Intro to African Studies--2013 Editted

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 INTRODUCTION TO AFRICAN STUDIES Duration: 3 Weeks © IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013 1

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Intro to African Studies

Transcript of Intro to African Studies--2013 Editted

  • INTRODUCTION TO AFRICAN STUDIES

    Duration: 3 Weeks

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Course Description

    This introductory course aims to generate interest among students in African Studies. It will provide basic background information on Africa and perspectives on its histories, peoples and cultures. This course will serve as the spring board from which the subsequent elective courses in African Studies will be launched.

    Two parts: General introduction (3 weeks); and Introduction to Gender (3 weeks)Electives (6 weeks) IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Course ObjectivesITo help students appreciate the contemporary value of African Studies as an area of enquiry.

    To help students engage with discourses on African realities.

    To encourage students to appreciate African Identities.

    To help students develop a sense of Self Determination in the global world.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IITo make students aware of the negative stereotypes about Africa and to encourage them to challenge these stereotypes.

    To Develop appropriate methodologies and frameworks for examining Africa and its past through multi-disciplinary approaches.

    To highlight some of Africas contributions to world civilizations and knowledge generation.

    To enhance students knowledge in specific areas of African Humanities and Social Sciences

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Course requirementsAssessments Interim assessment Final exam

    Course activities may include Formal instruction Group discussions Class presentationsTutorials Essays/written assignments.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Week 1The value of African studies in todays world

    Learning objectives

    At the end of Lecture 1, students should be able to:

    Understand the distinctive nature of Africa Explain various (mis)representations of AfricaAppreciate the significant contribution of Africa to world civilization. Appreciate the African Identity

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*WHO IS AN AFRICAN?(Source: Google images, 2012)

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Who is an African?

    How are African identitiesconstructed in the face of the mosaic of identities that peoples of African ancestry living within and beyond the continent bear?

    To what extent do all categorized as Africans or as having an African pedigree perceive themselves as Africans?

    To what degree are all who perceive themselves as Africans accepted as such?

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*Are there levels of Africanness, and are some more African than others?

    How do African identities interface with other levels of identity and citizenship in Africa?

    And what are the implications of the contentious nature of African identities and citizenship for the projects of pan-Africanism, the making of the Africa-nation, and Africas development trajectories?

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*Are these men Africans?Dr. Guy Scott Vice President of ZambiaBarack Hussein Obama 44th President of the United States

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Defining AfricannessMultilayeredLegal - e.g. citizenship, parentage, naturalizationConceptual Philosophical: shared value systems and world views (for example, ubuntu I am because we are) e.g. Belief in the ancestors Cultural:

    -tangible ( buildings, monuments, artifacts) -intangible (skills; highly developed oral traditions; knowledge systems) Why go beyond geographical borders? IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*Concept of the African Diaspora

    What do you think about the concept of the African Diaspora? 18th century painting showing a family of black Africans in Latin Americahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_diaspora.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Defining AfricaRace? - note range of racial types on the continent

    People of African descent? (Large concentrations in Northern and Southern America, the Caribbean. Also found in India, the Middle East etc

    Political? - citizenship in one of the 53 countries of the AU see the constitutive act; long term residence in an African country?Geographic? - Countries on the African Continent/MapAfrica is not a country, but a continent Allegiance ? - Dedication to African heritage and aspirations

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013 *

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • EXERCISE 1Blank Map ActivityIdentify the following countries on the blank map of Africa provided:Soa Tome and Principe South SudanMadagascarBotswanaRwanda Western Saharag. Cape Verdeh. Ugandai. KenyaJ. Senegalk. Gambiai. Eritrea IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • A blank map of Africa IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013* MISREPRESENTING AFRICAAfrica has no history?

    Africans have no civilization?

    Africa is the dark continent?

    Africans have inferior minds?

