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  • EPA 430-R-15-004

    Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks:

    1990 – 2013

    APRIL 15, 2015

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    1200 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.

    Washington, DC 20460

    U.S.A.

  • HOW TO OBTAIN COPIES

    You can electronically download this document on the U.S. EPA's homepage at

    . To request free copies of this report, call

    the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP) at (800) 490-9198, or visit the web site above

    and click on “order online” after selecting an edition.

    All data tables of this document are available for the full time series 1990 through 2013, inclusive, at the internet site

    mentioned above.

    FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

    Contact Mr. Leif Hockstad, Environmental Protection Agency, (202) 343–9432, [email protected]

    Or Ms. Melissa Weitz, Environmental Protection Agency, (202) 343–9897, [email protected]

    For more information regarding climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, see the EPA web site at

    .

    Released for printing: April 15, 2015

  • Acknowledgments The Environmental Protection Agency would like to acknowledge the many individual and organizational

    contributors to this document, without whose efforts this report would not be complete. Although the complete list

    of researchers, government employees, and consultants who have provided technical and editorial support is too

    long to list here, EPA’s Office of Atmospheric Programs would like to thank some key contributors and reviewers

    whose work has significantly improved this year’s report.

    Work on emissions from fuel combustion was led by Leif Hockstad. Sarah Froman, Susan Burke and Amy Bunker

    directed the work on mobile combustion and transportation. Work on industrial processes and product use emissions

    was led by Mausami Desai. Work on fugitive methane emissions from the energy sector was directed by Melissa

    Weitz and Cate Hight. Calculations for the waste sector were led by Rachel Schmeltz. Tom Wirth directed work on

    the Agriculture and the Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry chapters. Work on emissions of HFCs, PFCs,

    SF6, and NF3 was directed by Deborah Ottinger and Dave Godwin.

    Within the EPA, other Offices also contributed data, analysis, and technical review for this report. The Office of

    Transportation and Air Quality and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards provided analysis and review

    for several of the source categories addressed in this report. The Office of Solid Waste and the Office of Research

    and Development also contributed analysis and research.

    The Energy Information Administration and the Department of Energy contributed invaluable data and analysis on

    numerous energy-related topics. The U.S. Forest Service prepared the forest carbon inventory, and the Department

    of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State

    University contributed leading research on nitrous oxide and carbon fluxes from soils.

    Other government agencies have contributed data as well, including the U.S. Geological Survey, the Federal

    Highway Administration, the Department of Transportation, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, the Department

    of Commerce, the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the Department

    of Defense.

    We would also like to thank Marian Martin Van Pelt and the full Inventory team at ICF International including

    Randy Freed, Diana Pape, Robert Lanza, Toby Hedger, Lauren Pederson, Mollie Averyt, Mark Flugge, Larry

    O’Rourke, Deborah Harris, Leslie Chinery, Dean Gouveia, Jonathan Cohen, Alexander Lataille, Andrew Pettit,

    Sabrina Andrews, Marybeth Riley-Gilbert, Sarah Kolansky, Greg Carlock, Ben Eskin, Jessica Kuna, David Towle,

    Bikash Acharya, Bobby Renz, Rebecca Ferenchiak, Nikita Pavlenko, Jay Creech, Kirsten Jaglo, Kasey Knoell, Cory

    Jemison, Kevin Kurkul, and Matt Lichtash for synthesizing this report and preparing many of the individual

    analyses. Eastern Research Group, RTI International, Raven Ridge Resources, and Ruby Canyon Engineering Inc.

    also provided significant analytical support.

  • iii

    Preface The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prepares the official U.S. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas

    Emissions and Sinks to comply with existing commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on

    Climate Change (UNFCCC). Under decision 3/CP.5 of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, national

    inventories for UNFCCC Annex I parties should be provided to the UNFCCC Secretariat each year by April 15.

    In an effort to engage the public and researchers across the country, the EPA has instituted an annual public review

    and comment process for this document. The availability of the draft document is announced via Federal Register

    Notice and is posted on the EPA web site. Copies are also mailed upon request. The public comment period is

    generally limited to 30 days; however, comments received after the closure of the public comment period are

    accepted and considered for the next edition of this annual report.

  • v

    Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................................................ I

    PREFACE .................................................................................................................................................... III

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................... V

    LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND BOXES ............................................................................................ VIII

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ ES-1

    ES.1. Background Information ................................................................................................................................ ES-2

    ES.2. Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks ....................................................................... ES-4

    ES.3. Overview of Sector Emissions and Trends .................................................................................................. ES-17

    ES.4. Other Information ........................................................................................................................................ ES-22

    1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1-1

    1.1 Background Information ............................................................................................................................. 1-2

    1.2 National Inventory Arrangements ............................................................................................................. 1-10

    1.3 Inventory Process ...................................................................................................................................... 1-13

    1.4 Methodology and Data Sources................................................................................................................. 1-14

    1.5 Key Categories .......................................................................................................................................... 1-15

    1.6 Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC)..................................................................................... 1-19

    1.7 Uncertainty Analysis of Emission Estimates ............................................................................................. 1-21

    1.8 Completeness ............................................................................................................................................ 1-22

    1.9 Organization of Report .............................................................................................................................. 1-22

    2. TRENDS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ............................................................................. 2-1

    2.1 Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks ..................................................................... 2-1

    2.1 Emissions by Economic Sector ................................................................................................................. 2-22

    2.2 Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO, NOx, NMVOCs, and SO2) ...................................................... 2-33

    3. ENERGY .......................................................................................................................................... 3-1

    3.1 Fossil Fuel Combustion (IPCC Source Category 1A) ................................................................................. 3-4

    3.2 Carbon Emitted from Non-Energy Uses of Fossil Fuels (IPCC Source Category 1A) ............................. 3-38

    3.3 Incineration of Waste (IPCC Source Category 1A1a) ............................................................................... 3-45

    3.4 Coal Mining (IPCC Source Category 1B1a) ............................................................................................. 3-49

  • vi Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    3.5 Abandoned Underground Coal Mines (IPCC Source Category 1B1a) ..................................................... 3-53

    3.6 Petroleum Systems (IPCC Source Category 1B2a) ................................................................................... 3-57

    3.7 Natural Gas Systems (IPCC Source Category 1B2b) ................................................................................ 3-68

    3.8 Energy Sources of Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions ............................................................................ 3-80

    3.9 International Bunker Fuels (IPCC Source Category 1: Memo Items) ....................................................... 3-81

    3.10 Wood Biomass and Ethanol Consumption (IPCC Source Category 1A) .................................................. 3-86

