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PROCEEDINGS OF THE6TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WATER-ROCK INTERACTION/MALVERN/3-8 AUGUST 1989 Water-Rock Interaction WRI-6 Edited by DOUGLAS L.MILES British Geological Survey, Wallingford universitAtsbibliot hek han1.o'",,:r TEO'NlfiGHE NlfORMATIOi \V MWOTHEK A.A.BALKEMA / ROTTERDAM / BROOKFIELD /1989
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  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH INTERNATIONALSYMPOSIUM ON WATER-ROCKINTERACTION/MALVERN/3-8 AUGUST 1989

    Water-Rock Interaction

    WRI-6

    Edited by

    DOUGLAS L.MILESBritish Geological Survey, Wallingford

    universitAtsbibliot hekhan1.o'",,:r

    TEO'NlfiGHENlfORMATIOi \V MWOTHEK

    A.A.BALKEMA /ROTTERDAM /BROOKFIELD /1989

  • Water-Rock Interaction, Miles (ed), © 1989 Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 9061919703

    Contents

    Natural diagenesis: A model for artificial diagenesis during steam-assisted recovery ofheavy 1oil, Cold Lake, Alberta, CanadaHugh JAbercrombie, Maurice Shevalier & Ian KHutcheon

    Heavy metal transport and retention in porous media - Relation between possibilities of 5parameter estimation from laboratory experiments and hydrogeochemical nature ofwater-rock exchange processesTAbraham, H'Jordan & RHaefher

    The applicationofsmall-angle neutron scattering to the study ofmass transfer in clays 9AJAllen, AMBaston, PJ.Bourke & NLJejferies

    Dissolution offeldspar: The first step 15EgonAlthaus & Editha Tirtadinata

    Radon and helium modelling ofan HDR geothermal reservoir 19J.NAndrews &N. Hussain

    Natural ion-chromatography during fresh-/sea water displacements in aquifers; A 23hydrogeochemical model ofthe pastCAJAppelo, LPonten & HJZ.Beekman

    Metamorphic fluid migration through grain boundary during a contact metamorphism 29YorkoArita & Hideki Wada

    Surface geochemical studies ofgeothermal areas without springs 33HalldbrArmannsson

    Chlorine andboron in natural waters in Iceland 37SArndrsson, S.R.Gislason, KGestsdottir & N.dskarsson

    Application ofthe quasi-stationary state approximation to interpretwater-rock interactions in 41open hydrothermal systemsR.CArthur

    3He/*He-ratios as indicators ofthe origin ofhelium in groundwater Examples from the deep 45Nagra boreholes inNorthern SwitzerlandWBalderer & BELehmann

    Variations ofthe permeability and fine particle migrations in unconsolidatedsandstones 49submitted to saline circulationsJ.Baudracco

    VII

  • Effects of nonhydrostatic stress at the solution-solid interface 55

    Brian Bayly

    Quantitative modelling of granite water interactions: Application to Stripa mine waters 59CBeaucaire, D.Grimaud & GMichard

    Effluent-ignimbrite interactions at Kinleith, New Zealand 65ARBell, A.P.W.Hodder & W.EBardsley

    Silica-organic complexes and enhanced quartz dissolution in water by organic acids 69

    Philip CBennett & DonaldI.Siegel

    A new model for atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time 73

    RobertABerner & DonaldE.Canfield

    Studies of the near-surface spatial and depth distributions ofuranium sorbed onto granite 75

    mineral assemblagesJABerry, N.LJefferies & AXLittleboy

    Geochemical monitoring of thermal oil recovery processes using produced water chemistry 79

    G.WBird, WD.Gunter & EKPerkins

    The origin ofhigh sodium bicarbonate waters in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia 83

    Roger Blake

    Sedimentation and early sulfide diagenesis ofthe Harmon Member (Peace RiverFormation), 87Western Canada

    JBloch

    Early diagenetic processes and fluid flow: Evidence from stable isotopic composition of 91

    authigenic carbonates, Harmon Member (Peace River Formation), Western Canada

    JBloch, l.EMutcheon & H.R.Krouse

    Retardation ofdissolved radionuclides in consolidated sedimentary rocks - The influence of 95MgCl2 brineWBode & CWolfrum

    Synthetic fluid inclusions: A novel technique for experimental water-rock studies 99RobertJBodnar

    Ore fluid-rock interaction and mass transferwithin Au-As-Sb mineralized shearzones: 103