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Africa the continent of crisis?Two types of narratives about Africa Except Africa Development works everywhere in the world but in Africa. Therefore Africa has to change rather than development policies tailor themselves better to the needs of AfricaDoomsday narratives There is a crisis of overpopulation in Africa, poverty, drought, over utilisation of scarce resources, environmental crisis, corruption, ethnic tensions, civil wars all of which are resulting in a terrible crisis that requires external interventions to halt. The solution has to come from outside since African states are not competent to solve problems they have created.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • POVERTY IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    EthiopiaHomelessness in USA

    A soup kitchen in Europe

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • BAD GOVERNANCE? IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*Nelson MandelaIddi AminKwame NkrumahHugo Raphael ChavezSlobodan Milosevic

    Silvio Berlusconi

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • CONFLICTS IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*Child soldiersBosniaForeign MercenariesAfrica

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • DEBATE ON CULTURAL PRACTICES?Ritual killingsCircumcisionWidowhood ritesLibationChild marriageChild labourBride wealthWitchcraft

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*Representing Africa:What are the GOOD representations of Africa? Dwaninmen (Rams Horn) Humility, Strength, Wisdom and Learning

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Contemporary Africa has contributed positively to global knowledge production and civilization in the areas of:

    AgricultureAcademiaInternational Trade and Commerce

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Coffee: An African Tree CropCoffee originates in Africa.There are three types of coffee Arabica (originates in Ethiopia)Robusta (originates in Congo)Liberica (originates in Liberia). The highest quality of coffee is Arabica.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Coffee: A Global CommodityCoffee was introduced into Dutch colonies in Java in the 1690s. In the 1720s coffee was carried by the French and Dutch into botanical gardens in the Americas, Dutch Guinea (Surinam), Haiti and Santa Domingue. Robusta and Liberica species were also carried into South America.

    By the nineteenth century Brazil emerged as the major producer and world consumption of cocoa grew more than 15 times. By this period Yemeni and Ethiopian production in international trade had become insignificant.

    However, in recent years coffee production has rapidly expanded in Africa with Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda and Kenya becoming significant producers of Arabica and Cte dIvoire of Robusta (mainly used in producing nescafe).

    While producers get a small percentage of the total price if the coffee value changes, in recent years the government of Ethiopia has successfully got different varieties in Ethiopia internationally recognised for their heritage and gained a premium price paid for these varieties in European markets.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Cocoa: A South American tree crop successfully cultivated in West Africa Cocoa is largely produced in West Africa, with over 80 percent of global production originating from West Africa (the two dominant producers are Cte dIvoire and Ghana (producing around 70 percent of global supplies)).

    However cocoa is a South American crop, which was originally introduced into Sao Thome and Principe off the coast of Cameroon, where it was subsequently smuggled into the Gold Coast by Tetteh Quashie.

    By the 1820s the Gold Coast emerged as the most important producer contributing between 70-80 percent of Global supplies. Cocoa was largely produced by farmers for export rather than domestic consumption and provides an early example of successful agrarian capitalism in Africa (Polly Hill 196x).

    During the 1970s Cte dIvoire overtook Ghana as the major producer. Competition also came from Brazil and Malaysia, however as international production became increasingly competitive the West African producers were able to out compete others.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Coffee and cocoa Examine the differences and similarities of the coffee and cocoa stories.* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Positive Representation Africa

    Wole Soyinka is a Poet, playwright, and novelist from Nigeria.He has written many plays, poems using the mythology of the Yoruba. He addresses social and political issues in Nigeria and AfricaIn 1967, he was jailed for 22 months for secretly meeting with Ojukwu of Biafra to try and prevent

    civil war. In 1986 he won the Nobel prize for

    Literature, the first African to win the prize for new literatures.In 1994, he had to flee into exile

    to escape imprisonment by Abacha. IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    Wole Soyinka

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Positive Representation of Africa: Inventors