    4. INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE ........................................................................ 4-1

    4.1 Cement Production (IPCC Source Category 2A1) ...................................................................................... 4-6

    4.2 Lime Production (IPCC Source Category 2A2) .......................................................................................... 4-9

    4.3 Glass Production (IPCC Source Category 2A3) ........................................................................................ 4-14

    4.4 Other Process Uses of Carbonates (IPCC Source Category 2A4) ............................................................. 4-17

    4.5 Ammonia Production (IPCC Source Category 2B1) ................................................................................. 4-20

    4.6 Urea Consumption for Non-Agricultural Purposes ................................................................................... 4-24

    4.7 Nitric Acid Production (IPCC Source Category 2B2) ............................................................................... 4-27

    4.8 Adipic Acid Production (IPCC Source Category 2B3) ............................................................................. 4-30

    4.9 Silicon Carbide Production and Consumption (IPCC Source Category 2B5) ........................................... 4-34

    4.10 Titanium Dioxide Production (IPCC Source Category 2B6) .................................................................... 4-37

    4.11 Soda Ash Production and Consumption (IPCC Source Category 2B7) .................................................... 4-40

    4.12 Petrochemical Production (IPCC Source Category 2B8) .......................................................................... 4-43

    4.13 HCFC-22 Production (IPCC Source Category 2B9a) ............................................................................... 4-49

    4.14 Carbon Dioxide Consumption (IPCC Source Category 2B10) ................................................................. 4-52

    4.15 Phosphoric Acid Production (IPCC Source Category 2B10) .................................................................... 4-55

    4.16 Iron and Steel Production (IPCC Source Category 2C1) and Metallurgical Coke Production.................. 4-59

    4.17 Ferroalloy Production (IPCC Source Category 2C2) ................................................................................ 4-67

    4.18 Aluminum Production (IPCC Source Category 2C3) ............................................................................... 4-71

    4.19 Magnesium Production and Processing (IPCC Source Category 2C4) ..................................................... 4-76

    4.20 Lead Production (IPCC Source Category 2C5) ......................................................................................... 4-81

    4.21 Zinc Production (IPCC Source Category 2C6) ......................................................................................... 4-84

    4.22 Semiconductor Manufacture (IPCC Source Category 2E1) ...................................................................... 4-87

    4.23 Substitution of Ozone Depleting Substances (IPCC Source Category 2F) ............................................... 4-97

    4.24 Electrical Transmission and Distribution (IPCC Source Category 2G1) ................................................ 4-102

    4.25 Nitrous Oxide from Product Uses (IPCC Source Category 2G3) ........................................................... 4-110

    4.26 Industrial Processes and Product Use Sources of Indirect Greenhouse Gases ........................................ 4-113

    5. AGRICULTURE ............................................................................................................................... 5-1

    5.1 Enteric Fermentation (IPCC Source Category 3A) ..................................................................................... 5-2

    5.2 Manure Management (IPCC Source Category 3B) ..................................................................................... 5-8

    5.3 Rice Cultivation (IPCC Source Category 3C) ........................................................................................... 5-15

  • vii

    5.4 Agricultural Soil Management (IPCC Source Category 3D) .................................................................... 5-22

    5.5 Field Burning of Agricultural Residues (IPCC Source Category 3F) ....................................................... 5-38

    6. LAND USE, LAND-USE CHANGE, AND FORESTRY ................................................................... 6-1

    6.1 Representation of the U.S. Land Base ......................................................................................................... 6-5

    6.2 Forest Land Remaining Forest Land ......................................................................................................... 6-18

    6.3 Land Converted to Forest Land (IPCC Source Category 4A2) ................................................................. 6-39

    6.4 Cropland Remaining Cropland (IPCC Source Category 4B1) .................................................................. 6-40

    6.5 Land Converted to Cropland (IPCC Source Category 4B2) ...................................................................... 6-54

    6.6 Grassland Remaining Grassland (IPCC Source Category 4C1) ................................................................ 6-60

    6.7 Land Converted to Grassland (IPCC Source Category 4C2) .................................................................... 6-66

    6.8 Wetlands Remaining Wetlands (IPCC Source Category 4D1) ................................................................. 6-73

    6.9 Settlements Remaining Settlements .......................................................................................................... 6-79

    6.10 Land Converted to Settlements (IPCC Source Category 4E2) .................................................................. 6-86

    6.11 Other (IPCC Source Category 4H) ............................................................................................................ 6-86

    7. WASTE ............................................................................................................................................. 7-1

    7.1 Landfills (IPCC Source Category 5A1)....................................................................................................... 7-3

    7.2 Wastewater Treatment (IPCC Source Category 5D) ................................................................................. 7-16

    7.3 Composting (IPCC Source Category 5B1) ................................................................................................ 7-30

    7.4 Waste Incineration (IPCC Source Category 5C1) ..................................................................................... 7-33

    7.5 Waste Sources of Indirect Greenhouse Gases ........................................................................................... 7-33

    8. OTHER ............................................................................................................................................. 8-1

    9. RECALCULATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS ................................................................................. 9-1

    10. REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 10-1

  • viii Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    List of Tables, Figures, and Boxes Tables Table ES-1: Global Warming Potentials (100-Year Time Horizon) Used in this Report ....................................... ES-3

    Table ES-2: Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................ ES-5

    Table ES-3: CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Fuel Consuming End-Use Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) . ES-

    11

    Table ES-4: Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks by Chapter/IPCC Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.)

    ............................................................................................................................................................................... ES-17

    Table ES-5: Emissions and Removals (Flux) from Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (MMT CO2 Eq.) .. ES-

    20

    Table ES-6: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allocated to Economic Sectors (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......................... ES-22

    Table ES-7: U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector with Electricity-Related Emissions Distributed

    (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..................................................................................................................................................... ES-23

    Table ES-8: Recent Trends in Various U.S. Data (Index 1990 = 100) ................................................................. ES-24

    Table 1-1: Global Atmospheric Concentration, Rate of Concentration Change, and Atmospheric Lifetime (Years) of

    Selected Greenhouse Gases ....................................................................................................................................... 1-4

    Table 1-2: Global Warming Potentials and Atmospheric Lifetimes (Years) Used in this Report ............................ 1-8

    Table 1-3: Comparison of 100-Year GWP values .................................................................................................... 1-9

    Table 1-4: Key Categories for the United States (1990-2013) ............................................................................... 1-16

    Table 1-5: Estimated Overall Inventory Quantitative Uncertainty (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) .......................... 1-21

    Table 1-6: IPCC Sector Descriptions...................................................................................................................... 1-22

