INTRO -1 Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies Assembled By David Roberts Knowing what you...

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Transcript of INTRO -1 Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies Assembled By David Roberts Knowing what you...

  • INTRO -1Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies Assembled By David RobertsKnowing what you DONT know is more important than what you DO know. It takes both to have expertise.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesCourse ModulesBuilding a Simple Serial Network Building a Simple Ethernet Network Expanding the Network Connecting Networks Constructing Network Addresses Ensuring the Reliability of Data Delivery Connecting to Remote Networks Operating and Configuring Cisco IOS Devices Managing Your Network Environment

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesCourse Objectives Create a simple, point-to-point network Create a simple Ethernet network Determine the most appropriate network topology for typical user requirements, list the issues related to shared LANs and the solutions that LAN technology provides, add a hub and a switch to expand an Ethernet LAN, and list ways in which LANs can be optimized. Define how networks can be connected by routing protocols Construct a topology and network addressing scheme with subnet mask computations, add a default gateway, and predict the behavior of traffic to on-network and off-network IP addresses Compare UDP to TCP and explain the relationship of reliable data delivery to the TCP process and observe the functions of UDP and TCP in communicating with sites not on an Ethernet LAN Define major WAN multiplexing and access technologies List the components of an enterprise network, define its installation and testing processes and how these differ from the installation and testing processes of smaller networks, and complete and verify initial IOS software device configuration Use Cisco IOS commands to accurately determine network operational status and performance; manage operating system image files to maintain an accessible operating system file; manage device configuration files to reduce device downtime; and execute adds, moves and changes

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesSetup a simple host/client serial connection between two PCs.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesSetup a simple host/client serial connection between two PCs.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesSetup two pcs with tcp/ip address of your choosing using a switch or a hub.Ping between the two.Discover ipconfig /allWhat is the difference between a switch & a hub?

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesNetwork Topologies.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesBus TopologyBus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus, performance problems will likely result. In addition, if the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes unusable.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesRing TopologyIn a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesStar TopologyMany home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.)

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesTree TopologyTree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesMesh TopologyMesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. (Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one direction.) Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing. A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesSummaryTopologies remain an important part of network design theory. You can probably build a home or small business network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but understanding the concepts behind these gives you a deeper understanding of important elements like hubs, broadcasts, and routes.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesOSI ModelThe foundation stone of networking communication & understanding for all network engineering professionals.Vital knowledge.Know this or be prepared to fail in life.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesLayer 1: Physical layerThe Physical layer defines all the electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a physical medium. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, and cable specifications. Hubs, repeaters, network adapters and Host Bus Adapters (HBAs used in Storage Area Networks) are physical-layer devices.To understand the function of the physical layer in contrast to the functions of the data link layer, think of the physical layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single device with a medium, where the data link layer is concerned more with the interactions of multiple devices (i.e., at least two) with a shared medium. The physical layer will tell one device how to transmit to the medium, and another device how to receive from it, but not, with modern protocols, how to gain access to the medium. Obsolescent physical layer standards such as RS-232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium.The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. For example, contention resolution and flow control. Modulation, or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link. Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer, although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a transport-layer protocol that runs over this bus. Various physical-layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer; Ethernet incorporates both this layer and the data-link layer. The same applies to other local-area networks, such as Token ring, FDDI, and IEEE 802.11, as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4.

  • Introduction to Cisco Networking TechnologiesLayer 2: Data Link layerThe Data Link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. Local area network architecture, which included broadcast-capable multi-access media, was developed independently of the ISO work, in IEEE Project 802. IEEE work assumed sub layering and management functions not required for WAN use. In modern practice, only error detection, not flow control using sliding window, is present in modern data link protocols such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), and, on local area networks, the IEEE 802.2 LLC layer is not used for most protocols on Ethernet, and, on other local area networks, its flow control and acknowledgment mechanisms are rarely used. Sliding window flow control and acknowledgment is used at the transport layers by protocols such as TCP, but is still used in niches where X.25 offers performance advantages.Both WAN and LAN services arrange bits, from the physical layer, into logical sequences called frames. Not all physical layer bits necessarily go into frames, as some of these bits are purely intended for physical layer functions. For example, every fifth bit of the FDDI bit stream is not used by the data link layer.W