    Characterization and modelling on the example ofthe MassifCentral (France) depositsM.CBoiron & M.Cathelineau

    A kinetic model for the dissolution ofborosilicate glass 107William LBourcier, K.G.Knauss & Celial. Merzbacher

    Adsorption of cadmium onsoils: Kinetics and reversibility 111ACMBourg &AGadalia

    Fluids in metamorphic rocks: Effects of fluid chemistry onquartz microcrack healing 113

    SLBrantley & D.Voigt

    Mercury, arsenic, antimony, radon and helium in ground waters and fumaroles from the 117Vulcano Island

    Mauro Brondi & Mario DaWAglio

    VIII

  • Adsorption, precipitation and coprecipitation of trace metals on carbonate minerals at low 121temperatures

    JBruno, LCharlet, S.Carrol, RXarthein, ASandino & P.Wersin

    The geothermal area ofthe Tirso Valley (Sardinia, Italy) 125R.Caboi, R.Cidu, A.Cristini, LFanfani & PZuddas

    A yearly survey ofrain waterdepositions in Southern Sardinia (Italy) 129R.Caboi, ACristini, LFanfani, EFrau, R.Pinna & PZuddas

    Quartz dissolution inmicrofractured crystalline rocks: Physical and chemical conditions, 133thermodynamical modelling ofthe process, and fluid migration reconstructionM.Cathelineau & MLespinasse

    Pressure-temperature-fluid composition changes from magmatic to presentday stages in the 137Larderello geothermal field (Italy)M.Cathelineau, C.Marignac,A.Valori,J.Dubessy, G.Gianelli & MBuxeddu

    Tourmalinites from hydrothermal systems related to Permian riftmagmatism ofthe 141Hercynian Saalianphase in Tuscany (Italy)G.Cavarretta, M.Puxeddu, M.Franceschelli, EBandeli &AValori

    Groundwater contribution to surface runofffrom the small forested catchment - Mlynaruv 145Luh (Czechoslovakia)J.Cerny & G.Kacura

    Geochemistry, oxygen andhydrogenisotope ratios ofthermal springs, western continental 149margin ofIndia - Field and experimental resultsD.Chandrasekharam, R.Ramesh & JBalasubramanian

    Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies in the Kawerauhydrothermal system, New 155Zealand: Evidence for pastmagma-fluid interaction in the active systemB.W.Christenson

    Hydrothermal metamorphism in deep-sea trenches of theWestern Pacific 159O.V.Chudaev & lATararin

    Travertines: Distribution coefficients of divalent cations between calcites and depositing 163waters

    R.Cidu, LFanfani, PZuddas & P.PZuddas

    Tectonic-hydrotherrnal Au-Cu mineralization in a metamorphic-meteoiic fluid mixing zone, 167Westland, New Zealand

    D.Craw, R.D.Johnstone& M.S. Rattenbury

    Etch-pit size and shape distribution on orthoclase and pyriboles associated with soil depthand 171

    drainage in loess soils

    RLCremeens, R.G.Darmody, UJansen & LDJSlorton

    Origin ofgases in Variscanmassifs ofEurope 177F.D'Amore,R.Fancelli, S.Nuti, GMichard & T.Pa£es

    Ion budgets in a catchment-Natural and anthropogenic contributions 181OMDanelon & LMMoreiraNordemann

    IX

  • Barite authigenesis in surficial soils ofmid-continental United States 183

    R.GDarmody, S.D.Harding & LlHassett

    Sorption and coprecipitation ofarsenate by ferrihydrite 187JADavis, CCFuller, BA.Rea & R.G.Claypool-Frey

    Partition coefficients (Rd) for the U series radionuclides in ion exchange sites and amorphous 191Fe phase in illite and granite samplesJ.P.L.Dearlove, MJvanovich & D.C.Green

    Isolation and characterization ofnatural colloids, particularly humic substances, present in a 197

    groundwaterThierry Dellis & Valerie Moulin

    Isotopic variations of H13C03" as indicator ofdissolution and precipitation ofcalcite in the 203unsaturated zone ofthe chalk [LDever, MMoulin & P.Vachier

    THERMMEOS: Thermodynamic database for computerphysicochemical modelling in 207

    geologyPlDorogokupets, WLashkevich & I.K.Karpov

    Mineral weathering rates in acid-sensitive catchments: Extrapolation oflaboratory 211experiments to the field

