juvaini - history of the world conqueror
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history of the conqueror
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THE HISTORY OFTHE WORLD-CONQUEROR
ENTHRONEMENT OF OGEDEIFroma very old
of Rashid-ad-Din in the Bibliotheque Nationale
THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD-CONQUERORlyc
JOHN ANDREW BOYLE,
MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PRESSQuotation from or reprinting of this work in the United States of America is forbidden except by written permission of the exclusive licensee,
UNESCO COLLECTION OF REPRESENTATIVE WORKSPERSIAN SERIESPublished in accordance with an agreement between University of Tehran. In compliance with the regulations ofthis translation
has been revised by Professor
Printed in Great Britain
GRATEFULLY DEDICATED TO
MY WIFE, MARGARET ELIZABETH
FOREWORDor not the Bible legend Is true that it was Man's presumption in building the Tower of Babel which caused themultiplicity of languages In the world, the punishment was very and it falls with especial severity upon historians. severe ; Anyone who wishes to trace the major events In history must
be himself an accomplished linguist or translations that are often inaccurateIndirect references to
must put his reliance on and out of date or on
their original tongue.
have never been translated from and expansion of the Mongol
among the most important events of later medieval There was barely a country in Europe or Asia that history. was not In some way affected by the Mongol onslaught, and many of them had their whole course changed by it. But the historian who attempts to tell Its story is faced with essential sources in a greater number of languages than any one human being can be expected to know. Sooner or later he has to depend upon translators, whose works will be useless to himEmpireare
unless they are exact, intelligent and clear. the writers who have left contemporary accounts of the
more Important than Juvaini. He knew of the chief actors in the dramatic stories that personally many he told. He enjoyed the confidence of the H-Khan Hiilegu,
Mongol conqueror of Baghdad. He himself was intimately connected with one of the most interesting episodes in the story,
the destruction of the headquarters of the Assassins at Alamut. He was, moreover, a historian in the best Moslem tradition, a
work in itsfull
entirety has only been accessible to Persian
English therefore a very welcome contribution to historiography. I hope that it will be read not only by the specialist students ofthe
Mongol expansion and of the strange sect of the Assassins but also by everyone who finds pleasure in reading history.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS
condition of the Mongols before the time of Chingizrise to
power which Chingiz-Khan framed andafter his rise torise
which he promulgatedIII.
Chingiz-Khan's passing to him of the the world : a brief account thereof
power . and the beginning of the power empires and kingdoms of the kings ofto. ..
Of the sons of Chingiz-Khan V. Of the conquest of the land of the Uighur and the submissionof the i-qut
Of the further history of the Uighur Of the origin of the idi~qut and the land of the Uighur according to their
Of Kuchliig and Toq-Toghan Of the martyred imam, Ala-ad-Din Muhammad*
conquest of the regions of Almaligh, Qayaligh and Fulad; together with an account of the rulers thereofthe reason for the attack on the countries of the Sultan
advance of the world-conquering Khan against the . . countries of the Sultan and the capture of Otrar
advance of Ulush-Idi against Jand, and the conquest86capture of Fanakat.
of that region
........and Khojend, and. ..
the story of.
of the conquest of Transoxiana
Of the capture of Bokhara Of the rebellion of the Tarabi Of the conquest of Samarqand Of the fate of Khorazm Of the departure of Chingiz-Khan to Nakhshab and Tirmiz Of Chingiz-Khan's crossing of the river at Tirmiz and thetaking of Balkh
Of Chingiz-Khan's turning to do battle with the Sultan XXIII. Of the return of Chingiz-Khan XXIV. Of the expedition of Torbei Toqshin in search of SultanJalal-ad-Din
141Siibetei in pursuit
XXV. Of theXXVI.XXVII.XXVIII.
expedition of Yeme and
of Toli's conquest of Khorasan
Of Merv and the fate thereof Of what befell at Nishapur XXIX. Of the accession of the World-Emperor..
to the throne
. of the Khanate and the power of World-Empire .178 Of the campaign of the World-Emperor Qa'an against . Khitai and the conquest of that country .191.
XXXI. Of the second quriltd 196 .201 XXXII. Of the deeds and actions of Qa'an XXXIII. Of the houses and dwelling-places of Qa'an 236 XXXIV. Of Toregene Khatun 239 XXXV. Of Fatima Khatun 244 XXXVI. Of the accession of Giiyiik Khan to the throne of the Khanate 248 XXXVII. Of Princess Oghul-Ghaimish and her sons .262 XXXVIII. Of Tushi and the accession of Batu in his stead 266 XXXIX. Of the conquest of Bulghar and the territory of the As and.
Rusthe horsemen of the Keler
Of the originGod make
of the dynasty of the Sultans of Khorazm (Mayexample
accession of 'Ala-ad-Din
kingdom of the
passed into the.
hands of Sultan
Of what befell Kharmil after the Sultan's return V. Of Kozli and his latter end VI. Of the accession of Mazandaran and Kerman VII. Of the conquest of Transoxiana VIII. Of the Sultan's returning a second time to wage warIV..
.333 .336 .340 .341349
Of the X. Of the
. . .352 conquest of Kruzkuh and Ghaznin Khans of Qara-Khitai, their rise to power and their
Enthronement of Ogedeiillustrating this history will be
at the end
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWHILSTrecording the names of those
the preparation of this work I should like pay tribute to the memory of the late Professor
have helped me in at the same time to
H. H. Schaedcr, time of his recent death, the chair of occupied, Oriental Philology and the History of Religion in the University of Gottingen. It was in Professor Schaeder's Seminar in Berlin,
first became acquainted with the of Juvaini ; and it is a source of deep Tarikh-i-Jaban-Gusha regret to me that he did not live to see the translation of a work
1938, that I
was introduced under
nearly twenty years ago. version of Part I was included in a
under the supervision of Professor Vladimir Minorsky, then Professor (now Professor Emeritus) of Persian in the University of London. I afterwards continued to work