Instrumentation Fina

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Position Indicator Submitted to: Engr. Herminio Navarro, ME., PME. Submitted by: Canillo, Dave G. Espiritu, Khat Bird G. Escoba, John Philip V.

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Position Indicator

Submitted to:Engr. Herminio Navarro, ME., PME. Submitted by:Canillo, Dave G.Espiritu, Khat Bird G.Escoba, John Philip V.Cabornay, HaroldRepolidon, Renerio Position Indicator is a device that measure/indicates the specific location of a given specimen either angular or in a linear position. This devices is widely use in industry and also use in military bases. There are two types of position indicator, the mechanical and the plan position indicator. Mechanical position indicator Mechanical Position Indicator a type of precision measuring gage that are being used in all production environments across most branches of industry, as guiding elements, material stops or tools must be positioned or aligned precisely and reliably on nearly all machines or units. The types of Mechanical Position Indicator are Dial Indicator, Valve Check Indicator, and Gear Position Indicator.

Dial indicator Itis any of various instruments used to accurately measure small distances andangles, andamplify them to make them more obvious. Valve check indicator To prevent reverse flow To stop a pipe or tank emptying when a pump stops To prevent pressure transients damaging the pump To prevent parallel pumps rotating in reverse To prevent contamination in complex networks or in the home To hold pressure in the line For positive displacement pump operation To provide water hammer mitigation To prevent flooding

Gear position indicator A device can be found in automobile/bicycle.

Plan Position Indicator Theplan position indicator(PPI), is the most common type ofradar display. The radar antenna is usually represented in the center of the display, so the distance from it and height above ground can be drawn asconcentriccircles. As the radar antenna rotates, a radial trace on the PPI sweeps in unison with it about the center point. The types of plan position indicatorare SONAR, SODAR, RADAR, and LIDAR. SONAR(Sound NavigationAndRanging) It is a technique that usessoundpropagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) tonavigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar":passivesonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels;activesonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic locationand of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction ofradar. Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation, andSODAR(an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations. The termsonaris also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic). The study of underwater sound is known asunderwater acousticsorhydroacoustics. SODAR(SOnic Detection And Ranging) It is a meteorological instrument used as awind profilerto measure the scattering of sound waves by atmospheric turbulence. SODAR systems are used to measure wind speed at various heights above the ground, and the thermodynamic structure of the lower layer of theatmosphere. Sodar systems are likeradar(radio detection and ranging) andlidar(light radar) systems except thatsoundwaves rather thanradioorlightwaves are used for detection. Other names used for sodar systems include sounder, echo sounder and acoustic radar.

RADAR (RAdioDetectionAndRanging) It is an object-detection system that usesradio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detectaircraft, ships,spacecraft,guided missiles,motor vehicles,weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish (or antenna) transmits pulses of radio waves ormicrowavesthat bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna that is usually located at the same site as thetransmitter. Radar was secretly developed by several nations before and duringWorld War II. The termRADARwas coined in 1940 by theUnited States Navyas anacronymforRadio DetectionAndRanging.The termradarhas since enteredEnglishand other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization. The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control,radar astronomy,air-defense systems,antimissile systems;marine radarsto locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anticollision systems;ocean surveillancesystems, outer space surveillance andrendezvoussystems; meteorologicalprecipitation monitoring; altimetry andflight control systems;guided missiletarget locating systems; andground-penetrating radarfor geological observations. High tech radar systems are associated withdigital signal processingand are capable of extracting useful information from very highnoiselevels. Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of theelectromagnetic spectrum. One example is "lidar", which uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light fromlasersrather than radio waves.

LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) It is aremote sensingtechnology that measures distance by illuminating a target with alaserand analyzing the reflected light. Although thought by some to be an acronym of Light Detection And Ranging, the term lidar was actually created as aportmanteauof "light" and "radar".Lidar is popularly used as a technology to make high-resolution maps, with applications ingeomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology,seismology,forestry,remote sensing,atmospheric physics, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), laser altimetry, andcontour mapping

Mechanical Position Indicator Mechanical Position Indicator a type of precision measuring gage that are being used in all production environments across most branches of industry, as guiding elements, material stops or tools must be positioned or aligned precisely and reliably on nearly all machines or units.

Dial Indicator Itis any of various instruments used to accurately measure small distances andangles, andamplify them to make them more obvious.The name comes from the concept ofindicatingto the user that which their naked eye cannot discern; such as the presence, or exact quantity, of some small distance (for example, a small height difference between two flat surfaces, a slight lack ofconcentricitybetween two cylinders, or other small physical deviations). Many indicators have adialdisplay, in which a needle points to graduations in a circular array around the dial. Such indicators, of which there are several types, therefore are often calleddial indicators.Non-dial types of indicators include mechanical devices withcantileveredpointers and electronic devices with digital displays.Indicators may be used to check the variation intoleranceduring the inspection process of a machined part, measure thedeflectionof a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated. Dial indicators typically measure ranges from 0.25mmto 300mm (0.015in to 12.0in), with graduations of0.001mmto 0.01mm (metric) or 0.00005in to0.001in (imperial / customary).

Used to measure: -The bend or run-out in a shaft-The misalignment of shafts -The clearance between two parts and between an engine valve and its guide.

Must be firmly mounted. A magnetic stand or a stand with a screw clamp is often used.