    Table 1-7: List of Annexes ..................................................................................................................................... 1-24

    Table 2-1: Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..................................... 2-4

    Table 2-2: Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (kt) .......................................................... 2-7

    Table 2-3: Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks by Chapter/IPCC Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) 2-

    9

    Table 2-4: Emissions from Energy (MMT CO2 Eq.) .............................................................................................. 2-12

    Table 2-5: CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by End-Use Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................. 2-13

    Table 2-6: Emissions from Industrial Processes and Product Use (MMT CO2 Eq.) .............................................. 2-16

    Table 2-7: Emissions from Agriculture (MMT CO2 Eq.) ....................................................................................... 2-18

    Table 2-8: Emissions and Removals (Flux) from Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (MMT CO2 Eq.) ... 2-20

    Table 2-9: Emissions from Waste (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................................................... 2-22

    Table 2-10: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allocated to Economic Sectors (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent of Total in

    2013) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2-23

    Table 2-11: Electricity Generation-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................... 2-25

    Table 2-12: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector and Gas with Electricity-Related Emissions

    Distributed (MMT CO2 Eq.) and Percent of Total in 2013...................................................................................... 2-27

    Table 2-13: Transportation-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................ 2-29

  • ix

    Table 2-14: Recent Trends in Various U.S. Data (Index 1990 = 100) .................................................................... 2-32

    Table 2-15: Emissions of NOx, CO, NMVOCs, and SO2 (kt) ................................................................................ 2-34

    Table 3-1: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Energy (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................... 3-2

    Table 3-2: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Energy (kt) .................................................................................... 3-3

    Table 3-3: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..................................... 3-5

    Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion (kt) .......................................................... 3-5

    Table 3-5: CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Fuel Type and Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..................... 3-5

    Table 3-6: Annual Change in CO2 Emissions and Total 2013 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion for Selected

    Fuels and Sectors (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ........................................................................................................ 3-6

    Table 3-7: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................... 3-10

    Table 3-8: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by End-Use Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) .... 3-11

    Table 3-9: CO2 Emissions from Stationary Fossil Fuel Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.) .......................................... 3-12

    Table 3-10: CH4 Emissions from Stationary Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.) ........................................................... 3-13

    Table 3-11: N2O Emissions from Stationary Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.)........................................................... 3-13

    Table 3-12: CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) ... 3-19

    Table 3-13: CH4 Emissions from Mobile Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................ 3-22

    Table 3-14: N2O Emissions from Mobile Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................... 3-22

    Table 3-15: Carbon Intensity from Direct Fossil Fuel Combustion by Sector (MMT CO2 Eq./QBtu) .................. 3-28

    Table 3-16: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Energy-related Fossil Fuel

    Combustion by Fuel Type and Sector (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................... 3-30

    Table 3-17: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 and N2O Emissions from Energy-Related

    Stationary Combustion, Including Biomass (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................. 3-34

    Table 3-18: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 and N2O Emissions from Mobile Sources

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 3-37

    Table 3-19: CO2 Emissions from Non-Energy Use Fossil Fuel Consumption (MMT CO2 Eq. and percent) ........ 3-39

    Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption of Fossil Fuels for Non-Energy Uses (TBtu) ................................................. 3-40

    Table 3-21: 2013 Adjusted Non-Energy Use Fossil Fuel Consumption, Storage, and Emissions.......................... 3-40

    Table 3-22: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Non-Energy Uses of Fossil

    Fuels (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ......................................................................................................................... 3-42

    Table 3-23: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Storage Factors of Non-Energy Uses of Fossil Fuels

    (Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................. 3-42

    Table 3-24: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from the Incineration of Waste (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................... 3-46

    Table 3-25: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from the Incineration of Waste (kt) ................................................... 3-46

    Table 3-26: Municipal Solid Waste Generation (Metric Tons) and Percent Combusted ........................................ 3-47

    Table 3-27: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 and N2O from the Incineration of Waste (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 3-48

    Table 3-28: CH4 Emissions from Coal Mining (MMT CO2 Eq.) ........................................................................... 3-50

    Table 3-29: CH4 Emissions from Coal Mining (kt) ................................................................................................ 3-50

    Table 3-30: Coal Production (kt) ............................................................................................................................ 3-52

  • x Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    Table 3-31: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Coal Mining (MMT CO2 Eq.

    and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................................. 3-52

    Table 3-32: CH4 Emissions from Abandoned Coal Mines (MMT CO2 Eq.) .......................................................... 3-54

    Table 3-33: CH4 Emissions from Abandoned Coal Mines (kt) .............................................................................. 3-54

    Table 3-34: Number of Gassy Abandoned Mines Present in U.S. Basins, grouped by Class according to Post-

    Abandonment State.................................................................................................................................................. 3-56

    Table 3-35: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Abandoned Underground Coal

    Mines (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ........................................................................................................................ 3-57

    Table 3-36: CH4 Emissions from Petroleum Systems (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................. 3-58

    Table 3-37: CH4 Emissions from Petroleum Systems (kt) ..................................................................................... 3-59

    Table 3-38: CO2 Emissions from Petroleum Systems (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................. 3-59

    Table 3-39: CO2 Emissions from Petroleum Systems (kt) ..................................................................................... 3-60

    Table 3-40: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Petroleum Systems (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 3-62

    Table 3-41: Pneumatic Controllers Activity Data and Emissions .......................................................................... 3-64

    Table 3-42: Potential Emissions from CO2 Capture and Transport (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................. 3-68

    Table 3-43: Potential Emissions from CO2 Capture and Transport (kt) ................................................................. 3-68

    Table 3-44: CH4 Emissions from Natural Gas Systems (MMT CO2 Eq.)a ............................................................. 3-70

    Table 3-45: CH4 Emissions from Natural Gas Systems (kt)a .................................................................................. 3-70

    Table 3-46: Calculated Potential CH4 and Captured/Combusted CH4 from Natural Gas Systems (MMT CO2 Eq.) . 3-

    70

    Table 3-47: Non-combustion CO2 Emissions from Natural Gas Systems (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................. 3-70

    Table 3-48: Non-combustion CO2 Emissions from Natural Gas Systems (kt) ....................................................... 3-71

    Table 3-49: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 and Non-energy CO2 Emissions from Natural

    Gas Systems (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) .............................................................................................................. 3-74

    Table 3-50: Pneumatic Controllers Activity Data and Emissions .......................................................................... 3-77

    Table 3-51: NOx, CO, and NMVOC Emissions from Energy-Related Activities (kt)............................................ 3-80

