Introduction to Karnataka

KARNATAKA A Quick Glimpse into its Culture & Heritage

Transcript of Introduction to Karnataka

Page 1: Introduction to Karnataka

KARNATAKAA Quick Glimpse into its

Culture & Heritage

Page 2: Introduction to Karnataka

• The Karnataka state was officially formed on 1st November 1973. It has a land area of 1, 91, 791 square. Km and Bengaluru is the capital. The literary rate of the state is 67.04% and climate is semi-tropical.

• The official languages spoken is Kannada. Apart from this other languages spoken are English, Hindi.

• The history of the Karnataka state is long

and colorful with rich flora ,fauna and incredible tourist places of excellent scenic beauty.




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• Karnataka was ruled by many famous Dynasties –KADAMBAS, CHALUKYAS, HOYSALAS and others.

• The golden age for KARNATAKA was observed under the rule of KRISHNADEVARAYA of VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE.

• All the kings have contributed to rich literature and exquisite sculpturing which can be seen all over Karnataka.

• Many great leaders such as Rani Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna,Vanake Obbavva were from Karnataka.


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DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA• There are 30 districts in


















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• Bagalkot is an administrative district in state of Karnataka. The

district headquarters is located in the town of Bagalkot. The

district is located in northern Karnataka. The new Bagalkot

district was carved out of Bijapur in 1997.The bifurcated

Bagalkot district consists of six taluks — Badami, Bagalkot,

Bilagi, Hunugund, Jamakhandi and Mudhol.

• Historically, Bagalkot was the capital of the Chalukyan Empire of

South India under Pulakesi I, who conquered the district in 550

CE. Bagalkot's Badami taluk remained the seat of the throne of

the Chalukyas from 550 CE — 753 CE, when Chalukya king

Kirtivarman II was overthrown by the Rashtrakutas.

• There are many tourist places – Badami, Pattadkal, Aihole,

Koodalasangama. Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River and

Krishna River flow through the district. Koodalasangama lies at

the point of confluence of rivers Krishna and Malaprabha.

• Cottage industries occupy a predominant position in Bagalkot.

The district is popular for its silk and handloom industries.



Badami Caves

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BANGALORE RURAL• Bangalore Rural District is one of the 30 districts in Karnataka. It was formed in 1986.

Presently in Bangalore Rural district, there are 2 divisions, 4 Talukas, 35 Hoblis

(cluster of villages), Proximity to the city of Bangalore has its own impact on the

district, with a considerable daily commuting population. The rural people are mostly

agriculturists, although with the advent of SEZs in the area, service and IT industries

are booming. Near the Bangalore Rural District are the towns of Muddenahalli-

Kanivenarayanapura, the sites of the upcoming Sri Sathya Sai Baba University and

College of Medicine, Indian Institute of Technology Muddenahalli, 600 crore

Visvesvaraya Institute of Advanced Technology (in Chikkaballapur District), and a 70

crore "Silk City". Devanahalli is set to be the site of a 9500 crore Devonahalli

Business Park, near the Bangaluru International Airport.

• The district is endowed with agricultural and horticultural crops such as ragi, rice,

groundnut, sugarcane, castor, grapes, mulberry, etc. There are adequate

infrastructural facilities such as transport and communications, banking, credit, and

marketing. Though the region is not rich in mineral resources, its non-metallic

mineral resources are utilised for bricks, tiles, and stoneware manufacture. For many

years now, weaving has also been a major occupation for a large section of the

population. The soil and such climatic conditions are congenial for the cultivation of

mulberry, rearing of silkworms, and production of silk, besides other agro-based

industries. There is a proposal by the Government of Karnataka to rename Bangalore

Rural district to Kempe Gowda. In September 2007, the taluks of Kanakapura,

Ramanagaram, Magadi and Channapatna were merged to form the Ramanagaram



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• Bengaluru Urban district came into being in 1986, with the partition of

the erstwhile Bengaluru district into Bengaluru Urban and Bengaluru

Rural districts. Bengaluru Urban has four taluks — Bengaluru North,

Bengaluru East, Bengaluru South and Anekal. The city of Bengaluru

is situated in the Bengaluru Urban district. The Bengaluru Urban

district has 17 hoblies, 668 villages and 9 municipal corporations.

• This is the most advanced district in Karnataka. It had a population of

6,537,124 of which 88.11% is urban as of 2001. As of Census 2011, its

population has increased to 9,588,910, with a sex-ratio of 908

females/males, the lowest in the state and its density is 4,378 people

per square km.

• The majority of the population speak Kannada. Hindi, Telugu, Tamil

and Urdu are also spoken by minorities.


Vidhana Soudha

High CourtLal BaghMetro Bangalore Palace

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• Belgaum is one of the fastest growing cities in the northwest part of

Karnataka. It is divided into 10 talukas with approximate population of


• Belgaum is the Divisional Head quarter of North Karnataka The ancient

name of the town of Belgaum was Venugrama, meaning Bamboo Village. It

is also called as Malnad Pradesh. The most ancient place in the district is

Halsi; and this, according to inscriptions on copper plates discovered in its

neighborhood, was once the capital of a dynasty of nine Kadamba kings.

