Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The...

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Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies

Transcript of Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The...

Page 1: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies

Page 2: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in

circumstances where it precedes a noun. (Mi’kmaw people / Mi’kmaw treaties / Mi’kmaw person)

Micmac - incorrect spelling and pronounciation of the plural form of the word Mi’Kmaq

Page 3: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

Historical BackgroundThe Mi’kmaw Nation has lived and occupied the

Maritime Provinces and the southern Gaspe’ Bay peninsula for over 10,500 years. This land is known to the Mi’kmaw people as Mi’kma’ki.

Page 4: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.
Page 5: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

Prior to colonization the Mi’kmaq lived according to specific laws that were bestowed upon them by their creator, laws which governed their relationship with the land, nature and mankind. Their identity as a Mi’kmaw people was and continue today to be distinctly linked to this land through their culture, language, traditions, and as the provider of sustenance and life. Land ownership is one of many European concepts that was foreign to the Mi’kmaw people at the time of contact for they did not perceive land as a possession but rather as a responsibility.

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Mi’kmaw people depended on the land for sustenance and as such were a nomadic people who lived and traveled throughout Mi’kma’ki according to the time of year and seasonal patterns. Mi’kma’ki was divided into seven districts.

Page 7: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.
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Travel throughout Mi’kma’ki was based on respect for those whose hunting territory one may be traveling through. Local and District chiefs met periodically to divide and assign hunting and fishing territories to Mi’kmaw families.

Page 9: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

Hunting and fishing practices were based on the common belief of respect for all living things which was the foundation of social-order in Mi’kmaw society. All raw materials from animals were use wisely and little was wasted. To do such would show disrespect to the creator and also to the spirit of the animal that the Creator, Kji-Niskam (Great Spirit), provided for the Mi’kmaq when he created land and water.

Page 10: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

These hunting practices of the Mi’Kmaq were based on their concept of Netukulimk - a concept which includes the use of the natural bounty provided by the creator for the self-support and well being of the individual and the Nation.

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Creation Story

http://www.fourdirectionsteachings.com/main.html

Page 12: Introduction to Mi’kmaw Studies. Proper Use of Mi’Kmaq or Mi’Kmaw Mi’kmaq means “The Family” Mi’kmaq is plural Mi’kmaw is singular or an adjective in.

Early Lifestyle of the Mi’kmaw

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Early Lifestyle No concept of land ownership Traditional hunting / fishing territories No formal system of band membership Small camps - 1 or 2 families - nomadic Law of nature No word for “mine” or “I” only “our” and “we”

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Early Lifestyle(Gender based Roles)

Men Hunt Fish Made bows, arrows Made cradle boards Tabacco pipes Knew how to prepare

food, clothing and shelter

Women Carried game back to camp Transported camp equipment Moved and set up wigwams Prepared and preserved food Made birch bark dishes Wove mats from rushes Made clothing Corded snowshoes Fetched water Care for children

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Early Lifestyle Matriarchal society - traced lineage through

mother If a leader cannot be chosen the female

elders will make the decision based on the children they raised

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Early LifestyleMedicine

Entirely plant and animal based Sweat Lodge Body Message

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Early LifestyleGrand Council

Three Levels of leadership Local Chief District Chief Grand Chief

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Early LifestyleLocal Chief

Council of Elders Village affairs Supplies (dogs,

canoes, etc) Hunting skills

District Chief•Each of the seven districts•Eldest male•Council of local chiefs•Conflict resolution

Grand Chief•Grand Council•Hereditary•Hunting and fishing territories•Treaty discussions

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Early Lifestyle Chief must be:

Best hunter Able to fish Humble Great warrior Take in orphans Make careful decisions Sit with council of elders

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Early LifestyleTraditional Line of Inheritance

Eldest son in the family Last hereditary chief, Grand Chief Denny

Jr. (Died April 12, 1918) Gabriel Sylliboy, first elected grand Chief

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Assignment Based on this brief introductory PowerPoint and

review of the handout “Mi’kmaq people” by Patrick Johnson, create a hypothesis of what the future holds for First Nations People in Canada. Keep in mind that the end of the story has not yet been told! You can present your hypothesis in a number of ways: paragraph, poem, song, flow chart, letter, drawing, or in your own unique way.