Ionic bond,covalent bond and hydrogen bond

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Transcript of Ionic bond,covalent bond and hydrogen bond

Course Title:CHE-111

Welcome to our presentation:Presentation Topic: Ionic BondCovalent BondHydrogen Bond

IONIC BONDING:Ionic bonds are a type of chemical bond based on electrostatic forces between two oppositely-charged ions. It is basically the transfer of one electron from one atom to another

Characteristics of Ionic bonding: It is formed by transfer of electronIt is formed between a metal and a nonmetal atomConsists of electrostic force between (+) and (-) ionsMechanism of Ionic bond: According to the octet theory when an atom takes part in a chemical bonding it tends to be more stable like the Nobel gas . For that they need to fill with 8 electrons at its valance shell. As Ionic bond made by the transfer of electrons ,the atoms which took part in the bonding neither it will lose electron or gain electron. Metals have 2-3 electrons at valance shell it is easy for them lose electron & non metal are very suitable at electron gaining. After losing electron the metal turns into (+) ion and after gaining electron non metal become (-) ion. The electrostic force between (+) and (-) ions create the Ionic bonding.

Bonding of NaF:

In real life we can see this example:

Covalent bond:This type of chemical bonding is made of Sharing of electrons among the atoms.

The Sharing of electrons equal among the atoms.Characteristics of Covalent bonding: It is made by sharing of electronIt is formed between non-metal atomsIt is consists of a shared pair of electrons between atoms

Mechanism of covalent bonding: In covalent bonding atoms still want to achieve a noble gas configuration. But rather than losing or gaining electrons atoms now share an electron pair. The shared electron pair is called a bonding pair electrons.

Chlorine molecule Cl2Molecules have no overall electric chargeMolecular or covalent compounds are usually gases or liquids they have low melting points and low boiling pointsForces between molecules very weakForces (bonds) between atoms in the molecule very strongEach outer shell has 8 electronsElectrons sharedIt can be shown as:

Hydrogen bondsA hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom N, O or F..A lone pair of electrons on the electronegative atom takes part in bonding with Hydrogen10Types of Hydrogen bond:

Intramolecular Hydrogen bond: It occurs with in one single molecule.Example: C2H4(OH)2Intermolecular Hydrogen bond: It occurs Between separate molecules.Example:NH3,H2OFactors preventing Hydrogen bondingElectronegativity

Atom Size

Hydrogen bonds In Water: THANK YOU