Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2,...

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Jennifer Wei 1,2 , Antonia Gambacorta 1,2 , Eric Maddy 1,2 , Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2 , Fengyin Sun 1,2 , Xingpin Liu 1,2 , Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2 , Mitch Goldberg 2 START08/pre-HIPPO Workshop Jan. 09, 2008 AIRS/IASI Trace Gas Products (Level 2) erot Systems Government Services OAA/NESDIS/STAR MSG

Transcript of Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2,...

Page 1: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Jennifer Wei1,2, Antonia Gambacorta1,2,

Eric Maddy1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong1,2, Fengyin Sun1,2,

Xingpin Liu1,2, Murty Divakarla2,3…..

Chris Barnet2, Mitch Goldberg2

START08/pre-HIPPO Workshop

Jan. 09, 2008

AIRS/IASI Trace Gas Products (Level 2)

1Perot Systems Government Services2NOAA/NESDIS/STAR 3IMSG

Page 2: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Trace Gas Product Potential from Operational Thermal Sounders

Haskins, R.D. and L.D. Kaplan 1993

Gas Range (cm-1) Precision d.o.f. Interfering Gases AIRS IASI

H2O 1200-1600 15% 4-6 CH4, HNO3 NASA DAAC Apr 2008

O3 1025-1050 10% 1.25 H2O,emissivity NASA DAAC Apr 2008

CO 2080-2200 15% 1 H2O,N2O NASA DAAC Apr 2008

CH4 1250-1370 1.5% 1 H2O,HNO3,N2O NASA DAAC Apr 2008

CO2680-795

2375-23950.5% 1 H2O,O3

T(p)NOAA NESDIS Apr 2008

Volcanic SO2 1340-1380 50% ?? < 1 H2O,HNO3 TBD TBD

HNO3860-920

1320-133050% ?? < 1 emissivity

H2O,CH4,N2ONOAA NESDIS Apr 2008

N2O 1250-13152180-22502520-2600

5% ?? < 1 H2OH2O,CO

NOAA NESDIS Apr 2008

CFCl3 (F11) 830-860 20% - emissivity No plans No plans

CF2Cl (F12) 900-940 20% - emissivity No plans No plans

CCl4 790-805 50% - emissivity No plans No plans

Page 3: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Example of Ozone from AIRS

What has been learned so far…..•High degree of consistency with dynamical

variability of UTLS•Realistically map chemical transitions between

stratosphere and troposphere•Show reasonable agreement with aircraft data over a

large dynamical range of ozone•Comparisons with ozonesonde show good

agreement between 400-50 mb rangeBian J., A. Gettelman, H. Chen, L. L. Pan (2007), Validation of satellite ozone profile retrievals using Beijing ozonesonde data, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D06305, doi:10.1029/2006JD007502.

Monahan K. P., L. L. Pan, A. J. McDonald, G. E. Bodeker, J. Wei, S. E. George, C. D. Barnet, E. Maddy (2007), Validation of AIRS v4 ozone profiles in the UTLS using ozonesondes from Lauder, NZ and Boulder, USA, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D17304, doi:10.1029/2006JD008181.

Divakarla et al. (2008), JGR-A, submitted.

Page 4: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

X

Page 5: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Ozone A priori for Version 6 retrieval

Consideration of a tropopause referenced climatology

Altitude

Tropopause referencedRelative Alt.

Pan et al, 2004

Page 6: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Example of Carbon Monoxide from AIRS

What has been learned so far….•CO can be used to estimate horizontal and vertical transport during combustion events.

•CO can be used to help us distinguish combustion sources (fossil or biomass) from other sources/sinks in our methane and carbon dioxide products.

•CO and Ozone may help us improve atmospheric vertical transport models in the mid-troposphere.

Warner, J., M. M. Comer, C. D. Barnet, W. W. McMillan, W. Wolf, E. Maddy, and G. Sachse (2007), A comparison of satellite tropospheric carbon monoxide measurements from AIRS and MOPITT during INTEX-A, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12S17, doi:10.1029/2006JD007925.