    Table 3-52: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from International Bunker Fuels (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................ 3-82

    Table 3-53: CO2, CH4 and N2O Emissions from International Bunker Fuels (kt) .................................................. 3-83

    Table 3-54: Aviation CO2 and N2O Emissions for International Transport (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................ 3-83

    Table 3-55: Aviation Jet Fuel Consumption for International Transport (Million Gallons) ................................... 3-84

    Table 3-56: Marine Fuel Consumption for International Transport (Million Gallons) .......................................... 3-84

    Table 3-57: CO2 Emissions from Wood Consumption by End-Use Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................ 3-87

    Table 3-58: CO2 Emissions from Wood Consumption by End-Use Sector (kt) ..................................................... 3-87

    Table 3-59: CO2 Emissions from Ethanol Consumption (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................. 3-87

    Table 3-60: CO2 Emissions from Ethanol Consumption (kt) ................................................................................. 3-87

    Table 3-61: Woody Biomass Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu) ..................................................................... 3-88

    Table 3-62: Ethanol Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu) ................................................................................... 3-88

    Table 4-1: Emissions from Industrial Processes and Product Use (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................ 4-3

  • xi

    Table 4-2: Emissions from Industrial Processes and Product Use (kt) ..................................................................... 4-4

    Table 4-3: CO2 Emissions from Cement Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) .......................................................... 4-7

    Table 4-4: Clinker Production (kt)............................................................................................................................ 4-8

    Table 4-5: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Cement Production (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ......................................................................................................................................................... 4-9

    Table 4-6: CO2 Emissions from Lime Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ............................................................ 4-10

    Table 4-7: Potential, Recovered, and Net CO2 Emissions from Lime Production (kt) ........................................... 4-10

    Table 4-8: High-Calcium- and Dolomitic-Quicklime, High-Calcium- and Dolomitic-Hydrated, and Dead-Burned-

    Dolomite Lime Production (kt) ............................................................................................................................... 4-11

    Table 4-9: Adjusted Lime Production (kt) .............................................................................................................. 4-12

    Table 4-10: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Lime Production (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-13

    Table 4-11: CO2 Emissions from Glass Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ......................................................... 4-15

    Table 4-12: Limestone, Dolomite, and Soda Ash Consumption Used in Glass Production (kt) ............................ 4-16

    Table 4-13: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Glass Production (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-17

    Table 4-14: CO2 Emissions from Other Process Uses of Carbonates (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......................................... 4-18

    Table 4-15: CO2 Emissions from Other Process Uses of Carbonates (kt) .............................................................. 4-18

    Table 4-16: Limestone and Dolomite Consumption (kt) ........................................................................................ 4-19

    Table 4-17: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Other Process Uses of

    Carbonates (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................ 4-20

    Table 4-18: CO2 Emissions from Ammonia Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................. 4-21

    Table 4-19: CO2 Emissions from Ammonia Production (kt) .................................................................................. 4-21

    Table 4-20: Ammonia Production and Urea Production (kt) .................................................................................. 4-23

    Table 4-21: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Ammonia Production (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 4-23

    Table 4-22: CO2 Emissions from Urea Consumption for Non-Agricultural Purposes (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................ 4-25

    Table 4-23: CO2 Emissions from Urea Consumption for Non-Agricultural Purposes (kt) .................................... 4-25

    Table 4-24: Urea Production, Urea Applied as Fertilizer, Urea Imports, and Urea Exports (kt) ............................... 4-26

    Table 4-25: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Urea Consumption for Non-

    Agricultural Purposes (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................... 4-26

    Table 4-26: N2O Emissions from Nitric Acid Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt N2O) ........................................ 4-27

    Table 4-27: Nitric Acid Production (kt) ................................................................................................................. 4-29

    Table 4-28: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for N2O Emissions from Nitric Acid Production (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 4-29

    Table 4-29: N2O Emissions from Adipic Acid Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt N2O)....................................... 4-31

    Table 4-30: Adipic Acid Production (kt) ................................................................................................................ 4-33

    Table 4-31: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for N2O Emissions from Adipic Acid Production

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 4-33

    Table 4-32: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Silicon Carbide Production and Consumption (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......... 4-35

  • xii Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    Table 4-33: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Silicon Carbide Production and Consumption (kt) ............................. 4-35

    Table 4-34: Production and Consumption of Silicon Carbide (Metric Tons) ......................................................... 4-36

    Table 4-35: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 and CO2 Emissions from Silicon Carbide

    Production and Consumption (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent).................................................................................... 4-36

    Table 4-36: CO2 Emissions from Titanium Dioxide (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ........................................................ 4-38

    Table 4-37: Titanium Dioxide Production (kt) ....................................................................................................... 4-38

    Table 4-38: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Titanium Dioxide Production

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 4-39

    Table 4-39: CO2 Emissions from Soda Ash Production and Consumption Not Associated with Glass Manufacturing

    (MMT CO2 Eq.) ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-41

    Table 4-40: CO2 Emissions from Soda Ash Production and Consumption Not Associated with Glass Manufacturing

    (kt) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4-41

    Table 4-41: Soda Ash Production and Consumption Not Associated with Glass Manufacturing (kt) ....................... 4-42

    Table 4-42: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Soda Ash Production and

    Consumption (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................. 4-43

    Table 4-43: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Petrochemical Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) ........................................ 4-45

    Table 4-44: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Petrochemical Production (kt) ............................................................ 4-45

    Table 4-45: Production of Selected Petrochemicals (kt) ........................................................................................ 4-48

    Table 4-46: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Petrochemical Production and

    CO2 Emissions from Carbon Black Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ........................................................ 4-48

    Table 4-47: HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt HFC-23) .............................. 4-50

    Table 4-48: HCFC-22 Production (kt) .................................................................................................................... 4-51

    Table 4-49: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Production

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 4-52

    Table 4-50: CO2 Emissions from CO2 Consumption (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ....................................................... 4-53

    Table 4-51: CO2 Production (kt CO2) and the Percent Used for Non-EOR Applications ...................................... 4-54

    Table 4-52: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from CO2 Consumption (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-54

    Table 4-53: CO2 Emissions from Phosphoric Acid Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ........................................ 4-56

    Table 4-54: Phosphate Rock Domestic Consumption, Exports, and Imports (kt) .................................................. 4-57

    Table 4-55: Chemical Composition of Phosphate Rock (Percent by weight) ......................................................... 4-57

    Table 4-56: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Phosphoric Acid Production

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 4-58

    Table 4-57: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................ 4-60

    Table 4-58: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production (kt) .................................................... 4-60

    Table 4-59: CO2 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) ....................................................... 4-60