• Belgaum is a place of tourist attraction such as Gokak Falls, Saundatti Fort,

Yallamma temple, Jamboti, Panchalingeshwar temple of Hooli,

Naveeluteerth, Halsi and many more

• Belgaum has several large industries, important among them is the INDAL

Aluminium Factory. Belgaum is famous for the sweets and locally made ice

cream. Belgaum is also home to several divisions of the Indian Armed

Forces. The Maratha Light Infantry has it's regimental headquarters in

Belgaum. The Commando School of the Indian Army is also situated in

Belgaum. The Indian Air Force has a big airbase near Belgaum.


Halsi Temple

Hooli Temple

Gokak FallsSaundatti Fort

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• Bellary District is characterized by Hot and dry summers, Historical

sites, Farm Land and Rich minerals characterize Bellary district.

Also the home of famous Vijaya Nagara Empire World Heritage Site.

Recently making headlines with mining industry.

• Earlier Bellary District was part of Rayala Seema, a region in today's

state Andhra Pradesh. With the formation of states based on

languages Bellary became part of Karnataka.

• The major occupation of this district is agriculture and 75% total

labour force is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. The

important crops grown are cotton, jowar, groundnut, rice, sunflower

and cereals.The main source of irrigation is Tungabhadra Dam. The

Canal network accounts for 64% of irrigated area. The important

rivers are Tungabhadra, Hagari and Chikkahagari.

• Tourist Places include Hampi and Tungabhadra dam.



Tungabhadra Dam

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• Bidar district is a dry place and is one of the worst draught-prone

districts' in Karnataka. The district headquarter, Bidar, is a small

town, with a majority Muslim population. Historically, Bidar was a

part of the Bahamani Kingdom which comprised of Bijapur,

Gulbarga, Bidar, Golconda, and Birar. The ruler of Bidar was Barid

Shah. Bidar was later ruled by the Nizams of Hyderabad. After the

formation of Karnataka, Bidar was brought under Karnataka State.

• Bidar was not industrialized for a very long time and only recently,

Bidar has seen the arrival of several induatrial centers. There is an

Engineering college run by the Sikh trust in the town. Additionaly,

there are several other educational institutions (managed by both

Christian Missionaries and other communities). There is an Indian

Air Force station in Bidar, which was the Elementary Flying School

• Agriculture is the main occupation in rural parts of the district.

Greengram, bengalgram, blackgram, paddy, groundnut, wheat,

redgram, sugarcane and chillies are other agricultural crops and

jowar remains the major crop. now the trend is changing towards

sunflower and most of the rabi crop will be sunflower.


Bidar Fort

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• The city of Bijapur is the headquarters of the district, and is located 530

km northwest of Bangalore. Bijapur is well known for the great

monuments of historical importance built during the Adil Shahi dynasty.

• The city established in the 10th–11th centuries by the Chalukyas of

Kalyani was referred as Vijayapura (City of victory). The city came under

the influence of the Khilji Sultanate in Delhi by the late 13th century. In

1347, the area was conquered by the Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga. By

this time the city was being referred as Vijapur or Bijapur

• Bijapur is rich in historical attractions - Gol Gumbaz: This is the most

famous monument in Bijapur. It is the tomb of Mohammed Adil Shah

(ruled 1627–1657). A particular attraction in this monument is the central

chamber, where every sound is echoed seven times. Another attraction at

the Gol Gumbaz is the Whispering Gallery, where even minute sounds

can be heard clearly 37 metres away. Other places include Ibrahim Rauza,

Jumma Masjid .

• Farming and agriculture related business is the main occupation for

many people in the district. Of the total geographical area of 10,530

square kilometres, 7,760 square kilometres is available for cultivation

which is 74% of the total area, while areas under forest account for only

0.19% of the total area. Only 17.3% of the net cultivable area is irrigated

and the balance 82.7% of the area has to depend on the monsoon.


Gol Gumbaz

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CHAMARAJANAGARA• It is the southern-most district in the state of Karnataka, India. It was

carved out of the original larger Mysore District in the year 1998.

Chamarajanagara town is the headquarters of this district .

• Chamarajanagar was earlier known as Arikottara. Chamaraja Wodeyar,

the Wodeyar king of Mysooru was born here and hence this place was

renamed after him. The Vijaya Parsvanath Basadi, a holy Jain shrine

was constructed by Punisadandanayaka, the commander of the

Hoysala king Gangaraja in the year 1117 A.D.

• Being the southernmost district of Karnataka, Chamarajanagara district

borders the state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Specifically, it borders

Mysooru district of Karnataka to the west and north, Mandya and

Bengalooru districts of Karnataka to the north-east, Dharmapuri district

of Tamil Nadu to the east, Salem and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu to

the south-east, Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu to the south and Wayanad

district of Kerala to the south-west.

• Chamarajanagar is also known as the 'Silk City' (Reshme Nagari). There

are many tourist spots to visit in this district and around the city. These

are:Chamarajeshwara temple, B R Hills (Biligiri Rangana Betta), MM

Hills (Male Mahadeshwara Betta), Bandipura (Wild life Sanctuary),

Talkad (Piligrimage centre)


Bandipura National Park

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CHIKKABALLAPUR• Chikballapur district is a newly created district in the state of Karnataka, India. It

was carved out of the existing Kolar district by moving the taluks of Gauribidanur, Gudibanda, Bagepalli, Chikballapur, Sidlaghatta and Chintamani into the new district.

