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  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141 International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Bio Sciences 2(3): May-June 2013

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UNIVERSAL

    PHARMACY AND BIO SCIENCES

    Pharmaceutical Sciences Review Article……!!!

    Received: 12-05-2013; Accepted: 18-05-2013

    MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTI CONVULSANT ACTIVITY – A

    REVIEW

    Kasthuri S *, Karthigadevi K, Manjulakshmi P, Kavimani S

    Department of Pharmacology, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health

    Sciences, Indira nagar, Gorimedu, Puducherry-06, India.

    KEYWORDS:

    Anticonvulsant, Herbal

    Medicines, Side Effect.

    For Correspondence:

    Kasthuri S *

    Address:

    Department of

    Pharmacology, Mother

    Theresa Post Graduate

    and Research Institute of

    Health Sciences, Indira

    nagar, Gorimedu,

    Puducherry-06, India.

    Tel. +91 8760222089

    ABSTRACT

    Epilepsy is a neuropsychological disorder, caused due to over

    discharge of neurotransmitter substances, which affects an

    estimated 7 million people in India and 50 million people

    worldwide. There are number of drugs available for treatment

    of epilepsy in modern therapy. The major disadvantages of

    these anticonvulsants are their chronic side effect. Herbal

    medicines are considered moderate in efficiency and less toxic

    than modern therapy. Several medicinal plants have been

    studied for anticonvulsant activity. Many researches have been

    done on traditional plants at molecular level and several

    significant phytochemicals have been isolated. This review

    focuses on plants which possess anticonvulsant properties, type

    of extraction used, chemical constituents and methods of

    induction of convulsions.

    285 Full Text Available On www.ijupbs.com

  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141

    1. INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder affecting more than 50 million people

    worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Epileptic seizures are

    paroxysmal clinic events arising from neuronal hyper excitability and hyper synchrony of

    cerebral cortex, either locally (partial seizures) or diffusely in both hemispheres (generalised

    seizures). The agitated neuronal activity that occurs during a seizure is caused by a sudden

    imbalance between the inhibitory and exhibitory neurotransmitters.

    The prevalence of epilepsy in developing countries is generally higher than in developed

    countries. In India studies have reported the prevalence rate of epilepsy varying from 1710 from

    9780 cases per million populations. The currently available anticonvulsant drugs suffer from

    drawbacks like teratogenicity, chronic toxicity and adverse effects on cognition and behaviour.

    The ancient systems of medicines provide a wide range of options for these problems with vast

    source of medicinal plants, which are devoid of undesirable effects and are gaining popularity

    in most of the developing countries.

    Medicinal Plants with anticonvulsant activity:

    In the traditional Indian medicinal system many plants have been used for treatment of

    epilepsy. Ayurveda has identified many plants which possess anti convulsant effects. Some of

    them are Albizzia lebbeck, Bacopa monnieri, Butea monasperma, Acorus calamus, Centella

    asiatica, Crocus sativus, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cannabanis

    sativa, Hedesmus indicus, Nelumbo nucifera, Ocimum sanctum, Piper longum, Withania

    somnifera etc.

    Various phytoconstituents from plants were responsible for Antiepileptic activity including

    Lysergamide (Argyreia speciosa); Flavanoids (Anisomeles malabarica); Centellicin and

    asiaticin (Centella asiatica); Curcumin (Curcuma longa); Vitamin C and Phyllemblin (Emblica

    officinalis); Alkaloids and flavanoids (Guettarda speciosa); Piperlonumine (Piper longum);

    Solasodine (Solanum nigrum); Taxol C and β-sitosterol (Taxus wallichiana); Withanine and

    somniferine (Withania somnifera) etc.

    Plants which are effective against convulsions

    PLANTS / FAMILY

    NAME

    EXTRACT PHYTOCONSTITUENTS METHOD OF

    INDUCTION

    Acorus calamus [1,2]

    (Araceae)

    Methanolic

    Asarone, β-asarone

    MES & PTZ

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  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141

    Aegle marmelos [3,4]

    (Rutaceae)

    Ethanolic Marmelosin(impertorin) and

    essential oils

    MES & PTZ

    Albizzia lebbeck [5,6]

    (Fabaceae)

    Ethanolic Sapogenin and echinocystic

    acid

    MES, PTZ and

    Lithium pilocarpine

    Argyreia speciosa [7]

    (convolvulaceae)

    Alcoholic Lysergamide MES & PTZ

    Allium sativum [8]

    (Liliaceae)

    Essential oils Allicin

    MES, Strychnine

    and Lithium

    pilocarpine

    Anacylus pyrethrum [9]

    (Asteraceae)

    Ethanolic Alkaloids – pyrethrin and

    essential oils

    MES & PTZ

    Annona squamosa [10]

    (Annonaceae)

    Alcoholic Squamocin, squamostatin–A,

    annonaine and roemerine

    PTZ & Picrotoxin

    Anisomeles malabarica

    [11] (Lamiaceae)

    Ethyl acetate Flavanoids MES & PTZ

    Apium graveolens [12]

    (Apiaceae)

    Aqueous Anthoxanthine glycosides –

    graveobioside A.