    Table 4-60: CO2 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (kt) ........................................................................... 4-60

    Table 4-61: CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) ....................................................... 4-61

    Table 4-62: CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (kt) ........................................................................... 4-61

    Table 4-63: Material Carbon Contents for Metallurgical Coke Production ............................................................ 4-62

  • xiii

    Table 4-64: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Metallurgical

    Coke Production (Thousand Metric Tons) .............................................................................................................. 4-63

    Table 4-65: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke

    Production (million ft3) ............................................................................................................................................ 4-63

    Table 4-66: CO2 Emission Factors for Sinter Production and Direct Reduced Iron Production ............................ 4-63

    Table 4-67: Material Carbon Contents for Iron and Steel Production .................................................................... 4-64

    Table 4-68: CH4 Emission Factors for Sinter and Pig Iron Production .................................................................. 4-64

    Table 4-69: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel

    Production (Thousand Metric Tons) ........................................................................................................................ 4-65

    Table 4-70: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 Emissions from Iron and Steel

    Production (million ft3 unless otherwise specified) ................................................................................................. 4-65

    Table 4-71: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel

    Production and Metallurgical Coke Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ........................................................ 4-67

    Table 4-72: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Ferroalloy Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) .............................................. 4-68

    Table 4-73: CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Ferroalloy Production (kt) ................................................................... 4-68

    Table 4-74: Production of Ferroalloys (Metric Tons) ............................................................................................. 4-69

    Table 4-75: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Ferroalloy Production (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 4-70

    Table 4-76: CO2 Emissions from Aluminum Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ................................................. 4-71

    Table 4-77: PFC Emissions from Aluminum Production (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................ 4-72

    Table 4-78: PFC Emissions from Aluminum Production (kt) ................................................................................ 4-72

    Table 4-79: Production of Primary Aluminum (kt) ................................................................................................ 4-75

    Table 4-80: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 and PFC Emissions from Aluminum

    Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................. 4-75

    Table 4-81: SF6, HFC-134a, FK 5-1-12 and CO2 Emissions from Magnesium Production and Processing (MMT

    CO2 Eq.) .................................................................................................................................................................. 4-76

    Table 4-82: SF6, HFC-134a, FK 5-1-12 and CO2 Emissions from Magnesium Production and Processing (kt) ... 4-77

    Table 4-83: SF6 Emission Factors (kg SF6 per metric ton of magnesium) ............................................................. 4-79

    Table 4-84: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for SF6, HFC-134a and CO2 Emissions from

    Magnesium Production and Processing (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................... 4-80

    Table 4-85: CO2 Emissions from Lead Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) .......................................................... 4-82

    Table 4-86: Lead Production (Metric Tons) ........................................................................................................... 4-82

    Table 4-87: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Lead Production (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-83

    Table 4-88: Zinc Production (Metric Tons) ............................................................................................................ 4-85

    Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zinc Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ........................................................... 4-85

    Table 4-90: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Zinc Production (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-87

    Table 4-91: PFC, HFC, SF6, NF3, and N2O Emissions from Semiconductor Manufacture (MMT CO2 Eq.) ........ 4-88

    Table 4-92: PFC, HFC, SF6, NF3, and N2O Emissions from Semiconductor Manufacture (kt) ............................. 4-89

  • xiv Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    Table 4-93: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for HFC, PFC, SF6, NF3 and N2O Emissions from

    Semiconductor Manufacture (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ..................................................................................... 4-96

    Table 4-94: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS Substitutes (MMT CO2 Eq.) .............................................. 4-97

    Table 4-95: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS Substitution (MT) .............................................................. 4-98

    Table 4-96: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS Substitutes (MMT CO2 Eq.) by Sector .............................. 4-98

    Table 4-97: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for HFC and PFC Emissions from ODS Substitutes

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................. 4-101

    Table 4-98: SF6 Emissions from Electric Power Systems and Electrical Equipment Manufacturers (MMT CO2 Eq.)

    ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4-102

    Table 4-99: SF6 Emissions from Electric Power Systems and Electrical Equipment Manufacturers (kt) ............ 4-102

    Table 4-4-100: Transmission Mile Coverage and Regression Coefficients for Large and Non-Large Utilities,

    Percent ................................................................................................................................................................... 4-106

    Table 4-101: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for SF6 Emissions from Electrical Transmission and

    Distribution (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................. 4-107

    Table 4-102: 2013 Potential and Actual Emissions of HFCs, PFCs, SF6, and NF3 from Selected Sources (MMT CO2

    Eq.) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4-109

    Table 4-103: N2O Production (kt) ........................................................................................................................ 4-111

    Table 4-104: N2O Emissions from N2O Product Usage (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) ................................................. 4-111

    Table 4-105: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for N2O Emissions from N2O Product Usage (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................. 4-113

    Table 4-106: NOx, CO, and NMVOC Emissions from Industrial Processes and Product Use (kt) ...................... 4-114

    Table 5-1: Emissions from Agriculture (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......................................................................................... 5-2

    Table 5-2: Emissions from Agriculture (kt).............................................................................................................. 5-2

    Table 5-3: CH4 Emissions from Enteric Fermentation (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................................................. 5-3

    Table 5-4: CH4 Emissions from Enteric Fermentation (kt) ...................................................................................... 5-3

    Table 5-5: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Enteric Fermentation (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................................. 5-6

    Table 5-6: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Manure Management (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................... 5-9

    Table 5-7: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Manure Management (kt) ..................................................................... 5-10

    Table 5-8: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 and N2O (Direct and Indirect) Emissions from

    Manure Management (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................ 5-13

    Table 5-9: 2006 IPCC Implied Emission Factor Default Values Compared with Calculated Values for CH4 from

    Manure Management (kg/head/year) ....................................................................................................................... 5-14

    Table 5-10: CH4 Emissions from Rice Cultivation (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..................................................................... 5-16

    Table 5-11: CH4 Emissions from Rice Cultivation (kt) .......................................................................................... 5-17

    Table 5-12: Rice Area Harvested (Hectare) ............................................................................................................ 5-18

    Table 5-13: Ratooned Area as Percent of Primary Growth Area............................................................................ 5-19

    Table 5-14: Non-USDA Data Sources for Rice Harvest Information .................................................................... 5-19

    Table 5-15: Non-California Seasonal Emission Factors (kg CH4/hectare/season) ................................................. 5-20

    Table 5-16: California Emission Factors (kg CH4/hectare/year or season) ............................................................ 5-20

  • xv

    Table 5-17: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Rice Cultivation (MMT CO2

    Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-21

    Table 5-18: N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................... 5-24

