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THE HISTORY OFTHE WORLD-CONQUEROR

ENTHRONEMENT OF OGEDEIFroma very old

MS.

of Rashid-ad-Din in the Bibliotheque Nationale

THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD-CONQUERORlyc

Ala-ad-Din 'Ata-Malik

JUVAINITranslated

from

the text

of

Mirza

Muhammad

QAZVINIly

JOHN ANDREW BOYLE,

Ph.D.

VOL.

I

HARVARD UNIVERSITY1958

PRESS

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

(1958) by

MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PRESSQuotation from or reprinting of this work in the United States of America is forbidden except by written permission of the exclusive licensee,

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

PRESS

UNESCO COLLECTION OF REPRESENTATIVE WORKSPERSIAN SERIESPublished in accordance with an agreement between University of Tehran. In compliance with the regulations ofthis translation

UNESCO

and the

UNESCO,

has been revised by Professor

V. Minorsky

Printed in Great Britain

THIS TRANSLATIONIS

GRATEFULLY DEDICATED TO

MY WIFE, MARGARET ELIZABETH

FOREWORDor not the Bible legend Is true that it was Man's presumption in building the Tower of Babel which caused themultiplicity of languages In the world, the punishment was very and it falls with especial severity upon historians. severe ; Anyone who wishes to trace the major events In history must

WHETHER

be himself an accomplished linguist or translations that are often inaccurateIndirect references to

must put his reliance on and out of date or on

works

thatrise

their original tongue.

The

have never been translated from and expansion of the Mongol

among the most important events of later medieval There was barely a country in Europe or Asia that history. was not In some way affected by the Mongol onslaught, and many of them had their whole course changed by it. But the historian who attempts to tell Its story is faced with essential sources in a greater number of languages than any one human being can be expected to know. Sooner or later he has to depend upon translators, whose works will be useless to himEmpireare

unless they are exact, intelligent and clear. the writers who have left contemporary accounts of the

Of

more Important than Juvaini. He knew of the chief actors in the dramatic stories that personally many he told. He enjoyed the confidence of the H-Khan Hiilegu,

Mongols none

is

the

Mongol conqueror of Baghdad. He himself was intimately connected with one of the most interesting episodes in the story,

the destruction of the headquarters of the Assassins at Alamut. He was, moreover, a historian in the best Moslem tradition, a

man

of wide

interests

and of

literary

accomplishment.

But

hitherto hisscholars.is

work in itsfull

A

entirety has only been accessible to Persian

and worthy

translation

of

his

history into

English therefore a very welcome contribution to historiography. I hope that it will be read not only by the specialist students ofthe

Mongol expansion and of the strange sect of the Assassins but also by everyone who finds pleasure in reading history.

STEVEN RUNCIMANvii

CONTENTSPAGE

FOREWORD,

ly

The Hon.

Steven

Runciman

.

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS

xii

xvxxxvi

xxxixxlv

PART ONE

DOXOLOGYINTRODUCTIONI.

3

4

Of theKhan's

condition of the Mongols before the time of Chingizrise to

II.

Of

the laws

power which Chingiz-Khan framed andafter his rise torise

19the yasas.

which he promulgatedIII.

Chingiz-Khan's passing to him of the the world : a brief account thereof

power . and the beginning of the power empires and kingdoms of the kings ofto. ..

.23

.344044

IV.

Of the sons of Chingiz-Khan V. Of the conquest of the land of the Uighur and the submissionof the i-qut

VI.VII.VIII.

Of the further history of the Uighur Of the origin of the idi~qut and the land of the Uighur according to their

......

48

own

belief..

53

IX.

Of Kuchliig and Toq-Toghan Of the martyred imam, Ala-ad-Din Muhammad*

.61 .70.

of Khotan.

(God's mercy

le upon

him

/)

.

.

.

