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  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Applications, Volume XII, Special Issue, May 18, ISSN 2321-3469

    Ritu Dubey, Priya Kumari, Surabhi Sharan, Sunita Mahato 1

    INTERNET OF THINGS: A Revolution of Internet

    Ritu Dubey1, Priya Kumari2, Surabhi Sharan3, Sunita Mahato4

    Student, Department of Information Technology

    Jamshedpur Womens College


    The internet of things refers to the concept that the internet is no longer just a global network for

    people to communicate, but it is also a platform for devices to communicate electronically with the world

    around them. Internet of Things (IoT) is a new revolution of the Internet or it can be said the expansion

    of internet services. It provides a platform for communication between objects where objects can

    organize and manage themselves. It allows objects to communicate between each other by using radio

    frequency identification (RFID), wireless sensor network (WSN), Zigbee, etc. This paper includes a brief

    description of internet of things and it also defines various architectures and profiles some applications

    that have the potential to make a striking difference in human life especially for the differently abled and

    the elderly.

    Keywords:Radio frequency identification, sensors, actuators.


    Today the internet has become ubiquitous,

    has touched almost every corner of the

    globe, and is affecting human life in

    unimaginable ways. We are now entering an

    era of even more pervasive connectivity

    where a wide variety of appliances will be

    connected to the web. We are entering an

    era of the internet of things .The Internet

    of Things (IoT) is the network of physical

    objects, devices, vehicles, buildings and

    other items which are embedded with

  • INTERNET OF THINGS: A Revolution of Internet

    Ritu Dubey, Priya Kumari, Surabhi Sharan, Sunita Mahato 2

    electronics, software, sensors, and network

    connectivity, which enables these objects to

    collect and exchange data. IoT is defined as

    a paradigm in which objects equipped with

    sensors, actuators, and processors

    communicate with each other to serve a

    meaningful purpose. Different authors have

    defined iot in many different ways.

    Vermesanet al. defined internet of things as

    simply an interaction between the physical

    and digital worlds. The digital world

    interacts with the physical world using a

    plethora of sensors and actuators. Another

    author Pena-Lopez et al defines internet of

    things as paradigm in which computing and

    networking capabilities are embedded in any

    kind of conceivable object. In other words,

    the internet of things refers to a new kind of

    world where almost every object that we use

    is connected to the internet. The iot allows

    objects to be sensed or controlled remotely

    across existing network infrastructure,

    creating opportunities for more direct

    integration of the physical world into

    computer-based systems, and resulting in

    improved efficiency, accuracy and economic

    benefit in addition to reduce human

    intervention.WhenIoT is augmented with

    sensors and actuators, the technology

    becomes an instance of the more general

    class of cyber-physical systems, which also

    encompasses technologies such as smart

    grids, smart homes, intelligent transportation

    and smart cities. Each thing is uniquely

    identifiable through its embedded computing

    system but is able to interoperate within the

    existing Internet infrastructure. Experts

    estimate that the IoT will consist of almost

    50 billion objects by 2020.British

    entrepreneur Kevin Ashton first coined the

    term in 1999 while working at Auto-ID Labs

    (originally called Auto-ID centers - referring

    to a global network of Radio-frequency

    identification (RFID) connected objects).

    Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced

    connectivity of devices, systems, and

    services that goes beyond machine-to-

    machine communications (M2M) and covers

    a variety of protocols, domains, and

    applications. The interconnection of these

    embedded devices (including smart objects),

    is expected to usher in automation in nearly

    all fields, while also enabling advanced

    applications like a Smart Grid, and

    expanding to the areas such as smart cities.

    There are various devices such as sensors

    and actuators that help in interacting with

    the physical environment. The data collected

    by the sensors has to be stored and

    processed intelligently in order to derive

    useful inferences from it. A sensor can be

    any device;a mobile phone or even a

    microwave oven can be considered as a

    sensor as long as it provides inputs about its

    current state. An actuator is a device that is

    used to effect a change in the environment

    such as the temperature controller of an air

    conditioner. The storage and processing of

    the data can be done on the edge of the

    network itself or in a remote server. If any

    preprocessing of data is possible, then it is

    typically done at either the sensor or some

    other proximate device. The processed data

    is then typically sent to remote server. The

    storage and processing capabilities of an iot

    object are also restricted by the resources

    available, which are often very constrained

    due to limitations of size, energy, power,

    and computational capability. Iot faces many

    challenges like data collection and data

    handling. There are other challenges like

    communication because almost everything

    in iot is wireless. The communication

    between iot devices is mainly wireless

    because they are generally installed at

    geographically dispersed locations. The

    Internet of Things finds various

    applications in health care, fitness,

    education, entertainment, social life,

    energy conservation, environment

    monitoring, home automation, and

    transport systems. In all the application

  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Applications, Volume XII, Special Issue, May 18, ISSN 2321-3469

    Ritu Dubey, Priya Kumari, Surabhi Sharan, Sunita Mahato 3

    areas, iot technologies have significantly

    been able to reduce human effort and to

    improve the quality of human life.


    Different researchers have proposed

    different architectures of iot.

    [2.1] Three- and Five-Layer


    The most basic architecture is three-layer

    architecture. It was introduced in the

    early stages of research in this area. It

    has three layers, namely, the perception,

    network, and application layers.

    (i)The perception layer is the physical

    layer, which has sensors for sensing and

    gathering information about the

    environment. It senses some physical

    parameters or identifies other smart

    objects in the environment.

    (ii)The network layer is responsible for

    connecting to other smart things,

    network devices, and servers. Its features

    are also used for transmitting and

    processing sensor data.

    (iii)The application layer is responsible

    for delivering application specific

    services to the user. It defines various

    applications in which the Internet of

    Things can be deployed, for example,

    smart homes, smart cities, and smart


    The three-layer architecture defines the

    main idea of the Internet of Things, but it

    is not sufficient for research on IoT

    because research often focuses on finer

    aspects of the Internet of Things. That is

    why, we have many more layered

    architectures proposed in the literature.

    Fig: Three layer architecture of iot

    One is the five-layer architecture, which

    additionally includes the processing and

    business layers. The five layers are

    perception, transport, processing,

    application, and business layers. The role

    of the perception and application layers

    is the same as the architecture with three

    layers. We outline the function of the

    remaining three layers.

    (i) The transport layer transfers the

    sensor data from the perception layer to

    the processing layer and vice versa

    through networks such as wireless, 3G,

    LAN, Bluetooth, RFID, and NFC.

    (ii) The processing layer is also known

    as the middleware layer. It stores,

    analyzes, and processes huge amounts of

    data that comes from the transport layer.

    It can manage and provide a diverse set

    of services to the lower layers. It

    employs many technologies such as

    databases, cloud computing, and big data

    processing modules.

    (iii) The business layer manages the

    whole IoT system, including

    applications, business and profit models,

    and user`s privacy.

    Application layer

    Network layer

    Perception layer

    Business Layer

    Application layer

  • INTERNET OF THINGS: A Revolution of Internet

    Ritu Dubey, Priya Kumari, Surabhi Sharan, Sunita Mahato 4

    Fig: Five layer architecture of iot


    All IoT applications need to