    JlDrever & N.Swoboda-Colberg

    Altered layers on dissolving albite- 2. Model 215

    CarrickM.Eggleston & RolandHellmann

    Geochemical fluxes during shale diagenesis, an example from the Ordovician ofMorocco 219IJ.Evans

    Mixing ofsaline basinal fluids in Southern Ontario: Implications of rock-water interaction, 223hydrocarbon emplacement and Canadian Shield brinesS.K.Frape, P.S.Dollar, B.SherwoodLollar & R.H.McNutt

    Evolution of a groundwater-recharge scenario for the Waterloo aquifer during 13 years of 227chemical and isotopic analysesSteven J.Fritz, RobertJ.Drimmie & PeterFritz

    Chemical weathering rates at the RAIN catchments in Norway 231ToreFrogner

    Modeling simple cement-water systems using the speciation/solubility/reaction path 235computer codes EQ3NR/EQ6, with specific application to nuclearwaste repositoriesMarkA.Gardiner, Stephen RAlcorn, Jonathan Myers & Craig AGivens

    Application of a reinjection technique to Dickson hydrothermal experiments: The effect of 239introducing fresh solution to the basalt-water system at 300°C and 30 MPaMAGardiner, G.C.Ulmer & DE.Grandstaff

    Evidence for penetration of sedimentary basin brines into an Archean granite ofthe Canadian 243Shield

    M.Gascoyne, APurdy, PFritz, J.D.Ross, S.K.Frape, RJ.Drimmie & RKBetcher

    x

  • Soluble salts in a Canadian Shield granite as contributors to groundwatersalinity 247M.Gascoyne, J.D.Ross, R.LWatson & D.CKamineni

    The chemical structure of arid zone groundwaters: Role of aeolian transport, surface flow and 251ofgeochemical processes prior to recharge and following dischargeJoelR.Gat

    Geology and hydrogeology ofnorthern Switzerland 255AGautschi

    Processes controlling C02- and Cl-contents of thermal discharges from theTaupo-Rotorua 259volcanic-magmatic-hydrothermal system, New Zealand

    W.F.Giggenbach

    Kinetics ofwater-air interactions in rivers: A field study in Iceland 263Sigurbur Reynir Gislason

    Ion microprobe analysis of rock-forming minerals from the Carnmenellis Granite 267DAGoossens, LVan 'tdack & R.Gijbels

    A SMS, XPS, SEM, TEM andFTIR study offeldspar surfaces after reacting with acid 271solutions

    D.A.Goossens, A.P.Pijpers, J.CPhilippaerts, S.Van Tendeloo, EAlthaus & R.Gijbels

    Hydrogeochemical experiments on aquifer thermal energy storage: Injection ofheated 275

    groundwater in a sediment column

    Jasper Griffioen, CAnthony J. Appelo & Martin van der Weiden

    The Jade hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough -First discovery ofmassive sulphides in 279an intracontinental back-arc basin

    PHalbach, MWahsner, LKaselitz, HSakai & UHein

    Magmatic-hydrothermal origin for fluids involved in the generation ofmassive sulphide 285

    deposits at Rio Tinto, SpainCarol EHalsall & FrederickJSawkins

    Modelling acid stimulation of the Halfway Formation, Canada, using REACTRAN, a 289

    geochemical computer modelHelen FCHaskin, Tim J.Hart, Wilson KMartir,Robert MMoss, Jon SDudley & CraigHMoore

    Altered layers on dissolving albite. I. Results 293RolandHellmann, CarrickM.Eggleston, MichaelFHochella, Jr. & DavidACrerar

    Some nonequilibrium redox processes in water-rock interaction 297J.DMem

    A geochemical model of calcite precipitation and C02 outgassing in karst streams 301JanetSHerman

    Ionic control in deterioration ofbuilding materials 305Peter PMudec

    Aqueous solution reactions ofhydrocarbonreservoir clays: Kaolinite, smectite, illite, chlorite 309

    CREughes, R.CDavey & CD.Curtis

    XI

  • Clay mineral characterisationby analytical transmission electron microscopy: Problems and 313perspectivesC.R.Hughes & JAWhiteman

    Helium isotope studies in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand 317John R.Hulston & John ELupton

    The role ofsilicate hydrolysis in the origin of C02 in sedimentary basins 321Ian EHutcheon & HughJAbercrombie

