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Transcript of K7QO - QRP -

  • K7QOs QRP Laboratory Notebook

    Version 2.1

    Started January 11, 2009

    Current March 22, 2009

    by

    Chuck Adams, K7QO

    chuck.adams.k7qo@gmail.com

  • 2

  • Contents

    1 Introduction 9

    2 Photography 11

    2.1 Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    2.2 Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    2.3 Insertion in this Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    3 The Lab 15

    4 Manhattan Construction Technique 21

    4.1 Printed Circuit Board Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    4.2 Cleaning the Printed Circuit Board Surface . . . . . . . 29

    4.3 Making Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    4.4 Mounting Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    4.5 IC Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    4.6 Soldering Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    4.7 Practice Exercise #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    4.8 Pads, Nodes, and Interconnection Capacitance . . . . . . 51

    4.9 Circuit Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    4.10 Building and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    4.11 RF Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    3

  • 4 CONTENTS

    4.12 Final Housing for Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    4.13 Future Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    4.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    5 PC Board Construction 69

    5.1 Equipment and Materials Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    5.1.1 Wal*Mart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    5.1.2 Home Depot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    5.2 Staples or Paper Supplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    5.3 Ebay.com and PC Board Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    5.4 Cutting the board material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    5.5 Cheap Etchant Fluid Mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    5.6 Ferric Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

    5.7 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    5.8 First Steps for First Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    6 Varactor Diode Measurements 109

    7 RG-174, RG-316 and RG-178 Coax 111

    8 Regen Receiver Transformers 125

  • List of Figures

    2.1 Package that the CFLs came in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    3.1 Chest-of-Drawers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    3.2 Chest-of-Drawers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    3.3 Drawer with wire and coax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    3.4 Bench showing right-hand side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    3.5 Left-hand side of workbench area. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    4.1 PC Board Vendor at 2006 Dayton Hamvention. . . . . . . . 26

    4.2 Harbor Freight Punch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    4.3 Harbor Freight vise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    4.4 Vise and Punch combo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    4.5 Vise and punch setup for punching pads. . . . . . . . . . 35

    4.6 Rectangular and Circular Pads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    4.7 Two circular pads glued down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    4.8 Wood Pieces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    4.9 PC and Vector board fit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    4.10 Fitting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    4.11 Multiple cuts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    4.12 Final pad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    4.13 Tinned pads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    5

  • 6 LIST OF FIGURES

    4.14 Sockets soldered to pads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    4.15 Picture of tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    4.16 Pads glued to board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    4.17 Three different resistor mounting schemes. . . . . . . . 56

    4.18 RF probe schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    4.19 RF probe layout Manhattan style. . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    4.20 RF probe built Manhattan style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    4.21 Crystal checker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    4.22 Crystal checker layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    4.23 G3RJV crystal checker comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    4.24 TT2/MRX Combo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    4.25 TT2/MRX Combo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    5.1 FR-4 and CEM boards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    5.2 FR-4 and CEM boards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

    5.3 FR-4 board without copper layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    5.4 View of First Soaking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    5.5 Close up photo of board traces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    5.6 Close up photo of board traces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    5.7 Backlit board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    5.8 Backlit board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    5.9 Backlit showing 0.10" and 0.15" traces. . . . . . . . . . 81

    5.10 Backlit showing large traces and pads. . . . . . . . . . 82

    5.11 Back lit board showing drilled holes. . . . . . . . . . . 83

    7.1 RG-174 With Outer Covering Removed. . . . . . . . . . . . 112

    7.2 Tinned Segment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    7.3 Removal of outer conducting shield. . . . . . . . . . . . 114

    7.4 Inner conductor tinned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

  • LIST OF FIGURES 7

    7.5 RG-316 Teflon Coax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

    7.6 RG-316 with wire stripper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

    7.7 Variable wheel to select wire sizes. . . . . . . . . . . 118

    7.8 Removal of outer insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

    7.9 Tin small segment near out insulation. . . . . . . . . . 120

    7.10 Outer shield segment removed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

    7.11 Attached wire to outer shield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

    7.12 Inner insultation removed from center conductor. . . . . 123

    7.13 RG-174, RG-316 and RG-178. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

    8.1 Bottom of Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

    8.2 Top of Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

    8.3 35mm Canister Mounted to Lid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

    8.4 Starting Holes for the Coil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

    8.5 Starting of #26 Wire for Coil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    8.6 Finished Coil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    8.7 Inside the Finished Coil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

    8.8 Leads Tinned for Finished Coil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

    8.9 Coil in Place on Fixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    8.10 Fixture in place on AADE L/C Meter. . . . . . . . . . . . 135

    8.11 Measurement of Finished Coil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

  • 8 LIST OF FIGURES

  • Chapter 1

    Introduction

    Although this is version 2.0 of this work, the first three chapters will

    be a repeat of version 0.19. The reason for this? Well, during the first

    week of 2009 I lost a 500GB hard drive on my computer system. I have replaced

    it with a 1TB drive and restored as much as I could from backup DVDs. Wouldnt

    you know it. The lab stuff was new enough that I hadnt gotten around

    to it. Because I had created the document using LaTeX, I could grab the

    plain ASCII text from the document and all I needed to do was recreate

    photographs that I lost in the crash of 09. This document is a work in

    progress until I get that done.

    Id moved to a single column format instead of using dual columns like

    you find in popular magazines and documents. I think that single column

    and large print makes documents easier to read while using a computer and

    a PDF viewer. (Ill have a chapter later on why I use a netbook for reading

    some stuff.) This document is not really intended to be printed. Lets

    allow the trees live a little longer and stop deforestization and the killing

    a trees before it is too late. And another note. There is not guarantee

    that it will be available at any time, so when you get a new version ---

    download it and store it to your hard drive and back it up to external

    media periodically. If it disappears from the Internet, then it disappears.

    It will serve no useful purpose for you to email me that this document

    is too large. I will not respond to any such emails at all, so dont waste

    your time or mine by complaining. I am sharing this document for those

    that are interested in such stuff, but my main function here is to put

    everything in one place and put it somewhere so that it doesnt go away

    9

  • 10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

    on me no matter what happens to my computer at the hacienda.

    This paper is intended to give you an overview of some construction

    techniques for homebrewing and then give significant detail such things

    as the Manhattan Style of construction and also printed circuit board construction.

    Ill follow those chapters up by some projects and I do them, etc. You

    can pick and choose or just sit on your lazy behind and do nothing. That

    is not the way to learn. This is not a spectator sport or hobby.

    I recommend that you read through this document several times before

    building and experimenting just to make sure that you have everything you

    need before you get started. If you are like me, you hat