• The name of this town was originally Chinna Balaporum. Originating from either Tamil or Telugu for Chinna meaning small while "balla" means the measure to quantify food grains, and "pura" means "town“

• Tourist places include Nandi Hills which is situated nearby and within the jurisdiction of Chickballapur taluk. Many historic temples are situated in and near this town. Nandi Hills or Nandi Durga is located in Chikballapur. Skandagiri Hills are famous camping and trekking spots.


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CHIKKAMAGALUR• Coffee was first cultivated in India in Chikamagalur. The mountains in

Chikkamagaluru which are a part of the Western Ghats are the source of rivers like Tunga and Bhadra. Mullayanagiri,which is the highest peak in Karnataka is located in the district. It is also a tourist's paradise containing hill stations like Kemmanagundi and Kudremukh and waterfalls like Manikyadhara, Hebbe, Kallathigiri. Chikkamagaluru district has a rich history as is seen in the Hoysala temple at Amrithapura. Wildlife enthusiasts would be interested in the Kudremukh National Park and Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary present in this district..

• Chikkamagalur district gets its name from its headquarters of Chikkamagaluru town. It is alternatively spelt as Chickmagalur or Chikmagalur. Chikkamagaluru literally means "The town of the younger daughter" in the native Kannada language.

• Chikkamagalur generates its revenue from mining and coffee plantations


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• The city of Chitradurga is the district headquarters. Chitradurga gets its name from an umbrella-shaped lofty hill found there. Tradition dates Chitradurga District to the period of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The whole district lies in the valley of the Vedavati River, with the Tungabhadra River flowing in the northwest. During the British times it was named Chitaldroog.The district was practically ruled by all the well known dynasties that ruled Karnataka.

• Chitradurga features bold rock hills and picturesque valleys, huge towering boulders in unimaginable shapes. It is known as the "stone fortress" (Kallina Kote). The landscape looks much like a mischievous giant's playground, with boulders thrown around, forming silhouettes against the sky.

• Chitradurga Fort is renowned for its name Kallina Kote / Ukinna kote / Elu Suttina kote in Kannada, which was built in parts by the Palegar Nayakas, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. It comprises a series of seven enclosure walls. Eighteen ancient temples can be found inside the fort. This seemingly impregnable fort has 19 gateways, 38 posterior entrances, a palace, a mosque, granaries, oil pits, four secret entrances and water tanks. The rulers of this fort built 2000 watch towers to guard and have a better look at enemies movement all the time.



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DAVANAGERE• Devangere District, is an administrative district of Karnataka

state in southern India. The city of Davanagere is the district headquarters. It had a population of 1,790,952 of which 30.32% was urban as of 2001. This district was carved out of Chitradurga district in 1997 by then Chief minister of Karnataka J. H. Patel.

• Davanagere District lies in the plain region on the Deccan Plateau locally known as bayalu seeme. The district is bounded by Shivamogga District, Haveri District, Chitradurga District, and Bellary District. The district lies in the center of Karnataka which is also reflected culturally. There are many windy places within the district favouring the recent growth of wind energy industry across the district.

• Previously known for its cotton mills, it was a fast-developing city of Karnataka. There was a time when the city was called " Manchester of Karnataka "due to its excellent quality of cotton produced in its cotton mills and hand looms. The arid town, was once a thriving textile center.

• Tourist places include Anekonda, Harihar etc.

Harihara temple


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DHARWAD• The administrative headquarters of the district is the town of Dharwad.

Dharwad, also known as Dharwar. Dharwad is famous for its Dharwad Peda. Dharwad is the administrative seat of the district of the same name. The municipality (resulting from a merger with neighbouring Hubli in 1961) covers 191 km2KREIS North Unit of National Projects Construction Corporation has its headquarters here. Karnataka High Court circuit Bench is also based here.

• The word "Dharwad" means a place of rest in a long travel or a small habitation. For centuries, Dharwad acted as a gateway between the Malenadu region and the plains, and it became a resting place for travellers. The name is derived from the Sanskrit word 'dwarawata', 'dwara' meaning "door" and 'wata' or 'wada'meaning "town".

• The city of Dharwad is deemed to be the seat of Saraswati because of the educational institutions, educationists, education loving people and the atmosphere. Students from all surrounding districts came to educational purpose. At 8 and 10 in the morning and 12 and 5 in the afternoon the roads of Dharwad, busses and autorikshas brim with students. It appears as though the whole of Dharwad itself is one big school.Dharwad has Kannada, English, Hindi, Marathi and Urdu medium schools.

• Hubli is an important industrial centre, with more than 1000 allied small and medium industries already established. There are machine tools industries, electrical, steel furnitures, food products, rubber and leather industries and tanning industries.IT Park Hubli - situated in the heart of the City and is promoted by the Government of Karnataka IT Department and KEONICS acts as the modalagency for maintaining and marketing of IT Park Hubli.

Karnataka University

IT Park Hubli

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GADAG• Gadag district has five taluks namely Gadag-Betgeri, Ron, Shirhatti,

Nargund and Mundargi.Gadag district, the core area of Kalyani Chalukyas has many monuments (mainly Shiva temples, Jain Basadis) Kalyani Chalukyas propagated Jainism and built temples (known for architectural beauty).The District is bounded on the north by Bagalkot District, on the east by Koppal District, on the southeast by Bellary District, on the southwest by Haveri District, on the west by Dharwad District, and on the northwest by Belgaum District. Gadag District was formed in 1997, when it was split from Dharwad District.