Page 7: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

500 mb700 mb850 mb

UMBC Courtesy of W. McMillan ([email protected])

AIRS CO and Trajectories

CO from northern Alaskan fires was transported to the lower atmosphere in SE of US

CO from southern Alaska Fires was transported to Europe at high altitudes (5 km)

Page 8: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Example of Methane from AIRS([email protected])

What has been learned so far…•The accuracy is about 0.5-1.5% depending on different altitudes, and sensitive region is at 200-300mb in the tropics and 300-500 mb in the high northern hemisphere (HNH).

•Observed significant summer enhancement of CH4 in HNH (possibly due to wetland emissions/thawing permafrost, paper submitted to GRL by Xiong et al.)

•Observed significant plume of CH4 over the Tibetan Plateau (collaborate with S. Houweling, paper in preparation)

•Use AIRS CH4 in conjunction with model simulations to better quantify the source region

Page 9: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Comparison of CH4 product &

ESRL/GMD Continuous Ground Site

Barrow Alaska

3deg. x 3deg. gridded retrieval averaged over 60-70 lat, & -165 to -90 long.

Page 10: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

AIRS CH4 comparison to ESRL Aircraft

Xiong, X., C. Barnet, C. Sweeney, E. S. Maddy, X. Liu, L. Zhou, and M. D. Goldberg (2008), Characterization and Validation of Methane Products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2007JG000500, in press.

Page 11: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

CH4 plume over Tibetan Plateau

Paper is in preparation

Page 12: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

AIRS CH4 at 300 mb

Courtesy of L. Pan

Xiong et al., Satellite Observed Increase of Tropospheric Summer Methane Concentration: Is it due to Wetland Emission over the High Northern Hemisphere?, GRL, 2008 (submitted)

Page 13: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Example of Carbon Dioxide from AIRS([email protected])

What has been learned so far….•Maximum measurement sensitivity from AIRS in the middle to upper troposphere – broadly weighted column measurement. • Retrievals require significant spatial and temporal averaging (~5 day / 400 km) to improve S/N. •Total uncertainty in middle-to-upper troposphere:

• 1 ppmv in tropics vs. high altitude aircraft (JAL Matsueda) • 2 ppmv in middle/high latitudes vs. ESRL/GMD aircraft.

CO2 Retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder: Methodology and Validation, Maddy, E. S. and Barnet, C. D. and Goldberg, M. D. and Sweeney, C. and Liu, X., Accepted to JGR-A

Page 14: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Validation: AIRS CO2 (6km – 8km) vs ESRL/GMD Aircraft (2.5km – 8km)

• Right: Taylor diagram [Taylor, JGR, 2001] for 2005 aircraft matchups illustrates retrieval skill (end of arrow) relative to a priori (beginning of arrow).

• Left: AIRS retrieval and ESRL aircraft timeseries at Poker Flat, Alaska shows good agreement in placement of seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability.

Page 15: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

ESRL/GMD Aircraft vs. AIRS Retrieval CO2

Page 16: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

NOAA AIRS CO2 Product is Still in Development

• Product is CO2(p) profile with associated averaging kernels.• Measuring a product to 0.5% is inherently difficult

– Cloud clearing error (also error estimates) strongly impacts the CO2 product.– Errors in moisture of ±10% is equivalent to ±0.7 ppmv errors in CO2.– Errors in surface pressure of ±5 mb induce ±1.8 ppmv errors in CO2.– AMSU side-lobe errors corrupt the ability to use the 57 GHZ O2 band as a

T(p) reference point.

Reduction of Core product retrieval errors is critical for CO2.• Currently, we can characterize seasonal and latitudinal mid-

tropospheric variability to test product reasonableness.• The real questions is whether thermal sounders can contribute to the

source/sink questions.– Requires accurate vertical & horizontal transport models – Having simultaneous O3, CO, CH4, and CO2 products is a unique contribution

that thermal sounders can make to improve the understanding of transport.