Causes of Misalignment and Run-outThe basic causes of misalignment and run-out are: Movement of one piece of equipment relative to another due to thermal growth in one or both machines Piping strain or strain induced by electrical connections Torsional movement taking place at start-up or while operating Movement or settling of the foundation or baseplate Inaccurate or incomplete alignment procedures (human error) Misbored couplingsIndications of Misalignment Misalignment in rotating machinery can be detected in many different ways.Some methods are incorporated into the plants preventative maintenance program. Others are inspections that could be used on a regular basis but usually are performed after the equipment has failed. Some of the indications of misalignment are: Wobbling shafts Excessive vibration Excessive bearing temperature Noise Bearing wear pattern Coupling wearEffects of Misalignment or Run-out High noise levels or constantly vibrating floors are strong indications of possible misalignment of machinery. Lost production Poor-quality products Higher than normal repair orders Increased spare parts purchases and inventory on hand Reduced profits Bearings will run hot, causing them to fail prematurely. Mechanical seals, seal rings, and packing will leak. Loss of product and lubrication can occur. Couplingswill fail due to excessive strain on the hubs. In severe cases, shafts can break, causing extensive damage to machines.

Types of dial indicatorProbe indicator typically consist of agraduated dial and needledriven by aclockwork (thus theclockterminology) to record the minor increments, with a smaller embedded clock face and needle to record the number of needle rotations on the main dial.

Dial test indicator Also known as alever arm test indicatororfinger indicator, has a smaller measuring range than a standard dial indicator.Measure angular displacement and not linear displacement It is also have a clock-like face but are characterized by the plungers mounted on one of their sides They come in both mechanical and electronic designs One common use for plunger dial indicators is to measure the work of injection molding machines The mechanism which allows this type of dial indicator to work is a rack and pinion, which changes the linear thrust of the plunger into rotary motion for the dial.Plunger indicator It is also have a clock-like face but are characterized by the plungers mounted on one of their sides They come in both mechanical and electronic designs One common use for plunger dial indicators is to measure the work of injection molding machines The mechanism which allows this type of dial indicator to work is a rack and pinion, which changes the linear thrust of the plunger into rotary motion for the dial.Balance reading dial indicator This are so named for the way that information is arranged upon the dial's face. Figures are printed upon the face of this dial running in two directions, starting from a zero in the center. Often, positive numbers are featured to the right of the zero and negative numbers to the left.Continuous dial indicator Continuously numbered dial indicators do not have the two sets of numbers featured on balanced reading dial indicators. The figures on this type of dial indicators run in one direction without stopping and without any type of a separation.Reversed balanced dial indicator These are named because they have the same basic positive and negative scales to each side of a zero, but the positive numbers are to the left and the negative are to the right.Reversed continuous dial indicator Reversed continuous, or counter-clockwise, dial indicators are the same as continuous dial indicators except that the numbers run in the opposite direction.Lever dial indicator Lever type dial indicators are characterized by their lever and scroll mechanisms, which cause the stylus to move. This type of dial indicators are more compact and easier to use than plunger-type dial indicators and are therefore quite often used.Dial indicator gauge parts and functions: Dial gauge

Has a face or dial marked in divisions of 0.01 mm (1/100 mm) Does not take a direct measurement - shows variations from the original zero setting These variations are transferred from the spindle to the pointer.

Magnetic base

The clamp and indicator mount parts can be disassembled and reassembled in many ways. Use them to create a mount that is appropriate to the job at hand.

Point Set (PN 1783, included in 1782 set)

The point set provides many different shapes of points that can be put on the dial indicator.Use a point that is appropriate to the job at hand. Use a flat point to measure convex surfaces. Use a rounded point to measure concave surfaces. Use small points to reach into holes.

Setting up the dial indicatorHorizontal and Vertical set-up

Select the correct gauge and attachmentSelect the gauge type, size, attachment and bracket, which fit the part youre measuring. Mount the dial indicator on a firm surface to keep it still. Press the plunger halfway inPress the dial indicator gently against the part, and rotate the part in this case a brake rotor-- one full turn. Keep pressing until the plunger settles about halfway into the indicator. Lock into positionLock the indicator assembly into position. Rotate and readCarefully rotate the brake rotor a couple of times, while you observe the dial readings face on. Ensure plunger is at 90 degrees Adjust the indicator so that the plunger is at 90 degrees to the part youre measuring

Setting up the dial indicator Record any movementsIf the pointer hovers around a single graduation on the dial, the part has minimal run out, or surface distortion. If it moves significantly left and right, you should note these variations. Find the point of maximum movement to the left and move the dial so that zero is over this point. Continue to rotate the brake rotor. Find the point of maximum movement to the right, and note the reading. This will indicate the run out value. Continue this rotation several times to confirm the points of maximum variation. Check your resultsCheck your readings against the manufacturers specifications. If the deviation is greater than the specifications allow, consult your supervisor.

LASER ALIGNMENT METHOD The laser alignment method is considered a precision-based performance technique that provides a faster, more accurate way to align equipment.

It is ideal for alignment of equipment over long distances, and it is less prone for user error. The system contains a laser diode and position sensor on one mounting bracket.

The opposite bracket contains a prism that redirects the laser beam back to the position sensor. Like other shaft alignment techniques, the shafts are rotated to determine the vertical and horizontal readings for angular and parallel misalignment.

The shaft positions and readings are automatically provided to a small computer. The computer then calculates the relative movement required at the feet of the moveable machine.Principles of Laser Alignment Method A major advantage of the use of laser alignment is the precise measurement of misalignment. Laser alignment can detect misalignment to 0.00004. In addition, with the useof laser alignment,bar sag concerns are eliminated. However,there are draw backs and limitations to the laser alignment method. Laser alignment equipment typically costs more than $10,000. Service companies or those companies with many pumps or large pumps are the primary buyers of laser alignment equipment. The environment in which the laser alignment equipment is used is also a limitation. The atmospheric temperature must be between 32and 131 Fahrenheit for the use of laser alignment. The environment must also be free of steam, dust, or air currents. These detractors will prevent the reading of the laser beam properly. However, it is possible to use a plastic pipe to shield the beam from the steam, dust, or air currents.