Kidney Failure. Learning Objective Success Criteria To know about kidney failure Outline the...

download Kidney Failure. Learning Objective Success Criteria To know about kidney failure Outline the problems that arise from kidney failure and discuss the use.

of 33

  • date post

    29-Dec-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    212
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Kidney Failure. Learning Objective Success Criteria To know about kidney failure Outline the...

  • Kidney Failure

  • Learning Objective

    Success CriteriaTo know about kidney failure

    Outline the problems that arise from kidney failure and discuss the use of renal dialysis and transplants for the treatment of kidney failureDescribe how urine samples can be used to test for pregnancy and detect misuse of anabolic steroids

  • Put the statements into orderA. Negative water potentialF. Osmoreceptors shrink and stimulate neurosecretory cells in hypothalamusE. Action potential sent down axon of Neurosecretory cells causing the release of ADHB. ADH enters blood capillaries in the posterior pituitary gland and travels to the collecting ductC. Collecting duct wall becomes more permeableD. More water reabsorbed into the blood/ less urine produced

  • AnswersA. Negative water potentialF. Osmoreceptors shrink and stimulate neurosecretory cells in hypothalamusE. Action potential sent down axon of Neurosecretory cells causing the release of ADHB. ADH enters blood capillaries in the posterior pituitary gland and travels to the collecting ductC. Collecting duct wall becomes more permeableD. More water reabsorbed into the blood/ less urine produced

  • Kidney FailureMost common causesDiabetes Mellitus (type I and type II)HypertensionInfection

  • Kidney failureYou have two kidneys, but you can manage with just one.But if both kidneys fail, urea (waste) rises and the body is poisoned.So if your kidneys fail, there are 2 options:

    Option 1: DialysisYou are attached to a kidney machine via a tube from a vein. Your blood flows into the machine, is cleansed, and returns to your body.You are attached for about 5 hours, 3 times per week.

    Option 2: A kidney transplantYou have an operation to remove your failed kidney and replace it with a working kidney from a donor.One or both kidneys may need to be transplanted

  • TaskIn pairs students given info on either peritoneal dialysis or heamodialysis. They must pick out 5 key points and write them down. One of the pair then remains to explain while the other goes to collect info on other form of dialysis. They then report back to their partner

  • Dialysishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZosHub0MOQ

    http://www.kidneypatientguide.org.uk/pd.php

  • Where do the donor kidneys come from?A living person can donate one kidney.To donate a kidney (or any organ) after death, you have to have died in hospital they have to be removed quickly.Most people die at home so there is a serious shortage of donor kidneys for transplant.There are around 7,000 people waiting for a kidney transplant. Around 2,000 kidney transplants are carried out annually and each year 2,000 more people go on the kidney transplant list

  • Matching donor organs to recipients Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) tissue typeA kidney donor needs to be a close HLA type match with the recipient.HLA type can make the difference between a patients body accepting orrejecting a donated organ.HLA type is defined by six principal pieces of protein: HLA antigens. Each newly discovered HLA antigen has been numbered.Doctors aim for at least a four HLA match between a donor and patient.Which of these donors is the best match for someone in need of a kidney transplant, with HLA numbers 2 3 6 9 10 13?

    Recipient 1: 2 6 7 10 11 13Recipient 2: 3 6 8 9 11 12 Recipient 3: 2 6 9 10 12 13

  • TaskWrite 6 numbers between 1 & 13 in a line on your mini whiteboard

    That is your HLA type, can you find a match?

  • Dialysis or transplant?Kidney dialysis works quite well, but is a time-consuming burden.

    Apart from taking drugs to stop their body rejecting the new kidney, someone with a successful transplant can lead a completely normal life.

    A transplant costs about 42,000 for the operation plus 6,500 a year in drugs and check-ups.

    BUT

    Dialysis isnt cheap about 23,000 per year, for life.

  • Dialysis or transplant?

    Q. How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?

    Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?

  • Dialysis or transplant?

    How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?A: About two and a half years.Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?A: Cost of dialysis: 60 years x 23,000 = 1,380,000. Cost of transplant: (60 years x 6,500) + 42,000 = 432,000. Saving: 948,000 roughly one million pounds.