    InventorsCountry of OriginInventions/ProjectsProf. Souleymane MboupSenegalHIV-2 Virus (discover)Dr. Oviemo OvadjeNigeriaBlood Auto-transfusionSamuel TodoTogoHumanoid RobotJean-Patrice KekaDemocratic Republic of CongoSpace RocketsProf. Francis K.A. AlloteyGhanaThe Allotey Principle Victor and Johnson ObasaNigeriaArmoured VehicleSimon MwauraKenyaMultipurpose Mobile Remote controlProf. Nii Narku QuaynorGhanaOne of the Pioneers of designing and developing the internetAbdoulaye ToureSenegalSolar OvenPhilippe YodaBurkina FasoPlastic RecyclingPhillip Emeagwali NigeriaConnection Machine Supercomputer

  • Prof. Monty Jones: Renowned African Scientist

    Prof. Monty Jones is a renowned plant breeder from Sierra Leone who in 2004 won the World Food prize for leading a team at West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) successfully crossing West African rice (Oryza glaberima) with Asian rice (Oryza sativa) creating the Nerica varieties (New Rice for Africa), a rare and successful hybridisation of rice.

    His approach is recognised to be innovative in its use of participatory methods linking farmers, extension agents and scientists

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Ethiopian Airlines: A Successful Commercial VentureIt was established by the Ethiopian government in 1945.

    It has survived the many crises that has plagued the airline industry since its establishment and has grown to become one of the major airlines in the world flying a wide range of routes the world over.

    With its ten modern 787s and its confident global ambitions, Ethiopian Airlines has not just Africa, but the whole world, in its hands. The Economist 3rd September 2012

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • What is African StudiesA formally organized multi-disciplinary academic study of the continent of Africa and the African diaspora.The study of African Studies is three- dimensional:

    i) research/knowledge production ii)dissemination of knowledge and teachingiii) the application of knowledge/transformation of knowledge into policies and social action.Source: Gordon J.U (2013). Inaugural lecture, Kwame Chair, Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana. IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Accessing sources on Africa (1) Documentary & Non-documentary Archaeology

    Provides information about how humans adapted to their environment

    Archaeological information is obtained through the excavation of specially selected sites

    E.g. Ife Bronze works, Zimbabwe ruins, Pharonic pyramids IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Accessing sources on Africa (2) Linguistics

    Study of the origin, structure, and changes of a language

    Languages that are closely related

    E.g. Ga and Dangme or Waale and Dagaare may be deemed to have developed out of a single parent language e.g. eat di. Twi yoma 'camel', Mande nyorom, Dagaare nyogma

    Exercises: What is the word for kill, die dance, walk, etc in different languages?

    A comparative study of languages can provide valuable historical information.

    E.g. a study of Bantu and W/African languages provide evidence of a common ancestor IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Accessing sources on Africa (3) Oral traditionsthe lore (traditional knowledge and beliefs) of cultures having no written language.

    Transmitted by word of mouth and consists, as does written literature, of both prose and verse.(narratives, poems and songs, myths, dramas, proverbs).

    Often transmitted by specialists/experts Can provide valuable facts and profound perspectives on life, e.g. court historians

    Nearly all known peoples, now or in the past, have produced it.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Accessing sources on Africa (4)

    New Media: new media offer information in multiple and provide a wide variety of sources

    Written sources:

    Primary sources

    official reports, files, court documents, financial papers, newspapers, old family papers or official files.

    Secondary sources

    Books (of analytical & scholarly articles)

    Tertiary sources

    encyclopaedia, bibliography

    Institutional sources

    museums , archives and libraries

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • SummaryIn this lecture we have:Been given an overview of Introduction to African StudiesExamined the distinct nature of Africa and its people.Identified some misrepresentations and negative stereotypes about Africa.Enumerated some significant contributions by Africans that (may) have been excluded in the dominant narrative about world civilisation.Identified several sources of data and information on Africa.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*We need to keep hope alive and strive to do better Kofi Annan, Former UN Secretary General

