Inspection and investigation ver 27a

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1 Kay Associates Inspection and Investigation Inspection and Investigation Copyright November 1998 - 2005 Inspection and Investigation for Forest Roads Inspection and Inspection and Investigation for Investigation for Forest Roads Forest Roads Kay Associates Kay Associates Kay Associates [client name] [client name] Location Location [name] [name]

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  1. 1. 1Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Copyright November 1998 - 2005 Inspection and Investigation for Forest Roads Inspection andInspection and Investigation forInvestigation for Forest RoadsForest Roads Kay AssociatesKay AssociatesKay Associates [client name][client name] LocationLocation [name][name]
  2. 2. 2Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation A G E N D AA G E N D A ClassroomClassroom -- Day 1Day 1 8.00am8.00am StartStart -- ClassroomClassroom 10am10am CoffeeCoffee 12noon12noon LunchLunch 2pm2pm CoffeeCoffee 4pm4pm -- EndEnd FieldField Day 2Day 2 8am - Field Trip to Jamieson Cr 12noon Bag Lunch 4.30 Return to marshal point Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation for Forest Roadsfor Forest Roads Instructor: Eric L KayEric L Kay SafetySafety Room exitsRoom exits First aidFirst aid Emergency medicalEmergency medical evacuation Proceduresevacuation Procedures AmbulanceAmbulance -- 911911 Self introductionsSelf introductions InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  3. 3. 3Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Morning Providing a short review of past and current Road Construction methods and techniques, (including plans, profiles, cross sections & mass haul and a case study of reinforced road construction) Thorough understanding of the vital elements of a road lead to a better understanding of the investigation process Afternoon Visual presentation of road construction, maintenance and deactivation. Review with a strong focus on minimizing site degradation and an in depth overview of environmental concerns and issues Learning to recognize the red flags that warn of potential problems with a view to prevention of detrimental occurrences rather than a reactionary one. InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Day 1, ClassroomDay 1, Classroom
  4. 4. 4Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Day 2, Field trip Is a strong re-enforcement of the classroom discussion on accepted Road Engineering, Construction and Maintenance practices and procedures, with a strong emphasis on the practical investigation of road related issues. Class field exercises; Problem road layout and design. Stream crossing risk assessment exercise. Mock role playing of an investigation process. A major focus of the field trip is water management, soils stability, environmental impact reduction, controlling and managing costs.
  5. 5. 5Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Even with full cooperative planning certain day-by-day realities have to be addressed InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  6. 6. 6Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation We need to delve deeply into aWe need to delve deeply into a complex & interwovencomplex & interwoven picturepicture CONNECTIONSCONNECTIONS
  7. 7. 7Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Balance of;Balance of; -- InstructionInstruction -- TrainingTraining -- AwarenessAwareness Management Supervisors Workers Commitment Counting growth rings Field training Classroom
  8. 8. 8Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Some key areas of concern Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation 6 5 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation 7 Management of sediment sources; day to day regular work areas end haul disposal sites culvert installation culvert repair and maintenance cut slopes fill slopes ditches (erosion/cleaning) ROAD SURFACES
  9. 9. 9Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Some key areas of concern Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation 8 Prevention of large environmental impacts Landslides Damage to streams Damage to wetlands Damage to riparian areas
  10. 10. 10Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation 8 Lilloet, BCWadi slide, Port McNiel, BC Rivers Inlet, Restoration Cost of repair / restorationCost of repair / restoration Other Costs?