• Gadag has many places of Historical Importance• Presence of 11th-12th centuries, Kalyani Chalukyas monuments in the city

indicate its historic past. The Temple of Veera Narayana and Trikuteshwara are places of religious and historic importance. Jumma Masjid it consists Hindu Muslim trust. There are two main Jain temples are dedicated to Parshvanatha Thirthankara and Mahaveera.

• The legend goes to say that Naranappa better known as Kumaravyasa narrated the great epic before the lord by invoking the blessings of the Lord. The legend says that Naranappa got the inspiration to narrate the epic only during the time he sat before the Lord in a holy posture in a wet cloth dried up. A Brindavan of saint Raghavendra Swami is also built recently in the temple premises. This temple attracts thousands of devotees throughout the year. It is believed that the Veeranarayana Temple was built in the 11th Century. This is a 12th Century Mutt founded by Saint Tontada Siddalingeshwar Swamiji who was an accomplished Yogi. His Samadhi is situated in front of this Mutt.

• Other important places are Laksheshwar, Sudi, Lakkundi.

Trikuteshwara Temple

Jain Temple Laksmeshwara

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GULBURGA• Gulbarga district is one of the 30 districts of Karnataka state in southern

India. Gulbarga city is the administrative headquarters of the district. In Persian language Gul means flower and berg means leaf thus making Gulberga once a land of lavish living.The city of Gulbarga was founded by the Bahmani Sultans in the 14th century as their capital. However the history of the region dates back to the 6th Century when the Rashtrakutas gained control over the area, but the Chalukyas regained their domain and reigned for over two hundred years. Around the close of the 12th century the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Halebidu took control of the district. The present Gulbarga District and Raichur District formed part of their domain.

• The northern Deccan, including the district of Gulbarga, passed under control of the Muslim Sultanate of Delhi.The revolt of the Muslim officers appointed from Delhi resulted in founding of the Bahmani Sultanate in 1347 by Hassan Gangu, who chose Gulbarga (Ahsenabad during this period) to be his capital.From 1724 to 1948 the territory occupied by the present-day Gulbarga district was part of Hyderabad state ruled by the famous Nizams. It was integrated into India in September 1948.

• Gulbarga Fort built in 1347 Gulbarga's old moated fort is in a much deteriorated state, but it has a number of interesting buildings inside including the Jama Masjid, reputed to have been built by a Moorish architect. Gulbarga also has a number of imposing tombs(Haft Gumbaz) of Bahmani kings.Hazrat Khwaja Bande Nawaz : Dargah is another major attraction for devotees irrespective of caste and creed, dedicated to the famous Sufi saint who preached understanding, tolerance and harmony. Thus Gulbarga is known to be a hub of Hindu-Muslim harmony.

Gulburga Fort

Khwaza Bande NawazDargah

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HASSAN• Hassan district was the seat of the Hoysala Empire which at its peak ruled

large parts of south India from Belur as its early capital and Halebidu as its later capital during the period 1000 - 1334 CE. Today Hassan is primarily known worldwide for its Hoysala architecture and is a veritable treasure trove of about fifty sculptural marvels tucked away in several villages and towns of the district. Hassan is also known as the location of the Master Control Facility of the Indian Space Research Organization's Indian National Satellite System.

• The history of Hassan district is essentially the history of two of the well known dynasties that have ruled Karnataka, the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talkad (350 - 999 CE.) and the Hoysala Empire (1000 - 1334 CE). In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Vijayanagar kings patronised Chennakesava of Belur as their family deity. It was also ruled by Adilshahis of Bijapur and Mughal Empire after decline of the Vijayanagar. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Hassan became a land of contention between the Keladi Nayakas of Shimoga and the Mysore Kingdom. It finally merged as an independent Mysore kingdom.Around the 300 BCE. Hassan was part of the Mauryan empire. Sage Bhadrabahu arrived from north India in 3rd century BCE. along with many ascetics marking the arrival of Jainism into Karnataka. Some historians believe king Chandragupta Maurya 322 –298 BCE., grand father of emperor Ashoka the Great was his disciple and accompanied Bhadrabahu to Shravanabelagola and eventually died there

• Tourism and coffee are the two main sources of income of Hassan district. Famous places – Belur, Halebidu, Shravanabelagola, Nuggehalli etc.


Chennakeshava templeBelur

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HAVERI• Haveri is located at a distance of about 340 km from Bangalore. The

name Haveri is derived from the Kannada words havu and keri, which means place of snakes. Haveri is also famous for marketing Byadagi red chillies, which are well known all over India. It is said that Haveri had around 1000 maths (sacred religious places) in ancient days. One of the famous maths is Hukkeri Math.

• History of Haveri district dates to pre-historic period. Evidences are available on existence of pre-historic civilizations on the Tungabhadra and Varada river basins. Stone carvings depicting Stone Age civilizations are found in many parts of the district. About 1300 stone writings of different rulers like Chalukyas, Rastrakutas are found in the district. Though none of the major kingdoms of Karnataka had their headquarters in Haveri, many Mandaliks ruled in this district.

