Israelites & Assyrians At Dor
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Israelites & Assyrians At DorTreaty of Esarhaddon King of Assryia with Baal King of Tyre, 676 BCE
Phoenician Dorearly Iron age 11th-9th c.Phoenician made vessels traded to Dor but also made at dor(Iron Ia early Iron IIa)Cyprus made & TRADED VESSELSDor made & TRADED VESSELS BACK TO CYPRUSCanaanite kings ruled at dor-JUDGES 1:27 JOSH 12:1 CLAIMS IT BECAME ISRAELITE
IRON IIA - IIB - 980-720(MIDDLE IRON AGE, 10TH - 8TH C.) Period of the Israelite monarchy
Mazar, A. 2005. The Debate over the Chronology of the Iron Age in the Southern Levant
IRON IIA - IIB - 980-720(MIDDLE IRON AGE, 10TH - 8TH C.) Period of the Israelite monarchy- RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY -IRON IIC - 720-630(LATE IRON AGE, LATE 8TH - 7TH C) Period of the Assyrian occupation LATE IRON IIC - 630-586 (late 7th - 6th)Period of the Babylonians
@DorSolomons 4th district ? Period of the Israelite monarchy (LATE 9TH - 8TH C.)
Area D2, later Iron 2a Taphats building in new orientation
..Solomon had twelve deputies over all Israel, who provided for the king and his household; each man had to provide for a month in the year..........Ben-abinadab, in all the height of Dor Taphath the daughter of Solomon was his wife1 Kings 4:7-11 8TH C. POTTERY
D5 Boulder Building
D5 Boulder Building / Fort Tower
View looking north
Period of the Israelite monarchy (LATE 9TH - 8TH C.)
Later IRON IIA OR IIB4-CHAMBERED GATE AND OFFSET-INSET CITY WALL ON THE EAST Period of the Israelite monarchy (LATE 9TH - 8TH C.)
Mesopotamia (Iraq) is where civilization as we know it today first began with all its historicfirsts -- the rise of cities, urban living, city planning, royal palaces, temples (and ziggurats like the Tower of Babylon), writing, arithmetic, astronomy (and astrology) accounting, law, irrigation,politics, leadership, city states, kingdoms, and conquering empireseach with its own pantheon of polytheistic gods and attendant spirits.
Assur, Assur & AssurCountry -> City -> God all have the same name! THE HOLY TRINITY...
Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727) the Father of the Neo-Assyrian Empire & his successors -Shalmaneser V (726-722) Sargon II (722-705) & Sennacherib (705-681)....the Golan and the Kingdom of Damascus 732Gilead in the northern part of TransjordanIsraelite Kingdom (Samaria destroyed 722, Israel 720) the coastal regions of Southern Phoenicia (Sidon, Tyre, Dor) & Philistia (Gezer, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gaza, Raphia) 734, 732,DESTRUCTION & DEPORTATION IN...
DestructionTAX / TRIBUTE / GIFTSCONSCRIPTIONPOPULATION TRANSFERSUNSTABLE ECONOMYREORGANISED ADMINISTRATIONHOSTAGESDESTRUCTION OF ALL SOCIAL, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL ORDERDETHRONING MONARCHY
Establish Assyrian ProvincesDESIGNED BY KAREN RADNER, DRAWN BY CORNELIE WOLFFGILEADMEGIDDODOR(?)SAMARIA ASHDOD its varied approaches to the annexation of the Levant and its choices in developing certain areas such as the cities of Megiddo, Samaria, and Ashdod while others appear to decline, such as Hazor and Shechem (Gitin 1997, 82; Gal 1998, Finkelstein 2009, 122).Was there a period under Assyrian occupation where people flourished- or is this a myth? (cf Bunimovitz & Lederman 2003; Fantalikin 2004).
Assyrians at Dor - A look at 4 topicsSEALSARCHITECTURECERAMICSTEXTS
K 4384 II 16 and ADD 919+ II 3 mentions the city of Duru (DOR)-is this a List of Assyrian provinces? or a list of Assyrian Trading Centers (karum)?TEXTUAL EVIDENCE: NINEVEH DOCUMENTSFORRER 1920: 60-61; NAAMAN 2009: 97-98ISAIAH 8:23THe Prophet ISAIAH refers to 3 Assyrian provinces? is one of them Dor?
