Kinds of Water Pollution - en. · PDF file9 10 Molecular (size) exclusion chromatography Also...

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1 Inorganic Pollutants Organic Pollutants Biologic Pollutants Kinds of Water Pollution 2 +!+!2)7)#$/,5**#)!6!,5#'#04"- #)!6)#'!*#! &)&/"!$/)38!!! "4! +!+!2 )#/5)$+ Michael Tswett !)$ !! !!$" & chromato *4! $ * graphy *4! )$& % )!5,"!%!!1#6*)$+16 +!,5 !( (absorbent; CaCO 3 ) ',6 *5,5"!#$6 )7 %/!+16(*)7*. %/*4*$$4!. Chromatography technique 3 4" Martin & Synge .5!"$%"",","2,-5""*' $!)! +""%15.4"*7*'1*%!!!"*'0%0 + "!4"5*$" partition 4"""%0*'!!"*'0%0 &0 #-5*5".5"!,*$-2 1952 -*$05 "+"%0%$"5!1#.5" &%"!"" paper chromatography ,-5" +5&%"!"& 1"*7 Thin-layer chromatography & 0"+"#+4"!)!% 0*') 4!(% 0 +/ "%1!%"!""+"%0%(,"4"".3"4 "'+4 TLC &0*%%4"4" paper + thin-layer electrophoresis +-6(!/.5!".5"*7$%"++-4' HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) + GC (Gas Chromatography) 4 IUPAC )2((01 &5!.'!-)2'4 1(1 (phase) '&5-#%1!- (stationary phase) "-&5',# &! -&#% 1',#&! -$% 1)4 # &5.+ #&5/4 1!&5* (mobile phase) "-&53#&,*2 Chromatography process
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Transcript of Kinds of Water Pollution - en. · PDF file9 10 Molecular (size) exclusion chromatography Also...

  • 1

    Inorganic Pollutants

    Organic Pollutants

    Biologic Pollutants

    Kinds of Water Pollution

    2

    Michael Tswett

    chromato graphy

    (absorbent; CaCO3)

    Chromatography technique

    3

    Martin & Synge

    partition

    1952

    paper

    chromatography Thin-layer

    chromatography

    TLC paper thin-layer electrophoresis

    HPLC (High

    Performance Liquid Chromatography) GC (Gas Chromatography)

    4

    IUPAC

    (phase)

    (stationary phase)

    (mobile

    phase)

    Chromatography process

  • 5

    Adsorption chromatography

    Partition chromatography

    Ion-exchange chromatography

    Molecular exclusion chromatography

    Affinity chromatography

    6

    Adsorption chromatography

    Adsorption chromatography is probably one of the oldest types of

    chromatography around. It utilizes a mobile liquid or gaseous phase that

    is adsorbed onto the surface of a stationary solid phase. The equilibration

    between the mobile and stationary phase accounts for the separation of

    different solutes.

    (interaction)

    active

    siliga gel, alumina (charcoal)

    7

    Partition chromatography

    This form of chromatography is based on a thin film formed on the

    surface of a solid support by a liquid stationary phase. Solute

    equilibrates between the mobile phase and the stationary liquid.

    (polarity)

    (polar) (non-polar)

    (retain)

    normal phase chromatography

    8

    Ion exchange chromatography

    (resin)

    (

    )+ X-

    Y- X-

    ( )+X- + Y- ( )+Y- + X-

  • 9

    10

    Molecular (size) exclusion chromatography

    Also known as gel permeation or gel filtration, this type of

    chromatography lacks an attractive interaction between the stationary

    phase and solute. The liquid or gaseous phase passes through a porous gel

    which separates the molecules according to its size. The pores are

    normally small and exclude the larger solute molecules, but allows

    smaller molecules to enter the gel, causing them to flow through a larger

    volume. This causes the larger molecules to pass through the column at a

    faster rate than the smaller ones.

    11

    Affinity chromatography

    This is the most selective type of chromatography employed. It utilizes

    the specific interaction between one kind of solute molecule and a second

    molecule that is immobilized on a stationary phase. For example, the

    immobilized molecule may be an antibody to some specific protein. When

    solute containing a mixture of proteins are passed by this molecule, only

    the specific protein is reacted to this antibody, binding it to the

    stationary phase. This protein is later extracted by changing the ionic

    strength or pH.

    12

    Column chromatography

    Paper chromatography

    Thin layer chromatography

    High performance liquid chromatography

    Gas chromatography

  • 13

    Column chromatography

    (adsorption chromatography)

    (adsorbent) (eluent)

    developing

    14

    (adsorp)

    (Al2O

    3) (SiO

    2)

    15

    Paper chromatography

    (partition chromatography)

    (spot)

    Rf (retention factor)

    Rf = /

    16

    5-20

    (stationary phase)

    (mobile phase)

  • 17

    18

    Thin layer chromatography

    Rf

    19

    High performance liquid chromatography

    The basic components of an HPLC system include

    solvent resevoir

    sample injector

    pump(s)

    analytical column

    detector(s)

    data recorder

    waste container (or fraction collector)

    20

    Gas chromatography

  • 21

    Retention time; tR

    (k'; capacity factor)

    retention time

    t0 =

    22

    (Column efficiency)

    (thermodynamics)

    (band-broadening band-spreading)

    23

    (Theoretical plate number)

    (efficiency of theoretical plate)

    (N)

    N

    24

    (Plate height)

    HETP (Height equivalent of a theoretical plate)

    H = L/N

    H =

    L =

    N =

  • 25

    A = eddy diffusion (

    )

    B = ordinary diffusion ( )

    C = resistance of mass transfer

    u = mobile phase velocity

    Van Deemter equation

    Van Deemter Plot

    26

    Resolution; Rs

    Rs = 1

    Rs = 1.5

    Rs 1

    27

    Selectivity;

    Selectivity (k')

    selectivity selectivity

    28

    (Qualitative analysis)

    retention time identify peak

    spiking

    MS, IR, NMR, UV

  • 29

    (Quantitative analysis)

    (recorder) integrator

    30

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    7.

    31

    32

    1. (Extraction)

    2. (Purification)

    3. (Quantitative)

  • 33

    a b a b

    a b

    :

    34

    SOXHLET EXTRACTION

    35

    36

    ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTOR

  • 37

    WHO Gas

    Chromatography Flame ionization,

    Electron capture detector Mass spectrometer

    detector Mass spectrometer

    38

    39

    Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen; TKN

    Kjeldahl (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen; TKN)

    ( )

    3

    ( )

    ( )

    ( )

    40

    (Kjeldahl)

  • 41

    TKN = Sum of organic nitrogen

    TN = TKN + NO3- + NO2

    -