• Bankapur peacock sanctuary situated in Bankapur village of Shiggon taluk,this sanctuary is situated on 139 acres of land which has the remains of the historic Bankapura Fort. Ranganatha Nagareshwara temple is housed in ruins of the bankapura fort the temple has 60 pillars carved out of grey stone The town of Byadgi is situated at a distance of 15 Kms from Haveri. The town is well known for the Red Byadgi chilli.

• The famous saint KANAKADASA was from Kaginele of Haveri District

Bankapur Peacock Sanctury

Kanakadasa from Kaginele

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KODAGU• Coorg is one of the smallest districts of Karnataka in size but is among the

most beautiful. It is often called the Kashmir of Karnataka for it's cool weather and natural beauty. This small district if home to 260,000 people and is as well known for its coffee and tea estates, as for its brave and gutty people.

• For centuries, the people of Coorg have been known for their bravery and sportmanship. Several Kodavas (as the people from Coorg are often called) have actively served in the Indian army and the "Coorg Regiment" is among the most decorated. The first military commander of independent India, Gen. Kariappa was from Coorg. Kodavas have always been in limelight when it comes to Indian sports. Several people from Coorg have represented India in various sporting events. The languages spoken are Kodava, Kannada & Malayalam.

• The main occupation in Coorg is coffee plantation apart from orange and rubber. River irrigation is almost non-existant though the river Kaveri has it's origin here. Most coffee estates use spriklers connected to wells and ponds. Coffee plants are also used for decoration and are part of the handi-craft industry in and around Kutta, a small township near Nagarhole.

• The climate is generally very pleasant and on the cooler side throughout the year. The summer is cool, the monsoon rains are heavy, and winter can get quite chilly. One can see coffee estates everywhere and major towns appear as small pockets of life between the mountaineous forests and coffee estates. The blossom shower at the end of March is an important rain for coffee crops. The wonderful smell of the blossoming coffee flowers pervades the district at this time . The main towns of Coorg are Madikeri, Virajapet, Somawarpet, Kushalnagar and Gonikoppal. Tithimathi is known for its elephant training centre.


Talakaveri BirthPlace of Kaveri River

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KOLAR• Kolar was the headquarters of the district was formerly known as Kuvalala.

Kolar was the first capital of the Gangas, till about the 4th century A.D. In 1004 A.D., the Cholas annexed Kolar with their empire. Later, Kolar came under the Vijayanagar empire, before being taken over by the British in 1768. In 1792, Kolar was given to Tippu Sultan, by the British. This town came under the rule of Maharaja of Mysore and since then several improvements have taken place and with a result that it became the district Head quarters. It was Krishnaraja Wodeyar who was responsible for connecting the road and Railways.

• Historically, Kolar is said to be associated with the epic age, which recalls many legends associated with Avani in Mulbagal Taluk, which was also called Avani Kshetra. This region is home to legends from the Ramayana and Mahabharata.It is also believed that the sage Valmiki, the author of the epic Ramayana, lived here and Sri Rama stayed here on the way back to Ayodhya, after his conquest of Lanka. The legend goes further to establish that Seetha Devi, after being rejected by Rama, gave birth to her twins Lava and Kusha in this Avani.

• Tourist Attractions-Someswara Temple: is a fine example of Vijayanagara style, complete with a massive pillared mukha mandapa. Heavy Prakara walls, ornate Kalyana mantapa and a Devi Shrine, lofty gopura is known for fine stucco figures on the tower, while the door frame is carved in typical Vijayanagara style with dwarapalas.The K.G.F. city is entirely a creation of the Gold mining industry. The Champion mine is the second deepest mine in the world. Antharagange, a sacred stream, that pours sweet water from the mouth of a bull. This scenic spot, known as Shatha Shringa Parvatha(Kolar hills), abounds in rocks of many shapes and rare flora and fauna.

Someshwara Temple

Kolar Hills

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KOPPAL• Koppal, now a district headquarters is ancient Kopana a major holy place of

the Jainas, has two Ashokan inscriptions at Palkigundu and Gavimatha.• The history of Koppal can be traced back to the kingdoms of Shathavahanas,

Gangas, Hoysalas and Chalukya Dynasties. The name of the district "Koppal" is found in the poetic work of the great poet Kavirajamarga (during King Nrupathunga's time of 814-878 A.D.) as "Viditha Maha Kopana Nagara". During Ashoka's period, the Jainism gained greater momentum in this region. Therefore, it was called "Jainkashi". In 12 century A.D. Veerashaivaism of Social Reformer Basaveshwara became popular. The present Gavimatha of Koppal has great attraction.

• Tourist Attractions• Koppal Fort: is another important historical monument in Koppal. It is not

known who has built it. But it was acquired by Tippu Sultan in 1786 AD from a PaleyagarThe fort is about 400 feet above the plains.

• Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district was built in 1112 CE. Soapstone was found in abundance in this regions.The first temple to be built from this material was the Amrtesvara Temple in Annigeri in the Dharwad district in 1050 CE.

• Kinhal 13 km away from Koppal is famous for its traditional colourful lacquerware work and is also noted for manufacture of toys and images by Chitragars. Weaving, preparing of combs from horns and pottery are the other industries of this place.

