John J. Kargul, Advanced Technology Division Office of ... What is a Hydraulic Hybrid? A hybrid...

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1 Hydraulic Hybrids Hydraulic Hybrids Clean Automotive Technology Clean Automotive Technology www.epa.gov/otaq/technology December 11, 2007 December 11, 2007 John J. Kargul, John J. Kargul, Director of Technology Transfer Director of Technology Transfer Advanced Technology Division Advanced Technology Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality Office of Transportation and Air Quality U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Environmental Protection Agency West Coast Collaborative

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    Hydraulic HybridsHydraulic Hybrids

    Clean Automotive TechnologyClean Automotive Technologywww.epa.gov/otaq/technology

    December 11, 2007December 11, 2007

    John J. Kargul,John J. Kargul, Director of Technology TransferDirector of Technology TransferAdvanced Technology DivisionAdvanced Technology Division

    Office of Transportation and Air QualityOffice of Transportation and Air QualityU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyU.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    West Coast Collaborative

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    Clean Automotive TechnologyClean Automotive Technology

    Focusing on Focusing on uniqueunique, , costcost--effectiveeffective technologytechnologyAchieve ultra low pollution emissionsAchieve ultra low pollution emissionsIncrease fuel efficiencyIncrease fuel efficiencyReduce greenhouse gasesReduce greenhouse gases

    RevolutionaryDrivetrains

    RevolutionaryDrivetrains

    RevolutionaryEngines

    RevolutionaryEngines

    Ultra-Clean & Ultra-Efficient Vehicles

    Ultra-Clean & Ultra-Efficient Vehicles

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    What is a Hydraulic Hybrid?What is a Hydraulic Hybrid?

    A hybrid vehicle, in addition to its main engine, A hybrid vehicle, in addition to its main engine, has a drivetrain that can recover and reuse energyhas a drivetrain that can recover and reuse energy

    A different kind of transmissionA different kind of transmission, one that can recover, store and reuse , one that can recover, store and reuse power power hydraulicallyhydraulically (rather than electrically)(rather than electrically)An energy storage systemAn energy storage systemA hydraulic drive system to convert the stored energy to motive A hydraulic drive system to convert the stored energy to motive powerpower

    Hydraulic Hybrids Store energy in hydraulic accumulators Use hydraulic pump-motors

    Electric Hybrids Store energy in batteries and/or ultra-capacitors Use electric generator-motors

    Hydraulic Hybrids Store energy in hydraulic accumulators Use hydraulic pump-motors

    Electric Hybrids Store energy in batteries and/or ultra-capacitors Use electric generator-motors

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    Parallel HHVsEngineTransmissionDrive Pump/MotorDrive ShaftRear Axle

    Series HHVsEngineEngine Pump/MotorDrive Pump/MotorDrive Shaft (in some designs)Rear Axle

    HHV Drivetrain ConfigurationsHHV Drivetrain Configurations

    BenefitsGreatest fuel savingsReduced emissionsReduced engine on-time (no idling)Reduced brake and engine wearLowest Cost

    BenefitsFuel savingsReduced emissionsReduced brake and engine wear

  • 51970 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    EPA Hydraulic EPA Hydraulic Hybrid Timeline Hybrid Timeline

    Electric Hybrids

    Chassis 6 Taurus size

    Intense research program to study hydraulic hybrid technology and systems

    F-550 Work Truck

    SUVs and LDTs: Ford F-550 and Excursion (launch assist), GM Suburban and Ford Expedition (series)

    Full Series Red Ford Expedition

    Full Series UPS Package Car

    2 studies of best options in the 80s lead to

    hydraulic hybrid potential

    Electric Hybrids

    Urban Delivery

    SUV Expedition

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    Why Why SeriesSeries Hydraulic Hybrids?Hydraulic Hybrids?

    Highest possible fuel economyHighest possible fuel economy

    Lowest incremental costLowest incremental costShortest payback to ownerShortest payback to ownerHighest lifetimeHighest lifetime--savingssavings

    UltraUltra--low emissionslow emissions

    Enables unique highEnables unique high--efficiency enginesefficiency engines

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    EPAEPAs Series Hydraulic Hybrid s Series Hydraulic Hybrid Urban Delivery Vehicle Urban Delivery Vehicle

    6060--70% mpg improvement in city driving70% mpg improvement in city driving

    22--3 year payback has attracted attention from fleets3 year payback has attracted attention from fleets

    Potential for net Lifetime savings over $50,000 with Potential for net Lifetime savings over $50,000 with $2.75/gal fuel costs$2.75/gal fuel costs

    Demonstration to accelerate technology transfer to Demonstration to accelerate technology transfer to industry & familiarity with technologyindustry & familiarity with technology

    Partners (UPS, Eaton, International Truck, US Army)Partners (UPS, Eaton, International Truck, US Army)

    Hydraulic HybridHydraulic HybridUPS Package Car UPS Package Car Demonstration Creates Demonstration Creates Real WorldReal World ExperienceExperience

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    Series Hydraulic Hybrid Series Hydraulic Hybrid Truck ConfigurationTruck Configuration

    HP Accumulator

    LP Reservoir

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    OnOn--Road Field TestingRoad Field Testing

    Field TestsField Tests OnOn--road field testing during normal onroad field testing during normal on--route route package delivery began last fall in the Detroit area. package delivery began last fall in the Detroit area. UPS Very Pleased with ResultsUPS Very Pleased with Results With how the vehicle With how the vehicle performed, and with the fuel economy gains demonstrated performed, and with the fuel economy gains demonstrated in these early tests. in these early tests. More Testing More Testing Additional field testing is focusing on Additional field testing is focusing on evaluating the performance characteristics of options for evaluating the performance characteristics of options for potential potential prepre--productionproduction trucks.trucks.Durability TestingDurability Testing Mileage accumulation durability Mileage accumulation durability testing will begin in early 2008.testing will begin in early 2008.