Page 17: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

IASI & AIRS Global Measurements 4 Times/Day

AQUAMETOP

• Initial Joint Polar System: an agreement between NOAA & EUMETSAT to exchange data and products.– NASA/Aqua in 1:30 pm orbit (May 2002)– EUMETSAT/IASI in 9:30 am orbit (October 2006)

Page 18: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

The NOAA Unique Level 2 Processing System

• The NOAA level 2 processing is a unique system to compute atmospheric core and trace gas products.

• The whole architecture is a file-driven system compatible with multiple instruments.

• This system has been developed during the Aqua mission, using AIRS/AMSU/MODIS Instruments.

• Although the system was built for AIRS, it was designed to be expandable for both IASI and CrIS.

• This system has been thoroughly validated using several in-situ measurement campaigns (e.g., ESRL/GMD Aircraft, JAL, INTEX, etc.)

• This system is a reliable, well tested and fast package that we are migrating into operations for IASI.

Page 19: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

IASI & AIRS Carbon Monoxide ( October 22nd 2007)

1 2

3 4

Page 20: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Spectral Coverage Comparison: AIRS, IASI, & CrIS

CO2 CO2O3 COCH4

AIRS, 2378 chs

CrIS, 1305 chs

IASI, 8461 chs

2400/

Page 21: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Preliminary selection of IASI channels for physical retrieval.

(NOTE: All channels except non-LTE are used in regression)

Ignored – non- LTE

CC 69

T 152

Q 87

O3 53

CO 33

CH4 59

CO2 79

HNO314

N2O 58

Page 22: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Instrument Noise, NEΔT at 250 K

CO2CO2CH4 CO

Page 23: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

RMS Simulation Inter-Comparison

Page 24: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Preliminary validation results:Temperature, water vapor, ozone

(focus day October 19th, 2007)

Page 25: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Selected IASI Nighttime Ascending Granules

Page 26: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Near AIRS Nighttime Descending Granules (~4 hour difference)

Page 27: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Standard deviation of retrievals-ECMWF

IASI (blue), IASI CLEAR (red) AIRS (cyan), AIRS CLEAR (green)

Standard Deviation

w.r.t. ECMWF

Dashed lines are NOAA

Cloudy Regression and Solid lines are Physical Retrieval

Using Physical QA

Temperature, T(p) Water, q(p) Ozone, O3(p)

Page 28: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Bias of retrievals – ECMWFIASI (blue), IASI CLEAR (red) AIRS (cyan), AIRS CLEAR

(green)

BIAS w.r.t.

ECMWF

Dashed lines are NOAA Cloudy Regression and Solid lines are Physical Retrieval

Using Physical QA

Page 29: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Towards Operational Status (April 08)

• Have not installed the regression derived from cloud cleared radiances. Will be installed in Jan. 2008.

• Have not computed tuning for AMSU & MHS (used Aqua AMSU tuning). Will be installed in Jan. 2008.

• Have not installed the local angle correction (needed for cloud clearing). Will be installed Jan. 2008.

• No attempt has been made to perform sub-pixel ILS correction.– There is an advantage to cloud clearing in that FOV’s are averaged with

clearest having highest weight.– This will be studied and installed in version 2.

• Only quick optimization has been done.– Need to derive optimal functions & regularization parameters, Jan/Feb. 2008.– Preliminary list of channels looks good, minor changes to channel list.

• Pre-launch Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA). Post-launch RTA from UMBC, expected any time soon

• Empirical bias corrections, empirical noise term (to compensate for sub-pixel ILS), etc. are still very crude.

Page 30: Jennifer Wei 1,2, Antonia Gambacorta 1,2, Eric Maddy 1,2, Xiaozhen Xiong 1,2, Fengyin Sun 1,2, Xingpin Liu 1,2, Murty Divakarla 2,3 ….. Chris Barnet 2,

Our interest in participating to the START 08/pre-HIPPO

campaign:

• Compare with in situ co-located trace gas measurements to validate and assess the performance of IASI L2 products

• Exchange data and products

[email protected]

[email protected]