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Transcript of Introduction - Routledge · PDF file 2020. 3. 23. · Introduction Bujang B.K. Huat...

  • 1 Introduction

    Bujang B.K. Huat Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

    David G. Toll University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom

    1.1 Aim and scope 3 1.2 Soils 3 1.3 Residual soils 4 1.4 Geographical occurrence of residual soils 4 1.5 Climate, classification systems and regions 6

    Global climate classification systems 6 Köppen climate classification system 6 Morphoclimatic zones 10

    1.6 Distribution of tropical residual soils 12 1.7 Engineering peculiarities of tropical residual soils 12

    Natural slopes subjected to environmental changes 15 Stability of vertical or near-vertical excavations 16 Lateral earth pressures 17 Foundations 18

    References 20

    Copyrighted

    University of Durham, Durham, United KingdomCopyrighted

    University of Durham, Durham, United KingdomCopyrighted 1.1 Aim and scope

    Copyrighted 1.1 Aim and scope

    1.4 Geographical occurrence of residual soils

    Copyrighted 1.4 Geographical occurrence of residual soils1.5 Climate, classification systems and regions

    Copyrighted 1.5 Climate, classification systems and regionsMaterial

    1.4 Geographical occurrence of residual soilsMaterial

    1.4 Geographical occurrence of residual soils 1.5 Climate, classification systems and regionsMaterial

    1.5 Climate, classification systems and regions Global climate classification systems

    Material

    Global climate classification systems Köppen climate classification system

    Material Köppen climate classification system

    1.6 Distribution of tropical residual soils

    Material 1.6 Distribution of tropical residual soils

    Material 1.7 Engineering peculiarities of tropical residual soils

    Material 1.7 Engineering peculiarities of tropical residual soils Natural slopes subjected to environmental changes

    Material Natural slopes subjected to environmental changes- Natural slopes subjected to environmental changes- Natural slopes subjected to environmental changes Stability of vertical or near-vertical excavations

    - Stability of vertical or near-vertical excavationsTaylor

    Natural slopes subjected to environmental changesTaylor

    Natural slopes subjected to environmental changesTaylor

    Stability of vertical or near-vertical excavationsTaylor

    Stability of vertical or near-vertical excavations

    & Francis

  • Introduction 3

    1.1 AIM AND SCOPE

    Residual soils are found in many parts of the world and are extensively used in the con- struction of foundations and as a construction material. In tropical areas, residual soil layers are often extensive and may measure a few hundred meters until unweathered rock is reached. As the major soil and foundation engineering conditions are deter- mined by this type of soil, evidently all aspects should be known before the engineering work is started.

    The Handbook of Tropical Residual Soil Engineering is intended as a complete reference source and manual for every engineer working on or interested in soil and foundation engineering in tropical areas. Almost every aspect of tropical residual soils is treated, including major applications, and a dedicated part is focused on region- and country-specific sections, including typical characteristics and soil conditions. Some tables and charts with typical data are included. This book includes among others the following topics: the genesis and classification of residual soils, the role of climate in soil formation (in particular tropical residual soil and why residual soils are different), the sampling and testing of tropical residual soils, the behaviour of weakly bonded and unsaturated soils, and the volume change and shear strength of tropical residual soils. There is a section on engineering applications of tropical residual soils such as in slopes and foundations. The book also features regional/country case studies where these soils are found, such as Hong Kong, India and Southeast Asia.

    This unique handbook will constitute an invaluable reference and should be a standard work in the library of any engineer involved in geological, foundation and construction engineering work in tropical residual soil.

    1.2 SOILS

    Soils constitute the multi-phased interface stratum formed by the interaction of the lithosphere with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. This dynamism may be expressed through the metaphor of the Earth as an engine where the atmosphere is the working fluid of the Earth’s heat engine (Ingersoll, 1983). This drives the dynamics on the terrestrial surface as expressed through the operation of physical and chemical processes at the Earth’s surface resulting in the formation of soils.

    Soils form a mantle of unconsolidated superficial cover that is variable in thickness. This is due to the fact that the depths to which the terrestrial materials, namely rocks, have been altered to form soils vary as a function of factors such as climate, topography and the nature of the subsurface. It is also due to the varying thickness of transported materials that come to form the unconsolidated superficial cover.

    Soils may, therefore, be grouped into two broad categories: residual and trans- ported soils. Residual soils form or accumulate and remain at the place where they are formed. Transported soils are formed from materials originating elsewhere that have moved to the present site, where they constitute the unconsolidated superficial layer.

    Copyrighted

    rock is reached. As the major soil and foundation engineering conditions are deter-Copyrighted

    rock is reached. As the major soil and foundation engineering conditions are deter- mined by this type of soil, evidently all aspects should be known before the engineeringCopyrighted

    mined by this type of soil, evidently all aspects should be known before the engineering work is started.

    Copyrighted

    work is started. The Handbook of Tropical Residual Soil Engineering is intended as a complete

    Copyrighted

    The Handbook of Tropical Residual Soil Engineering is intended as a complete reference source and manual for every engineer working on or interested in soil and

    Copyrighted

    reference source and manual for every engineer working on or interested in soil and foundation engineering in tropical areas. Almost every aspect of tropical residual soils

    Copyrighted

    foundation engineering in tropical areas. Almost every aspect of tropical residual soils is treated, including major applications, and a dedicated part is focused on region- and

    Copyrighted is treated, including major applications, and a dedicated part is focused on region- and country-specific sections, including typical characteristics and soil conditions. Some

    Copyrighted country-specific sections, including typical characteristics and soil conditions. Some tables and charts with typical data are included. This book includes among others the

    Copyrighted tables and charts with typical data are included. This book includes among others thefollowing topics: the genesis and classification of residual soils, the role of climate in

    Copyrighted following topics: the genesis and classification of residual soils, the role of climate in soil formation (in particular tropical residual soil and why residual soils are different),

    Copyrighted soil formation (in particular tropical residual soil and why residual soils are different),Material

    following topics: the genesis and classification of residual soils, the role of climate inMaterial

    following topics: the genesis and classification of residual soils, the role of climate in soil formation (in particular tropical residual soil and why residual soils are different),Material

    soil formation (in particular tropical residual soil and why residual soils are different), the sampling and testing of tropical residual soils, the behaviour of weakly bonded

    Material

    the sampling and testing of tropical residual soils, the behaviour of weakly bonded and unsaturated soils, and the volume change and shear strength of tropical residual

    Material and unsaturated soils, and the volume change and shear strength of tropical residual soils. There is a section on engineering applications of tropical residual soils such as

    Material soils. There is a section on engineering applications of tropical residual soils such as in slopes and foundations. The book also features regional/country case studies where

    Material in slopes and foundations. The book also features regional/country case studies wherethese soils are found, such as Hong Kong, India and Southeast Asia.

    Material these soils are found, such as Hong Kong, India and Southeast Asia.- This unique handbook will constitute an invaluable reference and should be a- This unique handbook will constitute an invaluable reference and should be aTaylor

    This unique handbook will constitute an invaluable reference and should be aTaylor

    This unique handbook will constitute an invaluable reference and should be a standard work in the library of any engineer involved in geological, foundation andTaylor

    standard work in the library of any engineer involved in geological, foundation and construction engineering work in tropical residual soil.

    Taylor construction engineering work in tropical residual soil.

    Taylor & & Soils constitute the multi-phased interface stratum formed by the interaction of the& Soils constitute the multi-phased interface stratum formed by the interaction of theFrancis

    Soils constitute the multi-phased interface stratum formed by the interaction of theF