    Table 5-19: N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils (kt)........................................................................................ 5-24

    Table 5-20: Direct N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils by Land Use Type and N Input Type (MMT CO2 Eq.) 5-

    24

    Table 5-21: Indirect N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils (MMT CO2 Eq.) ...................................................... 5-25

    Table 5-22: Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates of N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soil Management in 2013

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 5-36

    Table 5-23: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Field Burning of Agricultural Residues (MMT CO2 Eq.)................... 5-39

    Table 5-24: CH4, N2O, CO, and NOx Emissions from Field Burning of Agricultural Residues (kt) ...................... 5-39

    Table 5-25: Agricultural Crop Production (kt of Product) ..................................................................................... 5-42

    Table 5-26: U.S. Average Percent Crop Area Burned by Crop (Percent) .............................................................. 5-42

    Table 5-27: Key Assumptions for Estimating Emissions from Field Burning of Agricultural Residues ............... 5-42

    Table 5-28: Greenhouse Gas Emission Ratios and Conversion Factors ................................................................. 5-42

    Table 5-29: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 and N2O Emissions from Field Burning of

    Agricultural Residues (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................... 5-43

    Table 6-1: Emissions and Removals (Flux) from Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry by Land-Use Change

    Category (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......................................................................................................................................... 6-2

    Table 6-2: Emissions and Removals (Flux) from Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..... 6-3

    Table 6-3: Emissions and Removals (Flux) from Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (kt) ......................... 6-4

    Table 6-4: Managed and Unmanaged Land Area by Land-Use Categories for All 50 States (Thousands of Hectares)

    ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-6

    Table 6-5: Land Use and Land-Use Change for the U.S. Managed Land Base for All 50 States (Thousands of

    Hectares) .................................................................................................................................................................... 6-7

    Table 6-6: Data Sources Used to Determine Land Use and Land Area for the Conterminous United States, Hawaii,

    and Alaska ............................................................................................................................................................... 6-12

    Table 6-7: Total Land Area (Hectares) by Land-Use Category for U.S. Territories. ............................................ 6-18

    Table 6-8: Estimated Net Annual Changes in C Stocks (MMT CO2/yr) in Forest and Harvested Wood Pools ..... 6-22

    Table 6-9: Estimated Net Annual Changes in C Stocks (MMT C/yr) in Forest and Harvested Wood Pools ......... 6-22

    Table 6-10: Estimated Forest area (1,000 ha) and C Stocks (MMT C) in Forest and Harvested Wood Pools ....... 6-23

    Table 6-11: Estimates of CO2 (MMT/yr) Emissions from Forest Fires for the Lower 48 States and Alaska ......... 6-26

    Table 6-12: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Net CO2 Flux from Forest Land Remaining Forest

    Land: Changes in Forest C Stocks (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ........................................................................... 6-30

    Table 6-13: Estimated Non-CO2 Emissions from Forest Fires (MMT CO2 Eq.) for U.S. Forests ......................... 6-35

    Table 6-14: Estimated Non-CO2 Emissions from Forest Fires (kt) for U.S. Forests .............................................. 6-35

    Table 6-15: Estimated C Released from Forest Fires for U.S. Forests (MMT/yr) .................................................. 6-36

    Table 6-16: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates of Non-CO2 Emissions from Forest Fires in Forest

    Land Remaining Forest Land (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................... 6-36

    Table 6-17: N2O Fluxes from Soils in Forest Land Remaining Forest Land (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt N2O) ........... 6-37

  • xvi Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    Table 6-18: Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates of N2O Fluxes from Soils in Forest Land Remaining Forest Land

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 6-39

    Table 6-19: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Cropland Remaining Cropland (MMT CO2 Eq.) ........ 6-41

    Table 6-20: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Cropland Remaining Cropland (MMT C) ................... 6-41

    Table 6-21: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Soil C Stock Changes occurring within Cropland

    Remaining Cropland (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................. 6-47

    Table 6-22: Emissions from Liming of Agricultural Soils (MMT CO2 Eq.) .......................................................... 6-48

    Table 6-23: Emissions from Liming of Agricultural Soils (MMT C)..................................................................... 6-49

    Table 6-24: Applied Minerals (MMT) .................................................................................................................... 6-50

    Table 6-25: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Liming of Agricultural Soils

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 6-51

    Table 6-26: CO2 Emissions from Urea Fertilization (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................... 6-51

    Table 6-27: CO2 Emissions from Urea Fertilization (MMT C) .............................................................................. 6-51

    Table 6-28: Applied Urea (MMT) .......................................................................................................................... 6-52

    Table 6-29: Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Urea Fertilization (MMT CO2 Eq. and

    Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 6-53

    Table 6-30: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Land Converted to Cropland by Land Use Change

    Category (MMT CO2 Eq.) ....................................................................................................................................... 6-54

    Table 6-31: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Land Converted to Cropland (MMT C) ....................... 6-55

    Table 6-32: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Soil C Stock Changes occurring within Land

    Converted to Cropland (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................. 6-59

    Table 6-33: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Grassland Remaining Grassland (MMT CO2 Eq.) ...... 6-61

    Table 6-34: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Grassland Remaining Grassland (MMT C) ................ 6-61

    Table 6-35: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for C Stock Changes Occurring Within Grassland

    Remaining Grassland (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................... 6-65

    Table 6-36: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes for Land Converted to Grassland (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......... 6-67

    Table 6-37: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes for Land Converted to Grassland (MMT C) .................... 6-67

    Table 6-38: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Soil C Stock Changes occurring within Land

    Converted to Grassland (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................ 6-72

    Table 6-39: Emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................................... 6-74

    Table 6-40: Emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands (kt) ......................................................................... 6-75

    Table 6-41: Peat Production of Lower 48 States (kt).............................................................................................. 6-76

    Table 6-42: Peat Production of Alaska (Thousand Cubic Meters) ......................................................................... 6-76

    Table 6-43: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Peatlands

    Remaining Peatlands (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................ 6-77

    Table 6-44: Net C Flux from Urban Trees (MMT CO2 Eq. and MMT C) ............................................................. 6-79

    Table 6-45: Annual C Sequestration (Metric Tons C/yr), Tree Cover (Percent), and Annual C Sequestration per

    Area of Tree Cover (kg C/m2-yr) for 50 states plus the District of Columbia ......................................................... 6-82

    Table 6-46: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Net C Flux from Changes in C Stocks in Urban

    Trees (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ......................................................................................................................... 6-83

    Table 6-47: N2O Fluxes from Soils in Settlements Remaining Settlements (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt N2O) .............. 6-84