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • ReferencesAdibe, Jideofor (ed.). (2009). Who is an African? Identity, Citizenship and the Making of the Africa-Nation. London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd.Roe, Emery. (1995). Except Africa: Postscript to a Special Section on Development Narratives in World Development Vol. 23 No 6 (pp. 1065-1069)Sekyi H.V.H. 1994 Colour Prejudice Past Present and Future. New York, Vantage Press

    http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm

    http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats

    http://www.kumatoo.com/african_inventors.htmlhttp://www.black inventor.com The Economist 3rd September 2012 http://www.economist.com/blogs/gulliver/2012/09/ethiopian-airlines

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • Lecture TwoPolitical Geography of Africa IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • ObjectivesTo explore political organization and administration in pre-colonial Africa

    To appreciate African political institutions from pre-colonial through contemporary times

    Explain diversity of Africa within and outside Africa

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • What is the Political Geography of Africa?Political Geography is defined as the physical and conceptual presence of Africa and African cultures, political systems and values across time and space.Physical: Refers to the map of Africa, its people, traditions, and political institutions.Sub-regional DichotomySub-Saharan Africa (SSA) vs North Africa.Conceptual: African presence through its people, cultures, traditions, and practices on the continent and in the diaspora.African DiasporaEurope, Caribbean, North America & South America.Time & Space: Historical and contemporary expansion of Africa: its values, political and religious systems in the diaspora and on the continent.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Important FactsAfrica is the second largest continent after Asia.Has a land area of a little over 11,700,000 square/km2.Stretches about 5000 miles from Cape Town to Cairo, and 3000 from Dakar to Mogadishu.Africas population as at 2010 1 022 234 Source United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division World Population Prospects: The 2010, Volume

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Important FactsAfrica land size is about the size of USA, Argentina, Europe, India, China and New Zealand combined or About three and a half times the size of the United States of America.Africa has 54 modern states including island republic off its coasts.Most African states are multi-lingual except a few like Somalia, Swaziland, Lesotho, and Botswana. While Nigeria for instance has over 500 languages, while Kenya has over 100.Africa is the cradle of humanity as the first humans lived on African soil (the ancestors of homo sapiens).

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011

  • Indigenous States Development & Governments People from different communities joined together through confederations or conquest, for purposes of commerce or defense, to develop kingdoms;

    Those living under jurisdictions of such confederations or kingdoms found that the breadth and complexity of their political consciousness increased;

    Large scale empires (states) initially rose out of such kingdoms by expanding through military or diplomatic leadership, but they eventually fell (fragmenting into their component parts) at a later time;

    Such large scale empires usually recognized the legitimacy and autonomy of local leaders and communities; and

    The small traditions of such local communities usually remained vital and resilient, even during serious disruptions when the great traditions of imperial civilizations were abandoned or destroyed.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • African Indigenous State System IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

  • Examples of Ancient, Medieval, & Early Modern African states Ancient EgyptKush/NubiaAxumGhanaMaliThe Dahomey Kingdom

    Songhai Kanem BornuBugandaThe Oyo EmpireThe Zulu KingdomMalavi

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Indigenous State Structures and Forms of Authority State Structure took two forms:

    Centralized State formsCentralized states had well defined political authority with institutional bureaucracy for collecting taxes, supervising ceremonies, maintaining law and order and carrying out the general orders of the political heads E.g. Old Ghana empire, Mali Empire etc.Forms of indigenous authority under this system are;

    Hierarchical systemsPyramidal / Federated systems

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Hierarchical Systems

    Highly centralized. Presided over by a powerful political figure (king), with efficient bureaucracy and military arrangement.

    Political heads often had subordinates who assisted in the day-to-day administration of the society. E.g. Buganda Kingdom of Uganda; the Dahomey kingdom Benin.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Pyramidal/ Federated Systems

    A federation consisting of different levels of autonomous nations with their own chiefs, paramount chiefs or a king.

    The levels of the pyramid are based on seniority; thus higher chiefs may or may not have the right to interfere directly in the affairs of lower chiefs.