• Kanakagiri: The old name of Kanakagiri town of Gangavathi taluk was Swarnagiri (means a "Hill of Gold"). It is said that Kanaka Muni, a saint, performed penance at this place. Kanakagiri was the headquarters of the southern area of the Mauryan Empire

Koppal Fort

Mahadeva Temple

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MANDYA• Mandya District borders on the south by Mysore District, on the west by

Hassan District, on the north by Tumkur District and on the east by Ramanagara district. The district was formed in the year 1939.Mandya District has five important rivers: Kaveri River and four tributaries main Hemavathi, Shimsha, Lokapavani, Veeravaishnavi.Mandya district consists of 7 taluks grouped under 2 subdivisions. The Mandya subdivision comprises Mandya, Maddur and Malavalli taluks and the Pandavapura subdivision comprises Pandavapura, Srirangapatna, Nagamangala and Krishnarajpet Taluks

• The Economy of Mandya district is based on Agriculture. The main crops grown are Paddy, Sugarcane, Jowar, Maize, Cotton, Banana, Ragi, Coconut, Pulses (predominantly horse gram and to some extent tur, cowpea, green gram, black gram, avare), Vegetables etc.

• Srirangapatna also spelt as Srirangapattana, is city of historic, religious, and cultural hub situated in Mandhya district of Karnataka.This history-rich town was the capital of the Warrior-Kings Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan - The Tiger of Mysore.

• Ranganathittu is located on the banks of the Kaveri River. In fact, it was formed when a dam was built across the Kaveri river in the 18th century. This resulted in the creation of six islets on the banks of the river. Fed by the monsoon rains, the river is rich in aquatic insects. This along with the relative isolation of the area, attracted birds and soon Ranganthittu became a favored nesting and breeding site for birds.Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary is a heaven for nature lovers and bird watchers. Located in the Mandya district of Karnataka, Ranganathittu is regarded as one of Asia’s most significant nesting and breeding ground for birds. A large number of exotic migratory species visit the sanctuary annually.


Ranganatittu BirdSanctury

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MYSORE• Mysore city was the capital of the old royal Mysore province. The word Mysore

expands to "Mahishasurana Ooru" which means the town of Mahishasura.To the people of India the word Mysore is synonimous with Sandalwood, silk and fine inlay-work using ivory. It is the home of incense sticks (agarbathi) dipped in sandalwood oil perfume base and has two well known incense factories - the Aravinda Parimala and the Vasu and Cycle brand (together these two account for 70% of the incense stick export from India). Mysore is also the home of many well regarded musicians and artists.

• Mysore silk is well known for its quality and everlasting lustre. The silk factory (Karnataka supplies 70% of India's silk) and the Sandalwood factory (which extracts the sandalwood oil) are located towards the south end of the town. Both have over a century of tradition and still produce what Mysore is well known for. Mysore had several lakes, all of which have been dried and are being used as open fields today. The Jeevanaraya katte near the Railway station, Doddakere near the palace, Karaji kere near the zoo gardens, stand testimony to the royal dynasties who took keen interest in providing healthy drinking water to their people.

• Tourism is another big industry in Mysore. The importance of Mysore as a tourist destination was evident when it was selected as the venue for the Karnataka Tourism Expo in the year 2006. Though Mysore city is well known as a tourist place, other parts of Mysore district are yet to see growth in tourism. However, the tourism department plans to develop other areas in Mysore district like Bettadapura, Hedathali, Kapadi, Mudukuthore Betta, Mugur, Nanjangud and Tirumakudalu Narasipura as tourist places.

• Mysore is well Known for grand celebration of Dasara festival which attracts thousands of tourist from India as well as other foreign countries.

Mysore Palace

Dasara Jamboo Savari

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RAICHUR• The district is bounded by the Krishna River on the north and the Tungabhadra

River on the south. The wedge of land between the rivers is known as the Raichur Doab, after the city of Raichur. Bijapur and Gulbarga districts lie to the north across the Krishna River. Bagalkot and Koppal districts lie to the west. Across the Tungabhadra lies Bellary District of Karnataka to the southwest and Mahabubnagar of Andhra Pradesh to the southeast. Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh state lies to the east, and includes the lower portion of the Raichur

• The Raichur Thermal Power Station at Shaktinagar in this district provides a large portion of the electricity consumption in Karnataka.

• Raichur District is one of few places in India with gold resources. Hatti Gold Mines are situated in Raichur District, around 90 km away from Raichur city. All the five talukas mentioned above are very well irrigated, with water from the Tungabhadra Dam on the Tungabhadra River, and Narayanpura Dam on the Krishna River. Raichur is known for its paddy fields and its rice is of extremely superior quality. Raichur has numerous rice mills which export high quality rice to different countries. It also has a good trading market in cotton industry.

• Among the historical attractions in the district is the Raichur Fort, built in 1294. Also notable is the nearby town of Anegundi, which has a number of monuments from the Vijayanagara empire, including the Ranganatha temple, Pampa Lake and Kamal Mahal, Jaladurga fort of Lingsugur taluk.

• MahaLaxmi Temple is located in a nearby village, Kallur, at a distance of 20 km from Raichur. Sri Sugureshwara Temple (Lord Veerabadhra) is in Deosugur village at the bank of river Krishna, about 18 km from Raichur. Both temples are easily accessible at all times via bus routes..