  • xvii

    Table 6-48: Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates of N2O Emissions from Soils in Settlements Remaining Settlements

    (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................... 6-85

    Table 6-49: Net Changes in Yard Trimming and Food Scrap Carbon Stocks in Landfills (MMT CO2 Eq.) ......... 6-87

    Table 6-50: Net Changes in Yard Trimming and Food Scrap Carbon Stocks in Landfills (MMT C) .................... 6-87

    Table 6-51: Moisture Contents, C Storage Factors (Proportions of Initial C Sequestered), Initial C Contents, and

    Decay Rates for Yard Trimmings and Food Scraps in Landfills ............................................................................. 6-90

    Table 6-52: C Stocks in Yard Trimmings and Food Scraps in Landfills (MMT C) ............................................... 6-90

    Table 6-53: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Flux from Yard Trimmings and Food Scraps in

    Landfills (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................................................................... 6-90

    Table 7-1: Emissions from Waste (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................................................. 7-2

    Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (kt) ...................................................................................................................... 7-2

    Table 7-3: CH4 Emissions from Landfills (MMT CO2 Eq.) ..................................................................................... 7-5

    Table 7-4: CH4 Emissions from Landfills (kt) .......................................................................................................... 7-5

    Table 7-5: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Landfills (MMT CO2 Eq. and

    Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 7-10

    Table 7-6: Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream by Waste Type (Percent) .................................... 7-15

    Table 7-7: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment (MMT CO2 Eq.)........ 7-17

    Table 7-8: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment (kt) ............................ 7-17

    Table 7-9: U.S. Population (Millions) and Domestic Wastewater BOD5 Produced (kt) ........................................ 7-19

    Table 7-10: Domestic Wastewater CH4 Emissions from Septic and Centralized Systems (2013) ......................... 7-20

    Table 7-11: Industrial Wastewater CH4 Emissions by Sector (2013) ..................................................................... 7-20

    Table 7-12: U.S. Pulp and Paper, Meat, Poultry, Vegetables, Fruits and Juices, Ethanol, and Petroleum Refining

    Production (MMT) .................................................................................................................................................. 7-20

    Table 7-13: Variables Used to Calculate Percent Wastewater Treated Anaerobically by Industry (percent) ........ 7-22

    Table 7-14: Wastewater Flow (m3/ton) and BOD Production (g/L) for U.S. Vegetables, Fruits, and Juices

    Production................................................................................................................................................................ 7-23

    Table 7-15: U.S. Population (Millions), Population Served by Biological Denitrification (Millions), Fraction of

    Population Served by Wastewater Treatment (percent), Available Protein (kg/person-year), Protein Consumed

    (kg/person-year), and Nitrogen Removed with Sludge (kt-N/year) ......................................................................... 7-26

    Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH4 Emissions from Wastewater Treatment (MMT

    CO2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 7-27

    Table 7-17: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Composting (MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................................................. 7-31

    Table 7-18: CH4 and N2O Emissions from Composting (kt) .................................................................................. 7-31

    Table 7-19: U.S. Waste Composted (kt) ................................................................................................................. 7-32

    Table 7-20: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Emissions from Composting (MMT CO2 Eq. and

    Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 7-32

    Table 7-21: Emissions of NOx, CO, and NMVOC from Waste (kt) ....................................................................... 7-34

    Table 9-1: Revisions to U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Including Quantitative Change Related to Use of AR4

    GWP values (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................................................................................................................... 9-5

    Table 9-2: Revisions to U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions due only to Methodology and Data Changes, with the AR4

    GWP values applied across the time series (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................................................................... 9-7

  • xviii Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    Table 9-3: Revisions to Annual Sinks (C Sequestration) from Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (MMT

    CO2 Eq.) .................................................................................................................................................................... 9-9

    Figures Figure ES-1: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas ........................................................................................... ES-4

    Figure ES-2: Annual Percent Change in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions ............................................................ ES-5

    Figure ES-3: Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions Relative to 1990 (1990=0) ....................................................... ES-5

    Figure ES-4: 2013 Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas (Percentages based on MMT CO2 Eq.) ............................ ES-8

    Figure ES-5: 2013 Sources of CO2 Emissions ........................................................................................................ ES-9

    Figure ES-6: 2013 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Sector and Fuel Type ................................ ES-10

    Figure ES-7: 2013 End-Use Sector Emissions of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Combustion .......................................... ES-10

    Figure ES-8: 2013 Sources of CH4 Emissions ...................................................................................................... ES-13

    Figure ES-9: 2013 Sources of N2O Emissions ..................................................................................................... ES-15

    Figure ES-10: 2013 Sources of HFCs, PFCs, SF6, and NF3 Emissions ................................................................ ES-16

    Figure ES-11: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks by Chapter/IPCC Sector ........................................... ES-17

    Figure ES-12: 2013 U.S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source ...................................................................... ES-19

    Figure ES-13: Emissions Allocated to Economic Sectors .................................................................................... ES-22

    Figure ES-14: Emissions with Electricity Distributed to Economic Sectors ........................................................ ES-24

    Figure ES-15: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Per Capita and Per Dollar of Gross Domestic Product ............. ES-25

    Figure ES-16: 2013 Key Categories ..................................................................................................................... ES-26

    Figure 1-1: National Inventory Arrangements Diagram ......................................................................................... 1-12

    Figure 1-2: U.S. QA/QC Plan Summary ................................................................................................................ 1-20

    Figure 2-1: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas ................................................................................................ 2-1

    Figure 2-2: Annual Percent Change in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions ................................................................. 2-2

    Figure 2-3: Cumulative Change in Annual U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Relative to 1990 ............................... 2-2

    Figure 2-4: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks by Chapter/IPCC Sector .................................................... 2-9

    Figure 2-5: 2013 Energy Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources ................................................................................... 2-11

    Figure 2-6: 2013 U.S. Fossil Carbon Flows (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................................ 2-12

    Figure 2-7: 2013 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Sector and Fuel Type ..................................... 2-14

    Figure 2-8: 2013 End-Use Sector Emissions of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Combustion .............................................. 2-14

    Figure 2-9: 2013 Industrial Processes and Product Use Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources ................................... 2-16

    Figure 2-10: 2013 Agriculture Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources .......................................................................... 2-18

    Figure 2-11: 2013 Waste Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources .................................................................................. 2-21

    Figure 2-12: Emissions Allocated to Economic Sectors ......................................................................................... 2-23

    Figure 2-13: Emissions with Electricity Distributed to Economic Sectors ............................................................. 2-26