TEXTUAL EVIDENCE: Treaty of Esarhaddon with Baal of Tyre 676 BCE IF A SHIP OF BAAL OR OF THE PEOPLE OF TYRE IS SHIPWRECKED OFF THE LAND OF THE PHILISTINES OR WITHIN ASSYRIAN TERRITORY, EVERYTHING THAT IS ON THE SHIP BELONGS TO ESARHADDON, KING OF ASSYRIA; HOWEVER, NO HARM MAY BE DONE TO PERSONS ON BOARD THE SHIP, BUT THEY MUST ALL BE RETURNED TO THEIR COUNTRY.THESE ARE THE PORTS OF TRADE AND THE TRADE ROUTES OF ESARHADDON, KING OF ASSYRIA, EN[TRUSTED] TO HIS SERVANT BAAL: TOWARD Acco, Dor, IN THE ENTIRE DISTRICT OF THE Philistines, AND IN ALL THE CITIES WITHIN ASSYRIAN TERRITORY ON THE SEA COAST, AND IN GUBLA, THE LEBANON, ALL THE CITIES IN THE MOUNTAINS.-Philistia WAS A VERY IMPORTANT TRADE CENTER FOR ASSYRIA, OUTSIDE OF ITS EMPIRE-Assyrian Acco FUNCTIONED AS A CENTER FOR ASSYRIAN-RULE IN THE REGION-Dor, THE ONLY CITY LISTED THAT LIES BETWEEN PHILISTIA & ACCO, WAS ALSO AN IMPORTANT TRADE STATION FOR THE ASSYRIANS
ASSYRIAN-STYLE DOOR-SOCKETIRON IIC - 7TH CENTURY2-CHAMBER GATEB1/Phase 6
CYPRIOT & PHOENICIAN IMPORTS Large Scale Industry
VASSAL 738SIDONVASSAL 738TYRETEL EN-NASBEHCERAMICS: ASSYRIAN- STYLE- Palace ware IS FINE WARE MADE IN ASSYRIA FOR ELITES
-bowls, bottles & goblets ARE FAVOURED ITEMS TO COPY
-RARE Black ware ITEMS MAY COPY ASSYRIADORSHIKMONA
TEL JEMMEHTEL DORCARINATED BOWL
CARMEL COASTLEBANESE COAST
Mazar,A & Ahituv,S_2011 Tel Rehov in the Assyrian Period Squatters, Burials, and a Hebrew Seal Tel DorMesopotamia??BOTTLES
TEL SERAISRAEL HILL COUNTRYGOBLETS
Jordan valley,Southern shephelah, northern negevBLACK WARE
israel hill countryBLACK WARE
Barrel-shaped, late 8th-7th c. Assyrian-styled cultic scene; locally made Istar with a female worshipper(?) holding a bowl (?)SEALS: DEPICTING CULTIC SCENES(ORNAN 2001:244)
The Title Queen of Heaven The Babylonian-Assyrian -> IstarThe West Semitic goddesses -> Anat & AstarteJeremiah mentions the people made and offered up cakes / kawwnm to this goddess...IT IS ARGUED THAT THE QUEEN OF HEAVEN IS A HYBRID-CULT FUSING ASSYRIAN AND LOCAL ELEMENTS TOGETHERISTAR-OF-THE-STARSNEO-ASSYRIAN SEAL
Istar from IsraelIstar is standing on a lion, with hand raised in blessing towards a petitioner, a cultic stand lies between themAbove are the Pleiades (7 stars), winged disc and crescentISTAR ON SILVER PENDANT,TEL MIQNEITS ROUGH CRAFTMANSHIP SHOWS IT IS LOCALLY MADE, DEPICTS AN ASSYRIAN SCENE, BUT SHOWS PHOENICIAN INFLUENCES (Ornan 2001:238)
IN 1954- POPE PIUS XII OFFICIALLY DECLARED MARY THE QUEEN OF HEAVENAND IT CONTINUES...
Those in Power, Influence...HEZEKIAHS EGYPTIAN-STYLED LMLK SEALS LATE 8TH CENTURYROSETTE SEAL7TH-6TH CENTURY
PERSONAL HEBREW SEAL7TH CENTURY4TH CENTURY COINOF SUN DEITY YWHEzekiel 1:26)
Other Gods...Tammuz the husband of Istar is also mentioned in the Bible (Ezekiel 8:14-15)women weeping for Tammuz refers to the annual mourning of the death of Tammuz - he was the life-death-rebirth godDUMUZI / TAMMUZ 3200 BCE
this is a classic shape seen at Dor.
the vessel is thinly slipped with some partial burnishing on the outside
Another example from Dor of this type- type 35a, was found by this study to have come from the Lebanese coast.
*this is an exciting discovery for usWe have a second similar type, that also originates from the Hill Country.
This one is decorated with thin black bands and though the literature varies in terminology on how to call it- a Goblet/Beaker/Bottle.. it is agreed that it is a favoured form for the Prestigious Palace Ware.
It is interesting that both forms originate from inland, in the area of Samaria: they both can arguably be said to be luxury items, especially if this vessel does replicate the type typically associated with the ultra-fine Palace ware- and that they are being exported to Dor.This nice black slipped, ring burnished bowl, may come from one of two regions- the Jordan valley or the area of the southern shephelah. Fabric: grey foraminiferous chalky marl -Ghareb formation
-It looks very similar in shape to the Judean-folded-rim bowls that come from the Shephelah & the question is- is this in fact a JFR or an Assyrianized shape that is very similar? Its possible that it is an Assyrianizing type that was favoured in this area due to its similarity to the local shape already common there. Dr. Gilboa argues that this type of higher quality burnish and slip are indicatives mainly in the 7th c. and that this vessel is comparable to some other similar vessels that show an Assyrian profile.-Tell en-Nasbeh Stratum I
BL 25a [Ayelet Gilboa, Area A & C Report]
This black slipped & burnished bowl displays a wedge decoration along the rim- and has parallels in Samaria.
-However the majority of this type are found in the south= Tel en-Nasbeh & Jerusalem being two sites...
-6 fragments of this type were uncovered at Ramat Rahel (outside Jerusalem) and were dated to the late 7th/ early 6th c. [str. VA citadel].
-Is it coincidental that this shape is associated with centers important in the Assyrian, and then later Babylonian period?
-A few shallow bowls of this type were found at Nimrud/ the context is unclear and could be Babylonian/Persian