    In such instance, lower chiefs are expected to show deference to the higher ones. E.g. Yoruba of Nigeria

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • B. Decentralized SocietiesPolitically decentralized societies had no bureaucracies and were often based on kinship. Maintenance of law and order was deferred to elders, age-set groups and other groups. This includes a gradation from societies without any state structures to transitory forms of state organizations.

    The form of indigenous authority found in these societies is segmented

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011

  • Segmented SystemsPower is diffused and shared. Segments of the society were managed by elders, age-set groups or council chosen from different lineagessegmented systems do not have a single powerful political figure. E.g. Tallensi of Northern Ghana, Ibo of Nigeria and Nuer of Sudan

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Basic Features of the Indigenous Political Systems The Indigenous African political institutions were largely based on kinship and ancestry.

    Rules of procedure were established through customs and traditions rather than written constitutions

    Women played active roles in the political system including holding leadership and military positions.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*The indigenous political system had some democratic features. For example, succession was regulated according to descent and merit in some cases.

    Checks and balances were provided as well as consensus-building.

    Power in the indigenous political system was both secular and sacred.

    The village constitutes the basic unit of the indigenous political system

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

  • EUROPEAN PRESENCE IN AFRICAEuropean ExplorationIn 1471, The Portuguese arrived on the Gold Coast around the West Africa Region.

    Later, other Europeans followed including: the Dutch, the Danes, the English

    The development led to trade activities between Europeans and the Africans.

    Europeans traded with the Africans in the following items-gold, ivory, beads and others.

  • The Bond of 1844 signed between Fanti Chiefs and The British.

    The Treaty of Butre, between the Netherlands and the people of Ahanta.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011*Treatises in African Societies

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011

  • Missionaries in AfricaThere were many Missions in Africa.

    Some Missionaries that came to the Gold Coast were: The Protestants (The Anglicans,The Basel Missions,

    Weslayan Methodist etc)The Catholics

    Their main job was to preach the Gospel of Christ

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2011

  • Berlin & Partition In 1879, France by her activities in the interior of Senegal, began the European partition of Africa. In November 15, 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called a conference of major western powers of the world to discuss and end confusion over the control of Africa

    14 Western countries in attendance: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America

    Major Players: France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal

    The conference ended in February 26, 1885 - a three month period where colonial powers negotiated geometric boundaries in the interior of the continent, disregarding the cultural and linguistic boundaries already established by the indigenous African population

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • The Berlin Conference IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • European Holdings & Colonialism Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded through its control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and Botswana. The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast).

    France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa) and Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa).

    Belgium and King Leopold II controlled the Democratic Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo).

    Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west. Italy's holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia.

    Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa).

    Spain claimed the smallest territory - Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni)

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Then and NowColonial Post-colonial IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

  • Nature of Colonial RuleThe European colonial powers shared one objective in their African colonies: exploitation. However, their differences were reflected in the governance established over the colonies.

    The British established a system of indirect rule.France and the other colonial powers ruled the colonies directly from the metropolitan centres in Europe

    The French notably sought to create culturally assimilated elites to represent French ideals in the colonies.

    In the Belgian Congo, King Leopold II, who had financed the expeditions that staked Belgium's claim in Berlin, embarked on a campaign of ruthless exploitation associated with mass torture and death of the African people.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Nationalism and Struggle for Independence Necessitating factors:

    a. exploitation, discrimination and neglect by colonial authorities

    b. the world wars

    c. western education

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Political Legacies of Colonial Rulea. New State Structures Carved out without regard to pre-existing conditionsMostly centralized Subordination of indigenous political institutions & systems of authority b. Different Systems of Governance Presidential SystemParliamentary SystemHybrid System c. Different Political InstitutionsLegislature ExecutiveJudiciaryCompetitive Elections

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • PAN-AFRICANISM AND THE PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENTWhat is pan-Africanism?It is a perception by some Africans (at home and abroad) that they share a common destiny and interest as a people of African descent.

