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  • UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SULINSTITUTO DE INFORMTICA

    PROGRAMA DE PS-GRADUAO EM COMPUTAO

    VITOR FERNANDO PAMPLONA

    Interactive Measurements and TailoredDisplays for Optical Aberrations of the

    Human Eye

    Thesis presented in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the degree ofDoctor of Computer Science

    Prof. Dr. Manuel Menezes de Oliveira NetoAdvisor

    Porto Alegre, July 2012

  • CIP CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION

    Pamplona, Vitor Fernando

    Interactive Measurements and Tailored Displays for OpticalAberrations of the Human Eye / Vitor Fernando Pamplona. Porto Alegre: PPGC da UFRGS, 2012.

    159 f.: il.

    Thesis (Ph.D.) Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.Programa de Ps-Graduao em Computao, Porto Alegre, BRRS, 2012. Advisor: Manuel Menezes de Oliveira Neto.

    1. Computational diagnostics. 2. Computational ophthalmol-ogy. 3. Subjective refraction. 4. Ophthalmatics. 5. Tailored dis-plays. 6. Hardware apps. 7. Mobile mates. 8. Light-field dis-plays. 9. Interactive diagnostics. 10. Visual optics. I. OliveiraNeto, Manuel Menezes de. II. Ttulo.

    UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SULReitor: Prof. Carlos Alexandre NettoPr-Reitor de Coordenao Acadmica: Prof. Rui Vicente OppermannPr-Reitor de Ps-Graduao: Prof. Aldo Bolten LucionDiretor do Instituto de Informtica: Prof. Luis LambCoordenador do PPGC: Prof. lvaro Freitas MoreiraBibliotecria-chefe do Instituto de Informtica: Beatriz Regina Bastos Haro

  • If the research does not change the way people think, the project is a failure. GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, PHD

  • Manuel M. Oliveira Ramesh Raskar

    Ankit David Erick Jan Everett

    Tiago Joost Chika Esteban Daniel

    Margaret Alexander Xiaoxi Andrew Jason

    Shrikant Helena Vicki Bruce Frank

    Thanks everybody. You are awesome. I have learned so much from you guys. It is a greatpleasure to share credits of this work with all of you. Your ideals, values and excitement

    have had and will continue to have a remarkable influence on my entire career.

  • Tyler Yolanda Neel Ethan Taya

    Martha Andrew Veeru Adam Fuensanta

    Rob Don Fabiano Caio Alex

    Joseph Edward Bob Francis Yvonne

    Thanks for the great work and valuable advises. Our extensive discussions around thiswork and interesting explorations in operations have been very helpful for this study. I

    really appreciate sharing experiences with all of you.

    I have received tremendous support, friendship and encouragement from numerouscolleagues in the Computer Graphics Group at UFRGS and Camera Culture Group at

    MIT. Special acknowledgment for CNPq-Brazil fellowships 142563/2008-0 and200763/2009-1. Samsung provided additional support.

  • CONTENTS

    LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    RESUMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.1 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.2 Proposed Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241.2.1 Computational Ophthalmology: Hardware Apps for Mobile Diagnostics . 251.2.2 A Thermometer for Visual Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.2.3 A Radar for Eye Opacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261.2.4 Tailored Displays to Compensate for Visual Aberrations . . . . . . . . . . 271.3 Thesis Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281.4 Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    2 HUMAN EYE AND VISUAL OPTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.1 The Eye: A Focal Imaging System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.2 Accommodation and Refractive Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.3 Refractive Errors and Focusing Inabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.3.1 Measuring Refractive Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.3.2 Patient-Centric Subjective Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372.3.3 Clinician-Centric Subjective Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392.3.4 Objective Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392.4 Cataracts and Light Scattering Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412.4.1 Back Scattering Examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422.4.2 Forward Scattering Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.5 The Global Impact of Vision Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    3 NEAR EYE TOOL FOR REFRACTIVE ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . . 473.1 Major Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483.2 Inverting Shack-Hartmann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483.3 Creating Programmable Depth Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.3.1 Alignment Instead of Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523.3.2 Microlens Setup and Focus Ambiguity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.3.3 Alignment of the Display and Mask Optical Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543.3.4 Maximum Reliable Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543.3.5 Ideal Pinhole Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543.4 Measuring Astigmatism and Focal Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553.4.1 Measuring Astigmatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

  • 3.4.2 Choosing the Appropriate Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.4.3 Dealing with Cross-talk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593.4.4 Eye-device Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593.5 Measuring Accommodation Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603.5.1 Controlling Accommodation Far Vision Measurements . . . . . . . . . . 613.5.2 Choosing the Best Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623.6 Prototypes and Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643.6.1 Controlled Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653.6.2 Prescription-Matching User Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663.6.3 Eye Accommodation Range Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673.6.4 Phone Prototype and In-house Prescription-Matching User Evaluation . . 683.7 Smartphone Prototype Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683.7.1 User Evaluation Procedures and Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683.7.2 American Subjective-Refraction-Matching Clinical Trial . . . . . . . . . 703.7.3 Indian Retinoscopy-Matching Clinical Trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733.7.4 Brazilian Auto-Refractor-Matching Clinical Trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743.7.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753.8 Optical Solutions for Accommodation Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763.8.1 Eye Relaxation in a Monocular H-Shape Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773.8.2 Eye Relaxation in a Bi-ocular Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783.8.3 Fiber-optics-based Fogging in Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803.8.4 Progressive-lens-based Fogging in Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823.8.5 Open-view Eye-Relaxation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833.8.6 Light-field-based Fogging in Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833.8.7 Film-based Relaxation on the Testing Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843.8.8 Lens-based NETRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843.9 Digital Camera Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863.10 Discussion and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863.10.1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873.10.2 Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    4 CATARACTS MEASURING AND MODELING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914.1 Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924.1.1 Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934.2 Scanning the Crystalline Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944.2.1 Estimating Pupil Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 954.2.2 Screening for Cataracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 954.2.3 2D Scanning for the Opacity Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 954.2.4 Brightness Match for the Attenuation Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974.2.5 Point-Spread Function Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974.2.6 Contrast-Sensitivity Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974.2.7 Implementation Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984.3 Rendering the Subjects View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004.4 Prototypes and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024.4.1 Controlled Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034.4.2 User Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1054.5 Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064.5.1 Indian Clinical Trial at the Lotus Eye Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064.5.2 Mexican Clinical Trial with VOSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074.6 Discussion and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1084.6.1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109