Raichur Thermal PowerStation

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RAMANAGAR• Ramanagara district is one of the 30 districts of Karnataka state in southern India.

Ramanagara city is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district is part of Bangalore Division. Ramanagara district was carved out of the erstwhile Bangalore Rural district on 23 August 2007, comprising Channapatna, Kanakapura, Ramanagara and Magadi taluks of the undivided district.

• Ramanagara is famous for its silk market, one of the biggest in India, giving it the other name of Silktown. Ramanagara district includes the Bidadi industrial area, which houses the manufacturing units of Toyota and Coca-Cola, and a 1400 MW combined cycle gas-based power plant.

• The region has several tall granitic hills which are famous for many short rock climbs, typically 1 to 2 pitches in length. Grades vary from 5.8 American to 5.11 American. It is home to some of the world's oldest granite outcrops. Some of the interesting climbs are on the Wanakkal wall ("Gabbar ki asli pasand", "Labor pain"), on the Rainbow wall ("UIAA", "Kalia"), on Anna-Thamma ("Darkness at dawn", "Black Diamond", the name Anna-Thama means 'elder-brother-younger-brother' in Kannada).Another well known hill is Ramadevarabetta. Along with Savandurga this was one of the shooting locations for David Lean's A Passage to India. Small door like grottoes were made in the rock to resemble caves.[5] It was also in this region that the path-breaking Hindi movie, Sholay, was shot.View from Ramadevarabetta Other famous hills in the region include the Revanasideshwara hill and Handigundi.

• The Closepet granites are a major geological feature of this region and are from the Lower Proterozoic era. This belt of rocks extend in the north-south direction in 50 km belt. This belt has younger potassic granites and is believed to separate two distinct crustal blocks of Archaean age. The block to the west has low grade granite-greenstone belts with iron-manganese ores and to the east are younger gneisses of granitic and granodioritic composition with gold-bearing schist belts

Ramadevara Betta

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SHIMOGA• A major part of Shivamogga District lies in the Malnad region of the Western

Ghats, a hilly area known for its green forests, plentiful rainfall, and as the source of many of the area's rivers. Shivamogga City is the administrative centre of the district. Jog Falls is a major tourist attraction of the district.There are various legends of how the name Shivamogga has evolved. According to one legend, the name Shivamogga is related to the Hindu God Shiva. Shiva-Mukha (Face of Shiva), Shivana-Moogu (Nose of Shiva) or Shivana-Mogge (Flowers to be offered to Shiva) can be the origins of the name "Shivamogga“

• Shimoga district is a part of the Malnad region of Karnataka and is also known as the "Gateway to Malnad" or Malenaada Hebbagilu in Kannada. Located in the central part of Karnataka state, Shimoga district is landlocked Agriculture and animal husbandry are the major contributors to the economy of Shimoga district. Rice, Arecanut, Cotton, Maize and Ragi are the major crops cultivated in this district.Karnataka is the largest producer of arecanut in India, majority of which is cultivated in the Shimoga district. The farmers from Shimoga are said to be very innovative and have managed to cultivate crops like Vanilla and Jatropha previously unheard of in India; yielding high monetary benefit.It also houses Steel industries and paper indusrtries.

• Shimoga is tourists paradise as it is covered mostly by forests it consists of wide variety of flora and fauna and has many willdlife sancturies.

Jog Falls

Wildlife in Shimoga

Page 30: Introduction to Karnataka


• Tumkur district is an administrative district in the state of Karnataka in India. The district headquarters are located at Tumkur. The district occupies an area of 10,598 km² and had a population of 2,584,711, of which 19.62% were urban as of 2001. It is a one and a half hour drive from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka.

• It consists chiefly of elevated land intersected by river valleys. A range of hills rising to nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m) crosses it from north to south, forming the watershed between the systems of the Krishna and the Kaveri. The principal streams are the Jayamangala and the Shimsha. The mineral wealth of Tumkur is considerable; iron is obtained in large quantities from the hillsides; and excellent building-stone is quarried. The slopes of the Devarayanadurga hills are clothed with forests. Wildlife such as leopards, bears and wild boar have been recorded here. Although, tigers have been recorded from these forests as late as 1950s, most recent reports are of stray sightings and need confirmation. The annual rainfall averages 39 inches.

• Tumakur is a good study center from primary education to higher education. It has its own university. Within this town, there are four technology institutions and one medical institution.To name some these are few educational institutes-Siddaganga Group Of Educational Institutions,SRS Group of Institutions,Shreedevi Group Of Educational Institutions,Sri Siddharatha Group Of Educational Institutions,H.M.S Group Of Educational Institutions ,CIT Group Of Educational Institutions.

Siddaganga Institute Of Technology

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UDUPI• Udupi district in the Karnataka state of India was created in August 1997. The three

northern taluks, Udupi, Kundapur and Karkal, were separated from Dakshina Kannada District to form Udupi district. Udupi district is surrounded by Uttara Kannada district in north, Dakshina Kannada district in southern direction. Shivamogga district borders on north east side and chikamagalur district on east. Arabian sea is on west of Udupi district. Udupi is famous for Udupi cuisine originated at Ashta Matha, i.e., eight Matts and Sri Krishna Temple. Udupi is also one of oldest Educational Centres. The administrative headquarters of Udupi district is Udupi town. Population as per Census 2001 was 1,112,243 of which 18.55% were urban.Udupi restaurants serving Udupi cuisine are popular all over India and have found its way into other countries also. Udupi (Udipi) restaurants are typically south Indian vegetarian restaurants. In Mumbai or Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore, Udupi restaurants are famous for tasty vegetarian food and courteous service.