    MES

    Bacopa monnieri [13]

    (Scrophulariaceae)

    Ethanolic Saponins - hersaponin

    ,bacoside A & B.

    MES, PTZ &

    Strychnine

    Benincasa hispida [14]

    (Cucurbitaceae)

    Ethanolic Triterepenoid, glycosides &

    steroids.

    PTZ and Strychnine

    Boerhavia diffusa [15]

    (Nyctaginaceae)

    Methanolic Punarvoside

    PTZ

    Butea monasperma [16]

    (Fabaceae)

    Petroleum

    ether

    Palasonin, aleurilic and fatty

    acid

    MES, PTZ,

    electrical kindling

    and combination of

    lithum sulphate &

    pilocarpine nitrate

    Cannabanis sativa [17]

    (Cannabaceae)

    Ethanolic cannabidiol PTZ

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    [18]

    (Fabaceae)

    Ethanolic Saponins and flavanoids MES & PTZ

    Carissa carandas [19]

    (Apocynaceae)

    Ethanolic Carissone and sitosterol MES, PTZ,

    picrotoxin and N-

    methyl-dl-aspartic

    acid

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  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141

    Cassia occidentalis [20]

    (Leguminosae)

    Aqueous

    Chrysophanic acid

    PTZ

    Cedrus deeodra [21]

    (Pinaceae)

    Alcoholic

    Dihydromyricetin, cedrine

    and deodorin

    MES & PTZ

    Centella asiatica [22]

    (Apiaceae)

    n-hexane,

    chloroform,

    ethyl acetate,

    n-butanol,

    and water

    extracts

    Centellicin and asiaticin

    PTZ

    Celastrrus paniculatus [23]

    (Celastraceae)

    Methanolic

    Paniculatadiol

    INH & PTZ

    Cissus sicyoides [24]

    (Vitaceae)

    Hydro

    alcoholic

    Flavanoids, linalool and α -

    tocopherol

    PTZ

    Convolvulus prostrates

    [25]

    (Convolvulaceae)

    Methanolic

    Microphylic acid and

    shankhpushpine

    MES

    Crocus sativus [26]

    (Iridaceae)

    Ethanolic

    Crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin

    and safranal

    PTZ

    Curcuma longa [27]

    (Zingiberaceae)

    Methanolic

    Curcumin, curcuminoids and

    essential oils

    PTZ

    Cynodon dactylon [28]

    (Poaceae)

    Ethanolic

    Triterpinoids and alkaloids

    MES & PTZ

    Cyporus rotundus [29]

    (Cyperaceae)

    Hydro

    alcoholic

    Sesquiterpene, pinene and

    cineol

    PTZ & picrotoxin

    Cymbopogon citrates [30]

    (Graminae)

    Essential oil Citral, nerol, citronellal,

    dipentane and geraniol.

    MES & PTZ

    Desmodium triflorum [31]

    (Fabaceae)

    Ethanolic Hyphorine and trigonelline PTZ, INH &

    MES

    Delphinium denudatum

    [32]

    (Ranunculaceae)

    Ethanolic

    and Aqueous

    fraction

    Brumonine, Lycaconitine

    and delvestine

    MES, PTZ,

    Bicuculline,

    picrotoxin and

    strychnine.

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  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141

    Erythrina variegate [33]

    (Fabaceae)

    Aqueous

    Isoquinoline alkaloids

    MES & PTZ

    Emblica officinalis [34]

    (Euphorbiaceae)

    Hydro

    alcoholic

    Vitamin C and Phyllemblin

    PTZ

    Glycyrrhiza glabra [35]

    (Leguminosae)

    Ethanolic

    Glycyrrhizin

    PTZ and lithium-

    pilocarpine

    Guettarda speciosa [36]

    (Rubiaceae)

    Ethanolic

    Alkaloids and flavanoids

    MES & PTZ

    Hemidesmus indicus [37]

    (Asclepiadaceae)

    Ethanolic

    Desinine and rutin

    MES & PTZ

    Hisbiscus rosasinensis [38]

    (Malvaceae)

    Alcoholic &

    chloroform

    Flavanoid, triterpenoid &

    steroids

    MES

    Indigofera tinctoria [39]

    (Fabaceae)

    Methanolic

    Galactomannan

    MES,PTZ&

    lithium-

    pilocarpine

    induced status

    epileptus

    Leonotis nepetifolia [40]

    (Lamiaceae)

    Methanolic

    Triterpenic steroids, saponins

    and alkaloids

    PTZ and

    strychnine

    Melissa parviflora [41]

    Lamiaceae

    Methanolic

    Flavones and chrysin

    MES & PTZ

    Myristica fragrans [42]

    (Myristicaceae)

    Petroleum

    ether

    Safrole, eugenol, elemicin

    and trymyristicin.