X.

conquest of the regions of Almaligh, Qayaligh and Fulad; together with an account of the rulers thereofthe reason for the attack on the countries of the Sultan

Of the

747781

XL OfXII.

advance of the world-conquering Khan against the . . countries of the Sultan and the capture of Otrar

Of the

XIIL

Of the

advance of Ulush-Idi against Jand, and the conquest86capture of Fanakat.

of that region

........and Khojend, and. ..

XIV.

Of the

the story of.

Temur Malik

.

.91.

XV.

A

short account

of the conquest of Transoxiana

.

95

ix

CONTENTSPAGE

XVI.XVII.XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXLXXII.

Of the capture of Bokhara Of the rebellion of the Tarabi Of the conquest of Samarqand Of the fate of Khorazm Of the departure of Chingiz-Khan to Nakhshab and Tirmiz Of Chingiz-Khan's crossing of the river at Tirmiz and thetaking of Balkh

97109115

123

128

130133

Of Chingiz-Khan's turning to do battle with the Sultan XXIII. Of the return of Chingiz-Khan XXIV. Of the expedition of Torbei Toqshin in search of SultanJalal-ad-Din

138

141Siibetei in pursuit

XXV. Of theXXVI.XXVII.XXVIII.

expedition of Yeme and

of Sultan142

Muhammad

A

brief account

of Toli's conquest of Khorasan

.

.

150153

Of Merv and the fate thereof Of what befell at Nishapur XXIX. Of the accession of the World-Emperor..

.

.

.

.169

Qa*an

to the throne

XXX.

. of the Khanate and the power of World-Empire .178 Of the campaign of the World-Emperor Qa'an against . Khitai and the conquest of that country .191.

XXXI. Of the second quriltd 196 .201 XXXII. Of the deeds and actions of Qa'an XXXIII. Of the houses and dwelling-places of Qa'an 236 XXXIV. Of Toregene Khatun 239 XXXV. Of Fatima Khatun 244 XXXVI. Of the accession of Giiyiik Khan to the throne of the Khanate 248 XXXVII. Of Princess Oghul-Ghaimish and her sons .262 XXXVIII. Of Tushi and the accession of Batu in his stead 266 XXXIX. Of the conquest of Bulghar and the territory of the As and.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

the

Rusthe horsemen of the Keler

268

XL. Of

and Bashghird

,

.

270271

XLL

OfChaghatai

PARTI.

TWO

Of the originGod make

of the dynasty of the Sultans of Khorazm (Mayexample

bright their

II.

Of the

/).,...Khorazm-Shah.

277

accession of 'Ala-ad-Din

.315.

III.

How

the

kingdom of the

Sultans of.

Ghur,

passed into the.

hands of Sultan

Muhammad

327

CONTENTSPAGE

Of what befell Kharmil after the Sultan's return V. Of Kozli and his latter end VI. Of the accession of Mazandaran and Kerman VII. Of the conquest of Transoxiana VIII. Of the Sultan's returning a second time to wage warIV..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

gilr-khan

.........on.

.333 .336 .340 .341349

the

IX.

Of the X. Of the

. . .352 conquest of Kruzkuh and Ghaznin Khans of Qara-Khitai, their rise to power and their

destruction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.354in

[Contmuei

Vol.

II

Frontispiece.

Enthronement of Ogedeiillustrating this history will be

Maps.ofthis

Three mapsvolume.

found

at the end

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWHILSTrecording the names of those

who

the preparation of this work I should like pay tribute to the memory of the late Professor

have helped me in at the same time to

H. H. Schaedcr, time of his recent death, the chair of occupied, Oriental Philology and the History of Religion in the University of Gottingen. It was in Professor Schaeder's Seminar in Berlin,

who

at the

in the

first became acquainted with the of Juvaini ; and it is a source of deep Tarikh-i-Jaban-Gusha regret to me that he did not live to see the translation of a work

autumn of

1938, that I

to

which

I

was introduced under

his

stimulating guidance

nearly twenty years ago. version of Part I was included in a

A

Ph.D.

thesis

prepared

under the supervision of Professor Vladimir Minorsky, then Professor (now Professor Emeritus) of Persian in the University of London. I afterwards continued to work