    Experimental modelling of cassiterite-water system 325.P.VJvashov

    Microscopic distribution oftrace elements inminerals (chlorites, sulfides, sulfates) in 327submarine hydrothermal systemsD.RJanecky, RMEaymon, TMBenjamin, P.S.Z.Rogers & GXBayhurst

    Hydrogen isotope kinetics during hydrothermal alteration in SW Connemara, Ireland 331G.RJJenkin & A.E.Fallick

    Palagonitization ofdeep sea dredge sample glasses 337MJJercinovic, TMurakami & R.CEwing

    Normative analysis ofgroundwaters from the Madrid Basin, Spain 341Blair FJones & MBamon Llamas

    Interactions between meltwater and organic-rich particulate material in boreal forest 349snowpacks: Evidence for bothphysico-chemical andmicrobiological influencesH.GJones & M.Tranter

    Monitoring the evolution of alteration minerals and fluids during a hydrothermal experiment 353GHXacandes, G.C.Ulmer & DRGrandstaff

    Microstructural andmineralogical evolution offracture zones in granites due to water-rock 357interactionD. ChoudariKamineni

    Fluid interaction characteristics of two granitic plutons in the Superior Province, Canadian 361Shield

    D.CXamineni, RXerrich & Z.E.Peterman

    Equilibrium exchange models for chlorine stable isotope fractionation in high temperature 365environmentsRonaldSXaufmann

    The interaction of gypsum particles with salt solutions in equilibrating systems 369Perla Kaushansky & Shmuel Yariv

    Hydrothermal fluids in oceanic crust-seawater interaction from Troodos ophiolite 373HXawahata, S.D.Scott & MXusakabe

    Chemical transport during fumarolic alteration, cooling, and weathering, Valley of Ten 377Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    T.E.CXeith, CHeropoulos & T.S.Presser

    XII

  • Field and laboratory studies of transport ofreactive solutes in groundwater 381DBXent, JADavis, ASMaest & BARea

    Origin of water and solutes in granitic rocks at Cajon Pass, California, USA 385YXXharaka, W.CEvans, GAmbats & LD.White

    Silicate and chloride complexes - The basic factor of their migration and geochemical cyclic 389recurrence

    ANXozin

    Manganese and iron in saline groundwater and geothermal brines inIceland 393Hrefna Kristmannsdottir & Magnus dlafsson

    Copper-arsenic mobilization and attenuation in an acid mine drainage environment 397Y.TJohn Kwong & DXirkNordstrom

    Radiogenic properties of Finnish groundwaters 401P.WLahermo

    Deep groundwater conditions at Miihkali, eastern Finland 405P.WLahermo, S.Halonen,LAhonen, KBirttisalo & JMitrega

    Mapping of low enthalpy brines in Denmark forgeothermal exploitation 4097i oelsLaier

    The influence of fracture mineral/groundwater interaction on themobility ofU, Th, REE and 413other trace elements indifferent redoxenvironments

    O.Landstrom & E.-L.Tullborg

    Nuclide sorption on heterogeneous natural surfaces 417HLang & C.Wolfrum

    Unidimensional transport of stable isotopes: The shapes of geochemical fronts 421Keith RLassey & PeterBlattner

    The geometry ofFe3+ and Fe2+ variations around fractures in weathered granite 425AGLatham

    Subsurfaceproduction of3He, "He, 36C1,37Ar, 39Ar, 40Ar, 129I and ^Rn inthe crystalline 429basementand the sediments ofNorthern Switzerland

    BBLehmann & HELoosli

    Experimental determination ofthe fractionation factors ofXHco3-co2(g)> ^co3-co2(g)at 25° and 43340°C

    PMLesniak&HSakai

    The isotopic composition ofhydrogen and oxygen ofbrines in China 437Li Guiru

    A Sr isotopic study ofthe Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton, Ontario and the Lac du Bonnet pluton, 441Manitoba: Plagioclase/water reaction

    WLi, M.T.Franklyn, REMcNutt, HPSchwarcz, M.Gascoyne, D.C. Kamineni & SXFrape

    Transfer ofunderground produced37Ar,39Ar and *°Arfrom rock into water 445HELoosli& B.E.Lehmann

    XIII

  • The role of organic matter in the fixation of sulfur in freshwater lake sediments 449AJLosher & XRXelts

    Sources of lithium and barium in Gulfof Mexico Basin formation waters, USA 453

    GLMacpherson

    Boron in saline brines, GulfofMexico sedimentary basin, USA 457GLMacpherson & L.S.Land

