Inventory of aliens escaping from culture in the National Botanic Garden of Belgium Anne Ronse.

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Transcript of Inventory of aliens escaping from culture in the National Botanic Garden of Belgium Anne Ronse.

  • Slide 1
  • Inventory of aliens escaping from culture in the National Botanic Garden of Belgium Anne Ronse
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  • A bit of history: the domain in Meise 2 former castle estates: Meise and Bouchout Empress Charlotte of Mexico
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  • After 1938: a botanic garden 92.3 ha Greenhouses open air collections Buildings and roads Woodlands Grasslands and lawns Ponds
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  • Inventory of the flora of the domain From 2002 to 2011 Wild and naturalized vascular plants Detailed results: per sector Results in Scripta Botanica Belgica n 47 (2011)
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  • Some results About 600 species recorded 6 categories: CategoryName Indigenous species Local origin escaped from collections Deliberate introduction 1Truly indigenous species ++-- 2External neophytes---- 3Garden escapes+/- +- 4Stinsen plants---+ 5Wood lawn neophytes ( Grassameneinkmmlinge ) ---- 6Indigenous introductions ++/--+
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  • Percentage of plant categories in the domain
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  • Garden escapes: an important source of invasive exotic plants Australia: 66% of all plant species that have become naturalised are garden escapes (Groves et al. 2005) (increasing) The worlds 100 worst invasive organisms (Lowe et al. 2000): 56% of the plants are garden escapes
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  • (Botanic) garden escapes Botanic gardens have played a significant role in the dissemination of invasive species worldwide (Hulme 2011). Botanic gardens were considered as naturalisation centres for plants by Devos (1870). An example: Impatiens parviflora
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  • Collection escapes in Meise 180 species recorded sometimes uncertain origin: escapes or not? Duchesnea indicaCornus sericea
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  • Collection escapes in Meise (2) About 25% are indigenous species (regionally or in Flanders) Mostly from non-local or foreign origin Oenanthe pimpinelloides
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  • Collection escapes in Meise (3) 9 species from the list of invasive species in Belgium (Branquart et al. 2011) Watch list: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Lysichiton americanus, Quercus rubra, Rhus typhina Black list: Ailanthus altissima, Cornus sericea, Crassula helmsii, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Mahonia aquifolium
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  • Collection escapes in Meise (4) 33% have not been recorded as neophyte before in Belgium 85% of them have been recorded as naturalised outside their natural range Nothoscordum gracile
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  • Cynanchum louisae
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  • Collection escapes in Meise (5) The numbers of plants for each escaped species varies between 1 to more than 100 The distance from the collections varies from 3m to 1000m (maximal distance within domain) The survival time for each escape is different, and is largely dependent on the management Means of dispersion: anemochory, zoochory, risk assessment for invasive species
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  • Ranunculus parviflorus
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  • Among the most persistent and numerous species are many woody species with fruits that are probably spread by birds, such as: Diospyros lotus Collection escapes in Meise (6)
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  • Malus sargentii
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  • Cotoneaster moupinense
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  • Prunus lusitanica
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  • Why woody plants? Woodland sectors are the less disturbed areas in the domain, as they are not weeded or mown.
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  • Zoochory by birds seems a very efficient spreading method. rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri
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  • Collection escapes in Meise (6) Have some species escaped from the Domain into the surroundings? Yes, mainly woody species, such as Prunus lusitanica and Malus sargentii.
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  • Some conclusions Nearly one third of the spontaneously occurring species in the domain are escapes from the collections Some species manage to escape outside the domain as well, especially woody species with fruits eaten by birds the monitoring of the escapes at regular time intervals is advisable.