  • Construct a table of Advantages and Disadvantages of Kidney Transplants

    AdvantageDisadvantage

  • Are you an organ donor?16,487,373 people 27% of the population are

    90% of people in the UK say they support organ donation

    https://www.organdonation.nhs.uk

  • DIALYSIS OR TRANSPLANT?

  • Dialysis or Transplant

    No longer consider yourself as chronically ill

  • Dialysis or Transplant

    Have to carefully monitor your diet and fluid consumption

  • Dialysis or Transplant

    Required to take immunosuppressants

  • Dialysis or Transplant

    Can be performed at home

  • Dialysis or Transplant

    Uses the peritoneum to filter the blood

  • Urine TestingSC: Describe how urine samples can be used to test for pregnancy and detect misuse of anabolic steroidsUse the Textbook to create a summary for how urine can be tested for:PregnancyAnabolic Steroids

  • PLENARY PPQS

  • PPQ Kidney FailureOn print out

  • Markscheme

  • Markscheme

  • Markscheme continued

  • PPQ- Pregnancy TestsOn print outs x2

  • Markscheme 2010

  • Markscheme 2012

    ******Questions you may like to ask about kidney failure:Q. How would you feel about being attached to a kidney machine?

    *Important: this topic needs to be handled with sensitivity. Please be aware that some students may have lost a friend or relative in tragic circumstances.

    If appropriate, this is a chance to talk about why it is so important for anyone who joins the Organ Donor Register to discuss their decision with their close family.Many organ donation opportunities are lost because next of kin are unaware of the deceaseds wish to donate, which places doctors in a very difficult position.

    Most donor kidneys come from patients who have died while on a ventilator following a severe brain injury.Q: Why do organs need to be removed from a dead person quickly?A: Organs are made of living tissue which will die if it is not supplied with oxygen and glucose for cell respiration.

    *Details of the HLA tissue type system fall outside most exam specifications, its just the principle that is required for the class activity that follows.

    *Q: How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?A: About two and a half years.Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?A: Cost of dialysis: 60 years x 23,000 = 1,380,000. Cost of transplant: (60 years x 6,500) + 42,000 = 432,000. Saving: 948,000 roughly one million pounds.

    *Q: How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?A: About two and a half years.Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?A: Cost of dialysis: 60 years x 23,000 = 1,380,000. Cost of transplant: (60 years x 6,500) + 42,000 = 432,000. Saving: 948,000 roughly one million pounds.

    *Q: How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?A: About two and a half years.Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?A: Cost of dialysis: 60 years x 23,000 = 1,380,000. Cost of transplant: (60 years x 6,500) + 42,000 = 432,000. Saving: 948,000 roughly one million pounds.

    *Important: this topic needs to be handled with sensitivity. Please be aware that some students may have lost a friend or relative in tragic circumstances.

    If appropriate, this is a chance to talk about why it is so important for anyone who joins the Organ Donor Register to discuss their decision with their close family.Many organ donation opportunities are lost because next of kin are unaware of the deceaseds wish to donate, which places doctors in a very difficult position.

    Most donor kidneys come from patients who have died while on a ventilator following a severe brain injury.Q: Why do organs need to be removed from a dead person quickly?A: Organs are made of living tissue which will die if it is not supplied with oxygen and glucose for cell respiration.

    *Q: How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?A: About two and a half years.Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?A: Cost of dialysis: 60 years x 23,000 = 1,380,000. Cost of transplant: (60 years x 6,500) + 42,000 = 432,000. Saving: 948,000 roughly one million pounds.

    *Q: How long after a transplant would it be before the NHS starts saving money, compared to keeping the patient on dialysis?A: About two and a half years.Q: If a 20 year old has a kidney transplant and lives to 80, roughly how much money would the NHS save?A: Cost of dialysis: 60 years x 23,000 = 1,380,000. Cost of transplant: (60 years x 6,500) + 42,000 = 432,000. Saving: 948,000 roughly one million pounds.

    *Q: H