June 2013 RECS International Inc. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd. (Comments in...
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June 2013 RECS International Inc. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd. (Comments in red added by Steve Thompson) PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR THE INTEGRATED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE SOUTH-EAST MYANMAR II. Planning for Integrated Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar Slide 2 1. Economic Corridors Development 1)East-west economic development corridors: original alignment designated by ABD and its alternatives for Southeast Myanmar 2)Southern economic development corridors: original alignment designated by ABD and its alternative linking Payathonezu and Thanbyuzayat 3)Economic corridor in northern part 4)North-south economic corridor (National artery) 5)New east-west economic corridor: Walley- Sukali- Kyaikdon- Kyainsekkyi- Mudon 6) New north-south economic corridor: Hpapun- Hpaan- Kyainsekkyi- Payathonezu Why does this integrated survey for ethnic minorities start with promoting big development projects that take and pollute their land, when it should be addressing issues of conflict resolution, land, resettlement and rehabilitation? This reflects a remarkable blindness on the part of the Japanese consultant engineers and JICA. Slide 3 2. Artery Road Network for Southeast Myanmar These roads are a continuing security threat to ethnic nationality peoples, their cultures and their environment. While the Burmese military continues to hold and reinforce bases in Karen lands and remains unanswerable to its government, road-making provides it unacceptable strategic advantage. Indigenous land tenure is even less certain under the 2 Burmese land laws passed after the 2012 ceasefire. Land confiscations are widespread throughout the country. Road-making further threatens the land and livelihood security for the Karen people in their path. Why is this not understood? Yet further undermining community land security, without clear land policy roads will bring an influx of settlers from elsewhere, Burmese army families and businessmen. Slide 4 3. Industrial Clusters Development 1)Rubber industrial cluster 2)Wood and bamboo works industrial cluster 3)Cashew industrial cluster 4)Apiculture (bee raising) industrial cluster 5) Other industrial clusters: tourism industry, antimony industry, wellness industry (i.e. spas, massage, alternative health) etc. Some of these (bamboo, cashew, bees, alternative health, tourism) are basically okay. However the plan only hints at the real large scale mining agenda. It also promotes unsustainable mono-culture plantation farming. There is no inclusion of biodiverse, low input, self reliant and carbon-neutral indigenous farming practices. Growing rice, pepper & other spices, betel nut & leaf, and the sustainable cultivation and management of fuelwood species and high value timber species are all missing from the plan. Slide 5 4. Rubber Industrial Cluster Focus on rubber is economically shortsighted, as most rubber is used in the transport industry which cannot be sustained without fossil fuels. These are being quickly depleted and fuel costs already at historic highs. Not far in the future this will become critical, likely damaging or destroying the market for rubber. Rubber trees take 7 years to come into production, so any new planting carries very high risk. Diversifying into food, building materials, paper and wood energy where increasing future needs are far more certain may prove a much better investment. Slide 6 5. Wood and Bamboo Works Industrial Cluster This makes good sense, as cultivating different kinds of bamboo, rattan canes and timber can be sustainably productive using local skills and inputs. Investing in developing local peoples skills for cultivating and enriching forests, processing bamboo, cane, non-timber forest products and wood, and making better quality furniture and paper is therefore good. Slide 7 6. Cashew Industrial Cluster No serious problems foreseen with this; however it may still be too much of a monoculture though the integrated farming with goats helps to diversify it. It could be improved by introducing more things to the system to better meet needs of communities for self sufficiency in food, fuelwood, fertilizer. Slide 8 7. Apiculture Industrial Cluster No serious problems foreseen with this Integrating this with increasing the number of flowering species and medicinal herbs in the surrounding forests and farmlands would improve it. Reducing pesticide use in the surrounding areas would better guarantee honey quality and bee survival. Slide 9 8. River Basins Water Resources Development and Management Program 1)Megatat River, a tributary of the Zami River, for water supply, mini hydro power, and flood mitigation 2) Bilin River for water supply, hydro power development, irrigation and watershed management. According to the 1994 Norconsult study for the ADB, this dam will flood a huge area of over 200 km2. 