    Figure 2-14: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Per Capita and Per Dollar of Gross Domestic Product .................. 2-33

    Figure 3-1: 2013 Energy Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources ..................................................................................... 3-1

  • xix

    Figure 3-2: 2013 U.S. Fossil Carbon Flows (MMT CO2 Eq.) .................................................................................. 3-2

    Figure 3-3: 2013 U.S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source (percent) ................................................................ 3-7

    Figure 3-4: U.S. Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) ......................................................................................... 3-7

    Figure 3-5: 2013 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Sector and Fuel Type (MMT CO2 Eq.) ........... 3-8

    Figure 3-6: Annual Deviations from Normal Heating Degree Days for the United States (1950–2013) ................. 3-9

    Figure 3-7: Annual Deviations from Normal Cooling Degree Days for the United States (1950–2013) ................. 3-9

    Figure 3-8: Nuclear, Hydroelectric, and Wind Power Plant Capacity Factors in the United States (1990–2013) .. 3-10

    Figure 3-9: Electricity Generation Retail Sales by End-Use Sector ....................................................................... 3-14

    Figure 3-10: Industrial Production Indices (Index 2007=100) ............................................................................... 3-16

    Figure 3-11: Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy of New Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks, 1990–2013

    (miles/gallon) ........................................................................................................................................................... 3-19

    Figure 3-12: Sales of New Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks, 1990–2013 (percent) .................................... 3-19

    Figure 3-13: Mobile Source CH4 and N2O Emissions (MMT CO2 Eq.) ................................................................. 3-21

    Figure 3-14: U.S. Energy Consumption and Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Per Capita and Per Dollar GDP ..... 3-28

    Figure 4-1: 2013 Industrial Processes and Product Use Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources ..................................... 4-2

    Figure 5-1: 2013 Agriculture Chapter Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources .............................................................. 5-1

    Figure 5-2: Sources and Pathways of N that Result in N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soil Management ........ 5-23

    Figure 5-3: Crops, Annual Direct N2O Emissions Estimated Using the Tier 3 DAYCENT Model, 1990-2013 (MMT

    CO2 Eq./year)........................................................................................................................................................... 5-26

    Figure 5-4: Grasslands, Annual Direct N2O Emissions Estimated Using the Tier 3 DAYCENT Model, 1990-2013

    (MMT CO2 Eq./year) ............................................................................................................................................... 5-27

    Figure 5-5: Crops, Average Annual N Losses Leading to Indirect N2O Emissions Estimated Using the Tier 3

    DAYCENT Model, 1990-2013 (kt N/year) ............................................................................................................. 5-28

    Figure 5-6: Grasslands, Average Annual N Losses Leading to Indirect N2O Emissions Estimated Using the Tier 3

    DAYCENT Model, 1990-2013 (kt N/year) ............................................................................................................. 5-29

    Figure 5-7: Comparison of Measured Emissions at Field Sites and Modeled Emissions Using the DAYCENT

    Simulation Model and IPCC Tier 1 Approach. ....................................................................................................... 5-37

    Figure 6-1: Percent of Total Land Area for Each State in the General Land-Use Categories for 2013 .................... 6-9

    Figure 6-2: Forest Sector C Pools and Flows ......................................................................................................... 6-20

    Figure 6-3: Forest Ecosystem Carbon (All Pools) Stocks and Stock Change (1990-2013) .................................... 6-21

    Figure 6-4: Estimates of Net Annual Changes in C Stocks for Major C Pools ...................................................... 6-24

    Figure 6-5: Forest Ecosystem C Density Imputed from Forest Inventory Plots, Conterminous United States, 2001–

    2009 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6-25

    Figure 6-6: The Size of Alaska Compared to European Countries ......................................................................... 6-33

    Figure 6-7: Delineations between Forest, Non-forest, Managed Land, and Inventoried Areas of Alaska ............. 6-34

    Figure 6-8: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Cropland Remaining Cropland ............................................................................................................................... 6-42

    Figure 6-9: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Cropland Remaining Cropland ............................................................................................................................... 6-43

  • xx Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2013

    Figure 6-10: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Land Converted to Cropland ................................................................................................................................... 6-56

    Figure 6-11: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Land Converted to Cropland ................................................................................................................................... 6-57

    Figure 6-12: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Grassland Remaining Grassland ............................................................................................................................. 6-62

    Figure 6-13: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Grassland Remaining Grassland ............................................................................................................................. 6-63

    Figure 6-14: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Land Converted to Grassland .................................................................................................................................. 6-69

    Figure 6-15: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2013,

    Land Converted to Grassland .................................................................................................................................. 6-70

    Figure 7-1: 2013 Waste Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources ...................................................................................... 7-1

    Figure 7-2: Management of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States, 2011..................................................... 7-13

    Figure 7-3: MSW Management Trends from 1990 to 2012 ................................................................................... 7-14

    Figure 7-4: Percent of Recovered Degradable Materials from 1990 to 2012 (Percent) .......................................... 7-15

    Boxes Box ES- 1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ........................... ES-1

    Box ES- 2: Recent Trends in Various U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Related Data ......................................... ES-24

    Box ES- 3: Recalculations of Inventory Estimates ................................................................................................ ES-27

    Box 1-1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ................................ 1-2

    Box 1-2: The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and Global Warming Potentials ........................................................ 1-9

    Box 1-3: IPCC Reference Approach ...................................................................................................................... 1-15

    Box 2-1: Methodology for Aggregating Emissions by Economic Sector ............................................................... 2-31

    Box 2-2: Recent Trends in Various U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Related Data .............................................. 2-32

    Box 2-3: Sources and Effects of Sulfur Dioxide .................................................................................................... 2-34

    Box 3-1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ................................ 3-3

    Box 3-2: Energy Data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program ...................................................................... 3-4

    Box 3-3: Weather and Non-Fossil Energy Effects on CO2 from Fossil Fuel Combustion Trends ........................... 3-8

    Box 3-4: Uses of Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Data and Improvements in Reporting Emissions from

    Industrial Sector Fossil Fuel Combustion ................................................................................................................ 3-26

    Box 3-5: Carbon Intensity of U.S. Energy Consumption ....................................................................................... 3-27

    Box 3-6: Reporting of Lubricants, Waxes, and Asphalt and Road Oil Product Use in Energy Sector ................... 3-44

    Box 3-7: Carbon Dioxide Transport, Injection, and Geological Storage ................................................................ 3-67

    Box 4-1: Industrial Processes Data from EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program ............................................ 4-6

    Box 4-2: Potential Emission Estimates of HFCs, PFCs, SF6, a