• Udupi has a literacy rate of 92%, high compared to other districts of Karnataka. Udupi also tops the 10th and 12th standard exams held every year by the Karnataka State Education Board.Udupi district is home to internationally renowned educational institutions. The Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) runs schools, colleges and institutes of higher learning. Similarly, the Nitte Education Trust, located at Nitte, heads a large number of educational institutions.

• The famous Udupi Krishna Temple is located in Udupi. Udupi is the place where Sri Madhwacharya,one of the greatest proponents of the Vaishnava faith began his philosophical journey Kuthpady is known for the Subramanya temples, which are visited every year thousands of pilgrims during Subramanya Shrasthi, which falls in November–December It is also home to Brahma Vishnu Maheshwara Temple (Kanangi Temple) atyayuga Yogashrama and Ramakrishna Bhajana Mandira.There are other tourist spots such as Malpe beach,st Marys island .Udupi also houses many water falls and wildlife sancturies.

Krishna Temple

Malpe Beach

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UTTARA KANNADA• Uttara Kannada, also known as North Kanara or North Canara, is a Konkan district in

the Indian state of Karnataka. It is bordered by the state of Goa and Belgaum District to the north, Dharwad District and Haveri District to the east, Shimoga District and Udupi District to the south and the Arabian Sea to the west. The city of Karwar is the administrative headquarters of the district.Uttara Kannada was the home of the Kadamba kingdom from the 350 to 525. They ruled from Banavasi. After the subjugation of the Kadambas by the Chalukyas, the district came under successive rule of empires like Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagar empire. Famous Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta is said to have stayed for a time in the district under the protection of Nawayath Sultan Jamal Al-Din at Hunnur.

• The main geographic feature of the district is the Western Ghats or Sahyadri range, which runs from north to south through the district. Between the Sahyadris and the sea is a narrow coastal strip, known as the Payanghat, which varies from 8 to 24 kilometres (5.0 to 15 mi) in width. Behind the coastal plain are flat-topped hills from 60 to 100 meters in height, and behind the hills are the ridges and peaks of the Sahyadris. East of the Sahyadris is the Balaghat upland, part of the vast Deccan plateau. Moisture-bearing winds come from the west, and yearly rainfall averages 3,000 millimetres (120 in) on the coast, and as high as 5,000 millimetres (200 in) on the west-facing slopes of the Sahyadris. East of the crest is the rain shadow of the Sahyadris, which receive as little as 1,000 millimetres (39 in) annually. Much of the rain falls in the June–September Monsoon. Four principal rivers drain westwards from the crest of the Sahyadris to the sea; from north to south they are the Kali, Gungawali, Aghanashini and Sharavati. These rivers form numerous waterfalls, the most famous of which is Jog falls, on upper reaches of the Sharavati in neighboring Shimoga district, other famous waterfalls include Unchalli Falls, where the river Aghanashini drops 116 meters, Magod Falls, where the Bedti river plunges 180 meters in two leaps, Shivganga falls, where the river Sonda (Shalmali) drops 74 meters, and Lalguli falls and Mailmane falls on the river Kali. In the lowlands, these rivers form wide estuaries, extending several kilometers inland from the coast.

Kali River

Karwar Beach

Murdeshwar Temple

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YADGIR• Yadgir district is one of the 30 districts of Karnataka state in southern India. This

district was carved out from the erstwhile Gulbarga district as the 30th district of Karnataka on 10 April 2010.[1] Yadgir town is the administrative headquarters of the district.[2] The district occupies an area of 5,160.88 km².Presently, the district comprises three taluks: Shahpur, Surpur and Yadgir.[2] The district has 16 hoblies, 117 Gram Panchayets, 519 villages (inhabited & uninhabited) and four municipalities.

• Yadgir, popularly called as “Yadavagiri” by the local people, was once a capital of the Yadava Kingdom. Has a rich historical and cultural traditions. Yadavas, the earliest Muslim empire of South India chose Yadgir to be their capital and ruled from here from 1347 to 1425 A.D. Mentioned as Yadgir in ancient inscriptions, Yadgir is popularly known as “Yadavagiri” by the locals. Yadgir district has its deep routs in history. The famous dynasties of the south, the Satavahans, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Rastrkuta, Shahis, the Aidil shahis, the Nizam Shahis have ruled over the district.

• Yadgir has been blessed by the incessant flowing of two main rivers Krishna and Bhima in addition to these two, a few tributaries flow in this region. The upper Krishna project and Shahapur Taluka in Bendebembali “Core Green Sugar Factory yet to started. Yadgir which is known for of industries is presently showing great deal of signs of growth in the cement, textile, leather, and chemical production in the industrial sector. One of the recent developments, where in the people of Yadgir are proud and boastful is that the establishment of Agriculture University in Bheemarayana Gudi (B.Gudi).