    Origins of the Pan-African Movement

    Pan-Africanism is undoubtedly the result of slavery and colonialism in Africa. As a socio-political movement, it can be traced to the first pan-African conference of July, 1900; in London. The conference was convened by Henry Sylvester Williams and the African Association (AA); which H. S. Williams founded in 1898.

    The conference set up the Pan-African Association (PAA) which later metamorphosed into the Pan-African Movement (PAM).

    H. S. Williams was supported in various ways by Booker T. Washington, Rev. Majola Agbebi (Nigeria), Bishop James Johnson, Dadabhai Naoroji (Indian MP), Bishop James Holly, Judge David Straker (Barbados) etc.*

  • THE PAN-AFRICAN MOVEMENTGoalsFormation of the United States of Africa (USA); i.e., including Caribbean countries.Ensure closer ties between peoples of African descent the world over.Bring about friendlier relations between people of African descent and other races.Secure the civil rights of all Africans in the world.Promote the businesses of Africans globally.

    Some Leaders of PAMH. S. Williams (1869-1911)W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963)- the father of pan-Africanism.Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)- Africa for the AfricansGeorge Padmore (1902-1959)

    Marcus Garvey formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) for equality and self-determination to all people of African descent.*

  • Kwame Nkrumah (c. 1909-1972)- the father of pan-Africanism on the African continent.Haile Selassie I (1892-1975)- first Chairman of Africa Unity 1963/64Cheikh Anta Diop (1923-1986)- Negro origins of pre-historic Egyptian Civilization.Julius K. Nyerere (1922-1999)- founding member of OAUMalcolm X (1925-1965)

    LEGACIES OF PAMIndependent African/Caribbean statesFormation of the OAU/AUGlobal civil rights for people of African descent.African Studies/AfrocentrismEtc.

  • Quest for Continental Government A. The Early Debate -Regionalism Vs Continentalism

    Despite broad agreement among African leaders about the importance of pan-Africanism as a foreign policy goal, there was disagreement about the proper path to achieve such unity.

    Three different opinions emerged as a result:First, The Brazzaville Group (named after the capital of Congo-Brazzaville), and mainly of francophone countries It sought a minimalist approach and advocated the use of standard diplomatic practices to coordinate national economic policies It gave little consideration to the possibility of creating continent-wide institutions (Gordon and Gordon, 2001).

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Second, The Casablanca Group (named after the Moroccan city), and led by Nkrumah, argued on the contrary that the success of pan-Africanism required a political union of all independent African countries, patterned after the federal model of the United Sates.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Third, the Monrovia Group (named after the capital of Liberia), and led by Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Belewa, Prime Minister of Nigeria, rejected the idea of political union as both undesirable and unfeasible.The group argued that African leaders would jealously guard their countries newfound independence.

    NOTE: AUS 50TH ANNIVERSARY

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • It , however sought a greater degree of cooperation than that espoused by the Brazzaville Group.

    It called for the creation of a looser organisation of independence African states that would promote growing cooperation in functional areas such as economic, scientific, educational and social development

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • On May 25, 1963, thirty-one African Heads of State largely embraced the Monrovia vision of African international relations by launching the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), the first Pan-African, intergovernmental organisation of independent African countries based on African soil, with the determination to gain freedom and liberation from colonial rule.

    (Gordon and Gordon, 2001) IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    *

  • B. Contemporary EffortsThe AU was launched in 2002 to replace the OAU.

    AU is inspired by the ideals of Pan- Africanism to promote unity, solidarity, cohesion and cooperation among Africans

    NEPAD, is a merger of the Millennium Partnership for the Africas Recovery Programme (MAP) and the OMEGA Plan. The merger was finalized on July 3, 2001. Out of the merger, the New African Initiative (NAI) was born. Its policy framework was finalised on 23rd October 2001, forming NEPAD.

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • NEPAD provides a strategic framework for the socio-economic upliftment of Africa, integrating the continent into global economy and placing it on the path to sustainable development.

