Just in-time

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Transcript of Just in-time

  • 1. JUST-IN-TIME MANUFACTURING

2. AIDT - Just-In-Time Manufacturing - September 11, 2006 Just-In-Time Manufacturing JUST-IN-TIME MANUFACTURING Table of Contents I. JUST-IN-TIME MANUFACTURING.......................................................................1 A. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................1 B. JIT PHILOSOPHY........................................................................................1 1. History of Just-In-Time......................................................................2 From Supermarket to Shop Floor.....................................................2 2. What to Expect..................................................................................3 C. VALUE-ADDED ANALYSIS.........................................................................4 Figure 1-1 Value-Added Analysis......................................................5 Figure 1-2 Value-Added Analysis......................................................6 1. Don't Forget The Office.....................................................................7 D. UNDERSTANDING WASTE........................................................................7 1. Evils of Inventory...............................................................................8 Figure 1-3 High and Low Levels of WIP...........................................9 E. JIT AND QUALITY.....................................................................................11 1. The Chicken or the Egg..................................................................11 2. What If ?..........................................................................................12 3. What is Quality ?.............................................................................13 4. Preventing Quality Problems..........................................................13 Defining the Requirements.............................................................13 The Root Cause of The Problem....................................................14 Figure 1-4 Getting to The Root Cause...........................................15 Keeping Control of The Process.....................................................16 Figure 1-5 Poka-Yoke - Speaker Box Assembly.............................17 Figure 1-6 Poka-Yoke - Drilling Holes in a Side Plate....................18 F. UNIFORM PLANT LOAD...........................................................................19 1. Cycle Time......................................................................................19 Workforce........................................................................................20 2. Level Loading..................................................................................21 Figure 1-7 Level Loading...............................................................22 3. Learning Curve Improvements........................................................23 G. SETUP TIME REDUCTION.......................................................................24 1. Getting Started................................................................................24 2. Setup Reduction Teams..................................................................25 3. Videotaping.....................................................................................26 4. The SMED System..........................................................................27 The Four Conceptual Stages of SMED...........................................27 5. Clamping.........................................................................................28 6. Adjusting.........................................................................................28 3. AIDT - Just-In-Time Manufacturing - September 11, 2006 Just-In-Time Manufacturing ii H. CELLULAR MANUFACTURING................................................................29 Figure 1-8 Traditional Manufacturing System................................29 Figure 1-9 U-Shaped Work Cell.....................................................30 1. U-Shaped Work Cells......................................................................31 Figure 1-10 U-Shaped Work Cells.................................................32 U-Shaped Cells versus Assembly Line Manufacturing...................33 Comparison of Assembly Line and U-Shaped Work Cell................33 Figure 1-11 Cellular Manufacturing System...................................34 I. PULL SYSTEMS........................................................................................35 1. The Push System............................................................................35 Figure 1-12 Push System..............................................................36 2. From Supermarket to Factory Floor - The Pull System...................37 Figure 1-13 Kanban Card..............................................................37 Figure 1-14 Production Control by Pull System.............................39 J. JIT PURCHASING.....................................................................................41 Figure 1-15 Typical Manufacturing Costs.......................................41 1. Partnerships....................................................................................42 2. Eliminating Procurement Wastes....................................................43 3. A Day's Worth Every Day................................................................44 K. JIT IN CONJUNCTION WITH MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING.................................................................................................45 1. Which System ?..............................................................................45 L. MANAGEMENT'S RESPONSIBILITY.......................................................47 1. Motivation........................................................................................48 2. Training...........................................................................................48 3. Leadership......................................................................................49 M. IMPLEMENTING JIT..................................................................................49 1. Forming Teams...............................................................................50 2. Developing a JIT Startegy...............................................................50 N. GLOSSARY...............................................................................................52 O. REFERENCES AND RECOMMENDED READINGS................................56 4. AIDT - Just-In-Time Manufacturing - September 11, 2006 Just-In-Time Manufacturing I. JUST-IN-TIME MANUFACTURING A. INTRODUCTION Why Just-In-Time manufacturing when there are dozens of other manufacturing philosophies from which a company may choose? Just-In- Time (JIT) manufacturing distances itself from the competition because no large capital outlays are required. Other methods promote complexity, large overheads, automation, and other "state-of-the-art" technologies, while JIT advocates simplifying and streamlining the existing manufacturing process. Since World War II, traditional American companies have developed a way of doing business that entails top management planning, re-planning, and more planning. Although some planning is good, it ultimately adds no value to the end product. Customers want quality products at competitive prices - they couldn't care less how much planning was required to get that product to them. By implementing JIT, much of the planning disappears and a large portion of the remaining planning is entrusted to the shop floor personnel. The purpose of this text is to introduce basic JIT concepts and assure you that JIT can work in your company. The transition to JIT often is not easy, but it is almost always rewarding. All employees in the company - from top management to direct labor - must have a clear understanding of the benefits that JIT offers to them and to their company. JIT is not a cure-all for every manufacturing problem. But, if implemented properly, JIT is a no-cost or low-cost method for improving your manufacturing process. B. JIT PHILOSOPHY The basis of Just-In-Time (JIT) is the concept of ideal production. It centers on the elimination of waste in the whole manufacturing environment, from raw materials through shipping. Just-In-Time is defined as "the production of the minimum number of different units, in the smallest possible quantities, at the latest possible time, thereby eliminating the need for inventory. Remember, JIT does not mean to produce on time, but to produce just in time. 5. AIDT - Just-In-Time Manufacturing - September 11, 2006 Just-In-Time Manufacturing 1. History Of Just-In-Time JIT is sometimes said to have been invented by Henry Ford because of his one-at-a-time assembly line, circa 1913. This is an incorrect conclusion since Ford's system could handle no variety and was designed for large volumes and large batch sizes of the same parts. JIT was invented by Taiichi Ohno of Toyota shortly after World War II. Ohno's system was designed to handle large or small volumes of a variety of parts. Many people are intimidated by JIT because of its association with Japan. If these people take a broader look at JIT, they will see that it is nothing more than good, common sense manufacturing. Ohno and his associates came to America to study our manufacturing processes. They determined that our system was much like the system that Japanese companies were using, but Japanese companies could not afford waste in their systems due to the devastation to their economy caused by World War II. While in America, Ohno learned much about America's culture. One of his discoveries has transformed the world's perspective on manufacturing. From Supermarket To Shop Floor Legend has it that Ohno got t