    Simulation of granite dissolution at 25, 60 and 100°C based on thermodynamic potential and 461kinetic laws

    Benoit Made & BertrandFritz

    On a high saline brine ofmeteoric origin from Ohdo, Gunma, Japan 465

    OMatsubaya & Y.Sakai

    Gaspressures at the Geysers geothermal field, California: Comparison with liquid-dominated 469systems and implications for reservoir conditions

    RAMcCartney & JREaizlip

    U, Th, REE mobilization during water-rock interactions in a U-mineralized granite 475M.-T.Menager, C.Menet, J.-CPetit & B.Come

    Metadomains as indicators of fluid-rock interaction in the Welsh Marginal Basin 479RMetcalfe

    Chlorine-36 in deep groundwaters and host-rocks ofNorthern Switzerland: Sources, 483evolution andhydrological implicationsJLMichelot, J.Ch.Fontes, SSoreau, B.E.Lehmann, HELoosli, WBalderer, DElmore,P.WXubik, W.Wolfli, JBeer & ASynal

    A modelling approach for estimating long-term and seasonal CaC03 dissolution rates 487M.W.Milke&MJ.Small

    The authigenesis ofphosphate minerals in some Norwegian hydrocarbon reservoirs: 491Evidence for the mobility and redistribution of rare earth elements (REE) and Th duringsandstone diagenesisAEMilodowski &. AEurst

    Interstitial water-rock interaction in the unsaturated zone of a Permo-Triassic sandstone 495aquiferPD.Moss & W.M.Edmunds

    Strontium distribution coefficient as indicator of dissolution-precipitation processes in the 501chalk

    MMoulin, LDever & P.Vachier

    Chemical processes atthe mineral oxide-water interface: System ALPj-Organic 505matter-Am(IH)Valerie Moulin, Denise Stammose & Tuan Manh Tran

    Weathering degree of granitic rocks as studied by X-ray diffractometry and diffuse 511reflectance spectroscopyTetsushi Nagano & Satoru Nakashima

    XIV

  • Aluminium weathering/ion exchange for acid impacted systems: The Achilles heel of 515predictive models?Colin Neal

    Application ofa cation exchange mass-balance model to the interpretation ofsaline 521groundwater chemistry evolved from Holocene seawaterentrapped inrapakivi granite atHastholmen, Finland

    Darrell Kirk Nordstrom

    An attempt to determine 180/160 ratios of framework silicate oxygen of apophyllite and 525wairakite

    MasamiNoto, MinoruKusakabe & Masahiro Kometani

    Cooling rate ofhydrothermal quartz 529T.Ohba & KXazahaya

    Chemistry ofdiagenetic zeolite in a shallow, coal-bearing sedimentary pile, NE Japan 533Yasuko OkuyamaXusunose

    The influence ofvolcanic activity on groundwater chemistry within the Namafjall geothermal 537

    system, North Iceland

    Magnus Olafsson & HrefnaKristmannsdottir

    Modeling chemical equilibrium in hydrothermal systems, with examples from Iceland and 541

    China

    PangZhonghe & Hallddr Armannsson

    Uncertainty analyses of models of ground-water carbonate isotope evolution 545

    F.J.Pearson, Jr.

    Hydrogeochemical dynamics of interstitial waters in the bottom sediments in the deep Black 549Sea zone

    E.N.Pentcheva & M.G.Damyanova

    Applications of SOLMINEQ.88 and SOLMINEQ.88 pc/shell 553

    EEPerkins, W.D.Gunter & G.WBird

    The interaction of brines and permafrost 557

    EMPinneker, S.VAlekseev & VKBorisov

    The influence ofdeepmeteoric invasion on the reservoir quality ofCretaceous sandstones in 561

    the Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    DJBotocki

    An infiltration mirabilite deposit and related brine (Lixian, Hunan province, China) 565

    Qu Yihua

    Kinetics ofdissolution ofheulandite at 25°C 567

    Kristin ValaRagnarsdottir

    The effect ofiron and magnesium on the stability ofillite and smectite 569

    UrsRaz & TjerkPeters

    Cooling in Philippine geothermal systems 573

    Agnes GReyes

    xv

  • Rate ofplagioclase dissolution in the Camborne School ofMines experimental hot dry rock 577geothermal system, Rosemanowes, Cornwall

    Hugh G.Richards & David Savage

    A comparison ofpyrite oxidation rates inbatch, mixed flow, and plug flow reactors 581J.Donald Rimstidt & William DEewcomb

    A vertical thermal gradient experiment to simulate conditions in vapor dominated geothermal 585systems, epithermal gold deposits, and high level radioactive repositories in unsaturatedmedia

    J.DonaldRimstidt, William DEewcomb & Donald LShettel, Jr.