    Question

    Why did the Casablanca group (led by Kwame Nkrumah) advocate a strong continental government given that Africa had diverse political institutions, systems, and ethnicities? IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • ReferencesJames D. Grant, (1994) Political Development in Historic Africa. In Vincent Khapoya (ed)., The African Experience: An Introduction (Printice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey).John ILLIffe, Africans: the History of a Continet (New York, 2007), Ch.4. Mueni wa Muiu & Guy Martin (2009) Indigenous African Political Systems and Institutions A New Paradigm of the African State (Palgrave Macmillan, New York) Mazrui, Ali, The African Condition: A Political Prognosis London : (Heinemann, 1980) Nehemia Levtzion, 1973Ancient Ghana and Mali (London,. Vincent Khapoya (2013) African Independence and Afterward (Chapter 6) in The African Experience: An Introduction (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey).April Gordon and Donald Gordon, (2001). Understanding Contemporary Africa. Third Edition(Lynne Rienner, London)Film by Basil Davidson

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Lecture Three

    PERSPECTIVES OF AFRICAN CULTURE NOTIONS OF CULTURE* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • OBJECTIVES

    By the end of lesson, students should be able to: Give a general overview of following: African culture (s), languages and development. Interrogate various mis/conceptions of African culture(s), languages and development Critique existing notions of these concepts. Establish and explain the relationship between culture and development.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Interactive sessionWhat do people in your society understand by culture?

    What do you understand by culture?

    Do African languages have a word for culture?

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • What do you think about the following??? IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013*

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Some Misconceptions about African Culture(s)

    Modernity and Culture are oppositesCulture does not include science and technologyIt is only about drumming and dancingIt is all about the past (outmoded customs)Culture is only about traditional beliefs & customsIt implies homogeneities (people doing things the same way).Why are these deemed to be misconceptions?

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Culture?* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Frequently cited definitions: E. B. Tylor (1871)

    "that complex whole which includes knowledge, morals, religion, customs and habits or any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society".* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • World Conference on Cultural Policies adopted the following definition(MONDIACULT, 1998) :culture is that whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social groups. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • What is Culture?Culture is an artefact (i.e. man-made).Culture is learnt.Culture pertains to the group and not normally peculiar to individuals.Culture is transmissible directly and indirectly.Variety of Sanctions enforce some conformity.

    It is not cast in stone.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Summary of Other Views on cultureIt is the way a people think, feel and believe. (Clyde Kluckholn)

    It is a convenient shorthand for an ill-defined entity which might be described as a way of life.(Fieldhouse 1986)

    Culture is the totality of a peoples way of life. It embodies the distinctive achievements of communities and people, their identities and aspirations

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Some Aspects of Culture Economy: (goods and services: their production, distribution and consumption within society)

    Political: the societys political norms and behaviours. Some societies are identified by their political institutions and leaders. E.g. Ashantis are identified by their allegiance to the golden stool, a politico-religious symbol, and to the Asantehene. Technology: A societys technology and sciences are crucial to their culture. The way peoples, techniques as well as implements or tools are of relevance to the identification of culture. Note that by studying artefacts Archaeologists are able to identify past cultures.* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Entertainment: forms of entertainment (dances, music, games, drama etc.). So important are the performance arts some people seem to think that culture is only about these.

    Language: Languages that people speak are also crucial to their identity. Many ethnic people are known by the terms that refer to their languages. The Nzema speak Nzema, the Yoruba speak Yoruba. * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Culture is DynamicCulture changes and does not remain static. This may be due to many factors. Changes in demographic profile of the society; Environmental changes and changes in the economy;Contact with other societies: through wars, trade, colonization etc. can lead to borrowing of new habits and norms and abandonment of old ways.Globalisation is responsible for many changes that African societies are going through now.Changes in technology and scientific knowledge etc.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Discuss: what does this picture tell us?* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Discuss* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Who are they?Do they exemplify African Culture?* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • LANGUAGE(S) OF AFRICA

