    Nanny cams

    Home theater systems

    Intelligent wallpaper

    Virtual features



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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    Television, video games, children's toys

    80% of homes have cable or satellite

    40% of free time is spent watching television

    Gaming content, Internet

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    Trends in the 1990s (contd)

    Paradox of availability

    Those who need it the least have the best access

    Few services for those who would most benefitCritical challenge for recreation professionals

    Gather evidence of social value and outcomes

    Incorporate evidence into benefit-based


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    Leisure and Recreation in the

    Twenty-First Century

    Major influences

    Changing demographics

    Economic recession

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    Leisure and Recreation in the

    Twenty-First Century (contd)

    Sedentary lifestyles

    Contributes to obesity epidemic

    Particular concerns about obesity and lack of

    physically activity for children

    Parks and recreation services identified asnecessary for promotion of public health

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    Leisure and Recreation in the

    Twenty-First Century (contd)

    Changing demographics require new

    programs and services Growth of older population

    Changing family composition

    Increase in ethnic diversity