    Mineralisation, fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope studies ofthe Thames-Tapu area, Hauraki 589goldfield, New ZealandB.WRobinson &R.JMerchant

    Experimental simulation of hydrothermal alteration in the Miravalles geothermal system, 593Costa Rica

    CARochelle, DSavage & B.W.D.Yardley

    Natural clean-up ofa stream contaminated by mine and mill wastes: A reaction analogous to 597liming in water treatmentDonaldDRunnells & John J.Rampe

    The Palmottu U-Th deposit in SW Finland as a natural analogue to the behaviour ofspent 601nuclearfuel in bedrock: A preliminary reportTRuskeeniemi, RBlomqvist, SEalonen, TJaakkola, ALindberg, HEiini, J.Suksi,RSuutarinen, B.Soderholm & M.Vesterinen

    Acceleration and retardation ofsilicate weathering due to organic substances 605D.Schenk,A.Petersen & GMatthess

    Kinetics ofalkali feldspar dissolution at low temperature 609PSchweda

    The effect oftemperature on base metal mobility during hydrothermal basalt alteration: 613Implications forme formation of ridge crest hydrothermal fluids and seafloor metal depositsJXSeewald, WESeyfried, Jr., MEBerndt & PJ.Saccocia

    Deep gases and brines of the Canadian and Fennoscandian Shields - A testing ground for the 617theory ofabiotic methane generationB.SherwoodLollar, SXFrape, PFritz, SAMacko, S.M.Weise, JA.Welhan, RBlomqvist,P.WLahermo &R.Drimmie

    The neutralizing-reduction-mineralizationof uranium 621Shi Wei-jun & PengHai-jun

    Mixing diagrams of hydrothermal solutions and their applications to some hydrothermal ore 625deposits in JapanYShibue

    "C/^C ratios and origins of ZC02 in alkaline hot-spring waters discharging along fault zones 629in the Abukuma metamorphic belt, Northeast JapanHShigeno&KAbe

    XVI

  • Rare earth element geochemistry and evolution ofsubmarine geothermal system 633accompanied by Kuroko sulfide-sulfate mineralization in JapanN.Shikazono & RMatsumoto

    Pressure dependence of mineral-waterreaction equilibrium in the lowpressure range 635Shinohara Hiroshi & Fujimoto Koichiro

    Kinetics and non-stoichiometry oflabradorite dissolution 639Lennart Sjoberg

    Alteration mineralogy ofthe Elli5aar geothermal field, Reykjavik, Iceland 643OmarBjarki Smarason, Jens Tomasson & Sugiarto Ganda

    Alkali metal enrichments in groundwaters from the Carnmenellis area, Cornwall 647Pauline LSmedley

    Groundwater contaminant transport with ion exchange in heterogeneous medium 651LSovadina

    Factors controlling trace element levels in groundwaterin The Netherlands 655PJ.Stuyfzand

    The hydrogeochemical characteristics and origin ofthermal waters inJiangxi, southeast 661China

    SunZhanxue

    Stable isotope measurements on the thermal water at the Nesjavellir and Mosfellssveit 665geothermal fields, Iceland

    Amy Erla Sveinbjornsdottir

    Correlation of the chemical composition of water from the unsaturated zone with the 669mineralogy of a profile on the Sao Paulo Basin, Brazil

    M.Szikszay & M.CToledo-Gwke

    Dissolution kinetics ofcalcite in CO^H^O systems at210°C 673S.Talman, B.Wiwchar, WD.Gunter & CMScarfef

    Geochemical cycles and global water-rock interaction from 4,000 million years 675YTardy

    Hydrothermal activityon the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 679G.Thompson, S.E.Humphris, CLalou & PARona

    The alteration and diagenesis oftuffs and tuffaceous sediments 683J.Tomasson

    Chemical weathering reactions in Alpine glacialmeltwaters 687Martyn Tranter, RobRaiswell & Rachel Mills

    Graphitization ofcarbonaceous material in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks during 691

    metamorphismN.Tsuchiya & T.Chida

    8180 and813C in fracture calcite used for interpretation ofrecentmeteoricwater circulation 695