    Africa is home to about of the worlds languages i.e. over 2000 living languages. These serve a variety of purposes, such as:Mother tongues/first languages, --- CulturalOfficial /National languages ---AdministrativeTrade languages- linguae francae --- CommunicationRitual / secret, theological languages --- ReligionMedia for artistic expression and entertainment. There are non-indigenous languages that came in through colonialism English, French, Portuguese, Spanish

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • The Language FamiliesLinguists since Greenbergs time have shown that the majority of African languages have common origins proto-sources. The 2000+ African languages are offspring of 4 parent languages. They are classified in one of 4 families:-Afro-Asiatic [in North Africa & Middle East]-Nilo-Saharan [Sahara, Nile basin, etc]-Khoisan [around Kalahari]-Niger-Congo-Kordofanian [basins of Niger and Congo]* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Interactive sessionWhat do you understand by the term development?

    Would you say development was unknown to Africans until their contact with Europeans?Do African languages have terms for Development?If yes, suggest Akan, Ewe, Ga and Dangbani terms for Development?* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Misconceptions about Development Westernization/modernization?Economic growth?It is about per capita income/GDPDevelopment is a project? Development is a definite state that some countries have attained, but others never will?African culture hinders development?To be developed, countries have to attain certain goals Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013Development is . thus anything opposed to Westernization (African culture) is seen as opposed to development.*

  • Definitions of DevelopmentAmartya Sen (1999:3) Economist &Nobel Laureate:

    development can be seen.....as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. Focusing on human freedoms contrasts with the narrow views of development, such as identifying development with the growth of gross national product, or with the rise in personal incomes, or with industrialisation or with technological advance, or with social modernisation.* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Ake C. (1996):

    development is a process by which people create and recreate themselves and their life circumstances to realize higher levels of civilization in accordance with their own choices and values.* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Remarks about Development Development is a Process.It should be people oriented.Wellbeing should be central issue.It should be about freedoms and informed choices.It should be about social justice. It should include equity - gender equality.It should be about peace /absence of war, conflicts.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • How Culture applies to Development Promotion of progressive cultural practices, and the rejection of destructive ones.It should accommodate a peoples aspirations.Cultural sensitivity: cultural assets norms, knowledge, etc. can be exploited as development assets.Appreciate that certain cultural practices may be entrenched in social systems. Cultural norms are not sacrosanct, and can be modified or replaced if society needs to.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • Cultural Practices that impede DevelopmentCultural practices which endanger human life

    Human sacrificeSome practices may undermine individual welfare FGM, infant betrothal, trokosiSome practices can affect peoples fundamental human rights.- Witchcraft accusation* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • SUMMARYThis lectureexamined the concept of African culture(s).provided education about African languages and how they divide and unite people.examined concepts of developmentlooked at the interrelationships between culture, development and language.

    Question: Can we talk of African Culture, given the diversities present in Africa?* IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • CONCLUSIONCulture does not imply absolute homogeneity; it permits sub-cultures and intra-cultural differences.Culture is created by human beings and is dynamic Multilingualism is the norm in Africa but unity underlies heterogeneity of African cultures.African culture is the entirety of the African way of life. It is an abstraction.Culture can be used as an important tool for development.

    Development, it is said, is culture specific.

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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  • REFERENCES

    Heine, Bernd and Derek Nurse. (2001). African Languages: An introduction. Cambridge pp 1-42.Ake Claude, (1996). Democracy and development in Africa . Washington DC; Brookings Institute.Sen, Amartya. (1999). Development as Freedom, Oxford, Oxford University Press.http://www.unesco.org/en/cultural-diversity/reflections-on-cultural-diversity/

    * IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

    IAS, University of Ghana, Legon, 2013

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    *H. S. Williams was supported in various ways by Booker T. Washington, Rev. Majola Agbebi (Nigeria), Bishop James Johnson, Dadabhai Naoroji (Indian MP), Bishop James Holly, Judge David Straker (Barbados) etc.*Marcus Garvey formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) for equality and self-determination to all people of African descent.*

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