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    4545--50%50% Initial InInitial In--Service MPG Improvement Service MPG Improvement using Prototype Hardwareusing Prototype Hardware

    More MPG is Coming ThroughMore MPG is Coming Through

    Improving EngineImproving Engine--off Accessories off Accessories Installing 2nd generation engineInstalling 2nd generation engine--off off power brakes and power steering (less power brakes and power steering (less energy consuming) energy consuming)

    Replacing Engine Pump Replacing Engine Pump More More efficient EPA hardwareefficient EPA hardware

    Shutting Engine Off More Shutting Engine Off More Advanced Advanced control strategycontrol strategy

    Lowering Weight Lowering Weight Eliminating Eliminating prototype hardware and mounting prototype hardware and mounting structures which enabled testing with structures which enabled testing with the body off added about 2500 pounds the body off added about 2500 pounds of incremental vehicle weight (target of incremental vehicle weight (target weight increase is about 900weight increase is about 900--1200 1200 pounds)pounds)

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    Series Hydraulic Hybrid Yard Hostler Series Hydraulic Hybrid Yard Hostler

    5050--60% projected efficiency improvement in port 60% projected efficiency improvement in port operation (preliminary)operation (preliminary)Fuel savings $23,000 with $2.75/gal fuel costs Fuel savings $23,000 with $2.75/gal fuel costs (7 years for first owner)(7 years for first owner)Demonstration to accelerate technology transfer to Demonstration to accelerate technology transfer to industry & familiarity with technologyindustry & familiarity with technology

    PartnersPartnersEPA (Region 2, OIA, and OTAQEPA (Region 2, OIA, and OTAQ--NVFEL)NVFEL)Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Port Authority of New York and New Jersey APM Terminals North AmericaAPM Terminals North AmericaParkerParker--Hannifin Corporation and Kalmar IndustriesHannifin Corporation and Kalmar Industries

    Projected BenefitsProjected Benefits

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    Strategies Which Increase Average Strategies Which Increase Average Vehicle EfficiencyVehicle Efficiency

    1.1. Capture and reCapture and re--use energy normally use energy normally lost to friction brakinglost to friction braking

    Regenerative BrakingRegenerative Braking

    2.2. Improve average efficiency of Improve average efficiency of engine / drivetrainengine / drivetrain

    Operate engine at best efficiencyOperate engine at best efficiencyShutoff engine at idleShutoff engine at idleShutoff engine at all times when not Shutoff engine at all times when not neededneeded

    How It Works

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    Efficiencies While Braking/Accelerating

    Hydraulic Hybrids >70%

    Electric Hybrids

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    Power Map for a Typical Engine for Power Map for a Typical Engine for Series HybridsSeries Hybrids

    Areas of primary Areas of primary operationoperation

    How It Works

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    BentBent--Axis PumpAxis Pump--MotorsMotors

    110cc pump-motor assembly

    Yoke

    Barrel

    How It Works

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    Adjustable to Power Demands Using Adjustable to Power Demands Using Variable Position Yoke AssemblyVariable Position Yoke Assembly

    At 0 degAt 0 deg -- no power produced or absorbed no power produced or absorbed At 45 degAt 45 deg -- max power produced or absorbedmax power produced or absorbed

    0 deg0 deg 22 deg22 deg 45 deg45 deg

    How It Works

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    Power from the Pistons/BarrelPower from the Pistons/Barrel

    High power density capable of producing:High power density capable of producing:

    330 HP at 5000 psi at 45 deg.330 HP at 5000 psi at 45 deg.510 HP at 7000 psi at 45 deg.510 HP at 7000 psi at 45 deg.

    How It Works

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    Hydraulic Primary Drive Assembly Hydraulic Primary Drive Assembly Integrated into Rear DifferentialIntegrated into Rear Differential

    How It Works

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    Types of AccumulatorsTypes of Accumulators

    Bladder Style

    Piston-Shell Style

    Fluid pumped into the accumulator compresses the nitrogen contained

    in the bladder.

    Fluid pumped into the accumulator pushes the piston into the shell to

    compress the nitrogen.

    A high pressure accumulator is pre-charged with fluid and nitrogen to about 2000 psi.

    A low pressure accumulator is pre-charged with fluid and nitrogen to about 60 psi.

    How It Works

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    Additional InformationAdditional InformationHydraulic Powertrains Propel These Hybrid TrucksDesign News, June 2007http://designnews.com/article/CA6451735.html?nid=3077&rid=1294693122&

    Hydraulic Hybrid Promises Big Savings for UPSHydraulics and Pneumatics, October 2006http://www.hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/Issue/Article/False/38545/Issue

    EPA Delivers with Fully Hydraulic Hybrid TruckHydraulics and Pneumatics, October 2005 http://www.hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/Issue/Article/False/11985/

    Progress Report on Clean and Efficient Automotive Technologies Under Development at EPA - January 2004 http://www.epa.gov/otaq/reports/adv-tech/420r04002.pdf

    EPAEPAs Clean Automotive Technologys Clean Automotive TechnologyJohn Kargul 734John Kargul 734--214214--4386, 4386, http://www.epa.gov/otaq/technology/#hydraulic

    EPAEPAs National Clean Diesel Campaigns National Clean Diesel CampaignTrish Koman 734Trish Koman 734--214214--4955, 4955, http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/ports