    E.-L.Tullborg

    XVII

  • Framework alpha-pentastructures of stresses and their influence of formation of subsurface 699

    fluids, hydrocarbons in particularVJ.TyurinAvinsky

    Release of heavy metals in groundwater due to manure spreading 703

    C.G.E.M.van Beek, FAMEettinga & R.Straatman

    Marine apatite precipitation 707

    Philippe Van Cappellen & RobertABerner

    Composition ofnewly formed minerals from nitrogeneous thermal waters in the Tchepino 711

    valley (Bulgaria)LVan' t dack, P.SBetrov, EEPentcheva, E.Veldeman & R.Gijbels

    Arsenic in deep groundwater 715

    I.Varsanyi

    Water-rock interaction in the Southwest Bulgaria granitoid system: A source of trace 719elements in the thermal waters

    E.Veldeman, EEBentcheva,L Van't dack & R.Gijbels

    Ahydrothermal model of Los Azufres geothermal system, Mexico 723Mahendra P.Verma, DEieva, E.Santoyo, RMBarragan, EBortugal & J.LQuijano

    Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales 727K.L.Von Damm

    Electrostatic approach for calculating mineral solubilities and complex formation in 731

    supercritical volatile-salt aqueous solutionsJ.VWalther&J.Schott

    Differentiation in mesostasis andthe effect on the hydrothermal redox buffering capacity of 735basalt

    Jianhua Wang,MAGardiner, D.E.Grandstqff& Gene C.Ulmer

    Halogens in apatites, biotites, and hornblendes from the Yuantoushan granitic rocks, 739northeastern Taiwan

    Yunshuen Wang & Rueychang Jeng

    The paleohydrogeochemical conditions for the genesis of some sedimentary-reworked 743siderite deposits in ChinaYanxin Wang & Zhaoli Shen

    Formation of biotite accompanying a later fracture system and associated fluid in the Haast 747schists, New ZealandTeruo Watanabe, RodneyH.Grapes, Yosuke Kawachi, Tetsumaru Itaya & I.M.Turnbull

    Surface structure and mineral dissolution kinetics: A Monte Carlo study 751B.Wehrli

    Post-crystallization low temperature hydrothermal alteration in Proterozoic Basement ofdie 755Midcontinent of North AmericaDavidB.Wenner

    XVIII

  • Isotopic geothermometry and flow regimes in the Muschelkalk aquifer from northern 761Switzerland (Nagra deep drilling programme)P.Wexsteen & AMatter

    Electron transfer mechanisms associated with the surface dissolution and oxidation of 765

    magnetite and ilmeniteArt F.White & Michael FEochella, Jr.

    Diverse fluid phases associated with the crystallisation and alteration of lithium pegmatites at 769

    Moylisha and Stranakelly, SE IrelandMartin P.Whitworth & Andrew HRankin

    Growth mechanisms of sandstone-hosted calcite concretion growth and implications for 773

    growth timesM.Wilkinson

    Sorptive interactions between organic micropollutants and the mineral fraction of 777Permo-Triassic sandstone

    D.J.Williamson, DELerner & MAstin

    Considerations on sorption behaviour ofcolloids in natural systems 781

    C.Wolfrum & HLang

    Experimental study about the activation and migration of gold and silver involcanic rocks 785

    LiangXiangji & Qiao Li

    Chemistry and isotopic composition of fluid from a deep thrust zone, Central Pyrenees 789

    B.WD.Yardley, DABanks, GRDavies, AMMcCaig & N.T.Grant

    Experimental modelling ofmetasomatic zoning at fluid-rock interaction 793

    G.P.Zaraisky

    Thermal decompaction ofrocks and its effect on permeability 797

    G.PZaraisky, VEBalashov & S.VZonov

    The characteristics offluorine in groundwater of North China and the significance of 801

    fluorite-water interaction to fluorine transportationShenZhaoli, Zhou Mi & Tang Minggao

    Finite element analysis of water seepage in fractured rock masses of dam abutments 805

    Weiyuan Zhou & Yanyi Yang

    Stable isotope studies of fluids from Xiangshan fossil hydrothermal system 809

    Zhou Wen-bin & LiXue-li

    Hydrothermal alterationin the Yangying geothermal field ofTibet, China 813

    ZhuMeixiang

    Author index 817

    XIX