3)Dontami River for water supply, mini hydro power, and watershed management 4)Ye River for water supply and mini hydro power 5)Melaga River, a tributary of the Moei River, for water supply, irrigation and mini hydro power 6) Yunzalin River, a tributary of Thanlwin River, for water supply, hydro power and irrigation These dams will severely disrupt wildlife and local fisheries, and will flood more villages and much good farm and forest land. These seem like just an excuse fore more dam building in the interests of the consulting companies. Slide 10 9. Megatat River Basin Water Resources Development and Management This development area and dam is located in the core area of the Megatha Wildlife Sanctuary. It will destroy an exceptionally beautiful area and will be devastating for wildlife and the remaining forests. Slide 11 10. Bilin River Basin Water Resources Development and Management This dam has an extremely big flood area for the amount of electricity it will generate. (200 km2 for 400 MW, Norconsult 1994). Significantly, It will flood critical wildlife habitat of the KNU Thuplay Wildlife Sanctuary. It will displace many of the communities who are key to protecting the forests and wildlife there. It will also flood good lowland rice farms and forest land. Like other big dams this will only serve to power cities and industries, mostly foreign owned. Slide 12 11. Dontami River and Ye River Basin Water Resources Development and Management Dontami Ye Slide 13 12. Melaga River Basin Water Resources Development and Management Mywaddy Walley Sukali More dams?!. As with most other dam plans, no reservoir area is given i.e how much Karen land will be flooded. Would the hydropower be used to power the zinc and other resource mining activities in the area? Slide 14 13. Yunzalin River Basin Water Resources Development and Management Yet more damming of exceptionally beautiful and clean rivers for a questionable development agenda. Slide 15 14.Payathonezu Settlement Areas Development Program 1)Provision of water supply with public standpipes, power supply by mini hydro or diesel, branch schools and clinics (Why no off grid solar power or micro-hydro? What guarantee of sustainable resourcing of schools and clinics?) 2)Productive re-forestation on hills with fruits and cashew trees 3)Participatory land use planning: residential lots with home gardens, productive re-forestation areas, paddy fields, protection areas for water sources 4) Community organizing: CBO or CDC for community facilities planning & implementation They make the master plan, allowing actual participation of communities, in only a few areas after their plan is discussed and approved Slide 16 15. Returnees Empowerment Center (REC) Stage 1: Information function 1)Provision of audio-visual equipment, computers and associated facilities 2)Support for preparation of promotion materials for settlement areas, industrial estates, policy and support activities by State Government 3)Planning for facilities and services for Stage 2 development by cooperation of KNU, State Government and other stakeholders Stage 2: Skill training function 1)Adoption of some returnees as trainers and TOT for them 2)Provision of training facilities and equipment 3)Association with industrial estates and related facilities and enterprises located in those facilities Slide 17 16.Conciliatory Access Improvement Program 1)Theinseik Laykhay road improvement (KNU brigade No.1) 2)Ye Joohaproud road improvement (NMSP) 3)Leiktho Yardo road improvement (KNU brigade No. 2) 4)Kamamaung Myainggyingu ferry services improvement with a new ship and landing facilities (KNU brigade No.2 on Kamamaung side and KNU brigade No. 5 and DKB-BGF on Myainggyingu side) Slide 18 17. Water Supply Improvement Program LocationDevelopment needs LeikthoWater source expansion for water supply in the STS center YardoDevelopment of alternative water sources and complementary use with mini hydro in the Thauyeka River (Thaukyekhat Dam?) ThandaungDevelopment of water sources to expand water supply in the STS center (Thandaung dam under construction?) BawgaliDevelopment of alternative water sources in addition to springs currently used KamamaungExpansion of pumping capacity to pump up Thanlwin River water KyaikthoResolution of salt water intrusion into dug wells (This problem will be created or worsened by dams on Salween, Bilin and elsewhere) KyainsekkyiExpansion of water supply by dug wells PayathonezuExpansion of public water supply by combining tube wells and planned use of springs YeExpansion of public water supply by planned dug wells ThanbyuzayatExpansion of water supply by dug wella and tube wells KyaikmarawExpansion of public water supply by tube wells Slide 19 18. Problem Structure Analysis Slide 20 19.Objectives for Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar 1)Economic objective: To diversify employment and income opportunities to improve livelihood, increase local capital accumulation, and enhance competitiveness of regional economy in globalizing economy 2