    MES, PTZ and

    lithium-

    pilocarpine.

    Nardostachys jatamansi

    [43]

    (Valerianaceae)

    Ethanolic Jatamols A & B and

    jatamansic acid

    MES

    Nelumbo nucifera [44]

    (Nelumbonaceae)

    Chloroform Nuciferine and nelumboside MES & PTZ

    Nerium oleander [45]

    (Apocynaceae)

    Ethanolic

    and aqueous

    Cardenolidestriolides

    and biosides

    MES & PTZ

    Nigella sativa [46]

    (Ranunculaceae)

    Aqueous Thymoquinone and p-

    cymene

    PTZ and MES

    Ocimum gratissimum [47]

    (Lamiaceae)

    Methanolic Eugenol and cineole PTZ

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  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141

    Ocimum sanctum [48]

    (Lamiaceae)

    Ethanolic

    and

    chloroform

    2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic

    acid and kinetin .

    MES

    Oxalis corniculata [49]

    (Oxalidaceae)

    Methanolic Flavanoids MES & PTZ

    Papaver somniferum [50]

    (Papaveraceae)

    Methanolic Morphine Picrotoxin

    Pinus roxburghii [51]

    (Pinaceae)

    Alcoholic Sesquiterpenes and

    flavanoids

    MES & PTZ

    Piper longum [52]

    (Piperaceae)

    Aqueous Piperlonumine,

    Piperlonuminine and

    piperine

    PTZ, MES &

    4-aminopyridine

    Plectranthus barbatus [53]

    (Lamiaceae)

    Hydro

    alcoholic

    Forskolin Strychnine

    Pongamia pinnata [54]

    (Fabaceae)

    Ethanolic Quercetin,

    kaempferol and flavanoids

    MES

    Psidium guajava [55]

    (Myrtaceae)

    Hydro

    alcoholic

    Carbohydrates, proteins,

    alkaloids, flavonoids,

    phytosterols and volatile oils

    MES & PTZ

    Rauwolfia serpentine [56]

    (Apocynaceae)

    Aqueous Reserpine,

    rubasine,ajmalicine and

    rescinnamine

    camphor,

    leptazol, and

    Strychnine

    Rosa domescana [57]

    (Rosaceae)

    Methanolic Flavanoids PTZ

    Scutellaria lateriflora [58]

    (Lamiaceae)

    Aqueous Flavanoids Pilocarpine and

    PTZ

    Smilax zeylanica [59]

    (Smilacaceae)

    Petroleum

    ether, ethyl

    acetate, n-

    butanol and

    ethanolic

    Dioscin, smilagenin

    and sarsapogenin

    Strychnine

    Sesbania grandiflora[60]

    (Fabaceae)

    petroleum

    ether

    Grandifloral and kaempferol MES & PTZ and

    strychnine

    Solanum nigrum [61]

    (Solanaceae)

    Aqueous Solasodine and diosgenin MES & PTZ and

    strychnine

    Saussurea lappa [62]

    (Compositae)

    petroleum

    ether

    Alkaloids - saussurine PTZ & picrotoxin

    Sutherlandia frutescens

    [63] (Fabaceae)

    Aqueous Flavanoids PTZ, picrotoxin

    and bicculine.

    Taxus wallichiana [64]

    (Taxaceae)

    Methanolic Taxol C, β-sitosterol and

    Daucosterol.

    PTZ

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  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): 2319-8141

    Terminelia chebula [65]

    (Combretaceae)

    petroleum

    ether,

    chloroform,

    ethanolic and

    aqueous

    Anthraquinone glycosides

    and chebulinic acid

    MES & PTZ

    Teucrium polium [66]

    (Labiatae)

    Ethanolic α-pinene, linalool,

    caryophyllene oxide, β-

    pinene and caryophyllene

    MES & PTZ

    Viola betonicifolia [67]

    (Violaceae)

    n- hexane

    fraction

    Alkaloid - violine,

    glycoside - violaquercitine

    MES

    Vitex negundo[68]

    (Lamiaceae)

    Ethanolic Henteriacontane,

    β-sitosterol and stigmasterol

    MES & PTZ

    Withania somnifera [69]

    (Solanaceae)

    Aqueous

    Withniol, withanine

    and somniferine

    PTZ

    Zanthoxylum armatum [70]

    (Rutaceae)

    Essential oils

    of the leaves

    Β-phellandrene and

    α and β amyrin

    PTZ

    MES – maximal electroshock, PTZ – pentylenetetrazole, INH – isoniazid.

    Conclusion

    The present study revealed the anticonvulsant potential of some herbs that are now documented

    scientifically. In conclusion, some medicinal plants like Acorus calamus, Bacopa monnieri,

    Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Vitex negundo and phytoconstituents such as Flavanoids,

    triterepenoid steroids, alkaloids and saponin possess a remarkable anticonvulsant effect with

    lesser or no side effect. The future outlook for the synthesis and formulation of herbal drugs to

    treat seizures effectively is obvious from this review.

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