Intelligence quotient

Intelligenc e Quotient Prof:- EKTA MAM

Transcript of Intelligence quotient

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Intelligence Quotient


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Group Members• Komal Bhitale• Kunal Jagwani• Manali Mhatre• Shima Khan• Aarti Shelar• Abhiruchi Visame• Alesha Patil• Jagruti Patil• Shweta Jadhav• Deepali Vardam• Vikrant Gawde• Pranita Bhasale

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• IQ is one of the most researched areas in the field of psychology.

• Despite of all this research, psychologist have been able to come to any agreement as to what constitutes intelligence and how we can measure it.

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IQ is a number indicating your inherent ABILITY to learn, instead of simply the knowledge you already have.

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DEFINITIONDAVID WECHSLER’s definition of intelligence is extremely popular. He defined intelligence as, “the

aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively

with his environment”.

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• IQ is a measure of relative intelligence determined by a standardized test.

• The first intelligence test was created in 1905 by Alfred Binet and Théophile Simon to determine which French school children were too slow to benefit from regular �instruction.

• Binet came up with the idea of mental age when he noticed that children are increasingly able to learn difficult concepts and perform difficult tasks as they get older.

• Most children reach the same level of complexity at about the same time, but some children are slower reaching those levels.

• A 6-year-old child who can do no more than a 3-year-old has a mental age of 3. Wilhelm Stern divided the mental age by the chronological age to get a Mental Quotient.� �

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ADVANTAGES OF IQ• Measuring IQ allows one to predict success in a variety of

activities and to measure a person's ability to perform socially and compete economically.

• It reveals a person's strengths and weaknesses and highlights talents people don't know they have, improving educational and skills development.

• This type of testing provides a standardized method of comparing children's abilities and performance, accurately predicts scholastic achievement and identifies gifted students.

• This allows parents, caregivers and teachers to tailor education to individual needs.

• IQ tests are also invaluable tools when working with handicapped children.

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DIS-ADVANTAGES OF IQIQ tests have severe limitations because they restrict people's understanding of intelligence and do not test all situations that show intelligent behaviour.

• These tests do not consider the multidimensional nature of intelligence and are not always accurate in predicting success.

• Typically, IQ tests measure only verbal and mathematical abilities despite the fact that psychologist Howard Gardner identified at least seven types of intelligence.

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Interesting Facts About IQ

• Birth Order does not affect IQ.

• Lower IQ is linked with higher suicidal feelings.

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• Anyone with an IQ over 115 can do any job.

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• Higher IQ means higher confidence.

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• Just as human intelligence is measured using IQ, we plan to measure the intelligence of organizations using “organizational IQ” (OIQ) or “corporate IQ.”

• Imagine knowing that GM has an OIQ of 85 , IBM is rated as 105, and Microsoft at 120.

• Then assume that this metric could be used to diagnose specific management functions and suggest needs for improvement.

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Get physical, and exercise your body. 

Keeping your body fit as well as your mind is a great and scientifically proven way to enhance brain power.

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• Expand your boundaries. Just like sitting at your desk all day is bad for your physical self, sitting in the same mental seat all the time is bad for your brain. To break out of that, make it a lifelong goal to continually learn new things.

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• Perseverance furthers. Ignore limiting stereotypes such as "An old dog cannot learn new tricks." Imagine the success you will feel when you bump your IQ score up ten points! Like anything else, your brain functions better when used. Actively exercising your brain has even been linked to staving off problems such as Alzheimer's Disease.

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• Listen to music. Not just classical music but any music that you like. It has been shown that by listening to music that you enjoy improves your I.Q. by a few points. You can also listen to music while working, provided it does not affect your concentration on the task.

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Distribution of IQIntelligence is normally distributed in the population. This means that most people get scores in the middle range and are average in intelligence. Only a few people get very high and very low scores. If these scores are plotted on a graph, we get a bell shaped curve.

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Extremes of intelligence is a term used to describe individuals who have an IQ below 70 or above 120. Mental retardation is the term used to describe individuals with an IQ above 120 are commonly referred to as Gifted.

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Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence

• Louis Thurstone rejected Spearman’s idea of general intelligence. Thurstone suggested that intelligence can be broken down into a number of primary mental abilities. Thurstone identified 7 Primary Mental Abilities. These primary mental abilities are as follows:

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• Verbal Comprehension (V) – Understanding ideas and word meanings.

• Word Fluency (W) – Speed in thinking of words.

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• Perceptual Speed (P) – Ability to quickly distinguish visual details and similarities/differences between objects.

• Memory (M) – Ability to memorize words, numbers, etc.

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• Numerical Ability (N) – Speed and accuracy in performing arithmetical calculations.

• Spatial Ability (S) – Ability to visualize relationships in three dimensions.

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• Reasoning (R) – Ability to derive a rule from given information.

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• Linguistic - Using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

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• Musical - Show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

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• Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

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• Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modelling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

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• Intrapersonal - understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

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• The goal of most intelligence tests is to measure, the general intelligence factor.

• Good intelligence tests are reliable, meaning that they are consistent over time, and also demonstrate construct validity, meaning that they actually measure intelligence rather than something else.

• Because intelligence is such an important individual difference dimension, psychologists have invested substantial effort in creating and improving measures of intelligence, and these tests are now the most accurate of all psychological tests.

• In fact, the ability to accurately assess intelligence is one of the most important contributions of psychology to everyday public life.

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• Intelligence changes with age.• A 3-year-old who could accurately multiply

183 by 39 would certainly be intelligent, but a 25-year-old who could not do so would be seen as unintelligent.

• Thus understanding intelligence requires that we know the norms or standards in a given population of people at a given age.

• The standardization of a test involves giving it to a large number of people at different ages and computing the average score on the test at each age level.

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Conclusion• Intelligence emphasizes people’s performance

standardize aptitude tests.

• Aptitude test predict people’s future ability to acquire skills or knowledge IQ test, on the other hand, measure skills and knowledge that people have already learned.

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