  11. 11. 11Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Some key areas of concern The use of poor armouring materials Rock size selection Poor armouring work Inlet Outlet Discharge slope Poor compaction of; Fill material ditch block Sidecast Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation The use of poor materials for; backfill ditchblock Armour CULVERTS 9 B 10 9
  12. 12. 12Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Oyster River, Vancouver Island Isabel Island, Solomons Culvert FailuresCulvert Failures Armoured Ford, Kelowna BC 9 Common Faults Undersized Plugged Damaged Improperly installed
  13. 13. 13Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation . Clulvert installation issues
  14. 14. 14Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Culvert Maintenance Issues Cleaning
  15. 15. 15Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Some key areas of concern The use of poor armouring materials size selection geotextiles Poor armouring work stream banks abutments channel water energyKay & Associates The use of poor materials for; backfill armour Poor compaction of; fill material ballast surfacing Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation BRIDGES 10 Case Study Powerpoint: Riparian Areas InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  16. 16. 16Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Some key areas of concern Cut slopes; Unstable angle of repose Overhanging rocks and stumps Management of seepage What are others? _____________ _____________ _____________ Sidecast & Fill problems; Long spoil slopes Fill placed in an unstable manner Fill placed ON unstable material Incorrect location; Culverts Landings Spoil sites Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation 11 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  17. 17. 17Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Plans Optimized for the harvesting equipment. Optimized for the loading and hauling equipment. Optimized for the equipment that will be used for road construction. Road location optimized for disposal of waste materials. Some key areas of concernSome key areas of concernInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road location optimized for access to road-building materials. Road location optimized for lowest-cost construction procedures. Road optimized for least environmental impact. 12
  18. 18. 18Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Prevention in all phases;Prevention in all phases; PlanningPlanning -- AssessingAssessing -- Written plansWritten plans -- FundingFunding ConstructionConstruction MaintenanceMaintenance DeactivationDeactivation Periodic InspectionsPeriodic Inspections Are part of prevention!Are part of prevention! NegativeNegative IMPACTSIMPACTS Slide event Stabilized with grass seed Site today 13
  19. 19. 19Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Grading 13 Use grader to crown, inslope, or outslope road to manage surface water (and sediment) Roads continually lose surfacing materials to dust and rain, lowering the road, and exposing sub-grade Improper grading continually widens the road, impacting on wetlands and watercourses
  20. 20. 20Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road sub-surface Vibratory Compactor Roller Case SV208, Sheepsfoot roller Used for Sandy Soils
  21. 21. 21Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Champion 605T Automatic, 12' Molboard Road Maintenance Options for Grader Blade cutting edges Regular or curved cutting edge Serrated edge (ice blade) Carbide tipped Olofsfors AB P 300
  22. 22. 22Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road Surfacing - CompactionInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  23. 23. 23Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road Surfacing Agents Calcium/Magnesium Chloride Lignum based products Enzyme products InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  24. 24. 24Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Understanding; Maps, Plans, Profiles, Cross sections, Mass haul diagrams Special instructions Geotechical Reports Aerial photographs Other?________________ Road Construction Planning Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation 15 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  25. 25. 25Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Actually relating the plans to physical features in the field (orientation) Group exerciseGroup exercise Field demonstrationField demonstration Aerial photographs as an aid to inspection and investigation Road layouts that can be improved (consideration of all alternate solutions and their values/negatives) Road Construction Planning Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation 15 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  26. 26. 26Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road Location and Design Water management Slope stability Minimize environmental impact Costs a road in the right place is 15 Encompasses; Harvest species Harvesting method Log transport Good to Build Good to Log Good to Maintain Good to Deactivate InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  27. 27. 27Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Drawn true to scale and show; Road Centerline Station numbers Reference points Culvert locations End haul areas (and disposal sites) Ground slopes in percentage Contour lines Reading and Understanding Plans Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  28. 28. 28Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Vertical distance is exaggerated 10 times for visual effect and easier measuring Heavy gradeline is road Dotted line is the actual ground surface line Measured at the centerline and indicates the need to cut or fill Grade Percentage, shown as + or - (e.g.. +8%) Reading and Understanding Profiles Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  29. 29. 29Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation They are a slice taken out of the hillside to show the road in an end on view Dotted line is the actual ground surface line Cuts and Fills are indicated Cut and fill slope angles are shown Reading and Understanding Cross Sections Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  30. 30. 30Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Reading and Understanding Mass Haul diagrams They are a graphical representation of; volume direction distance that material must be moved Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation Class exercise: Class exercise: InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  31. 31. 31Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation When a detailed work plan has been formed, or a report from a professional for; End Haul Stream crossings Riparian areas High risk or hazard Unstable ground Special instruction areas Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation 20 21 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  32. 32. 32Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Optimum road location Locate road on bench to consider; Harvesting system (or systems) Stable disposal of sidecast material The use of sliver fills to dispose of excess material The need to generate rock for roadbuilding Ie. ballast, capping or rip-rap Locate to reduce material handling Ie. balanced cut and fill, or moving only for short distances back or forward InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  33. 33. 33Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Current accepted road construction practices and techniques: Overlanding Balanced cut & fill(partial bench cuts) Full bench cuts Sliver fills Endhauling Road sub-grade Construction; Methods Equipment Materials Expertise Training Supervision Road capping (surfacing) materials Compaction Borrow pits, Quarries, Spoil sites, Waste areas Tote roads Snow/Ice roads InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  34. 34. 34Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Managing Costs $230,000 / km $150,000 / km $127,000 / km 16.4 cu m 9.1 cu m 11.0 cu m
  35. 35. 35Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Ditchline Erosion Water - Depth and Velocity Double the depth = 4 times the velocity = Moves 64 times in size/weight InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  36. 36. 36Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Ditchline erosion Polyethylene used to allow growth of grass for ditchline armour InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  37. 37. 37Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Settling ponds Settling times (1m depth) Coarse silt .2 hr Medium silt 1.3 hr Fine silt 14 hr Clay 5 days Times are approximate, temperature of 5 C and assume no turbulence. Silt 0.05mm to 0.002mm Clay < 0.002mm InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  38. 38. 38Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  39. 39. 39Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation High degree of strength Longitudinally / Laterally Opening size is chosen to support the ballast material in a pyramid fashion. This pyramid action distributes user weight over a larger area. Thinner layer of ballast is required. Managing Costs Geogrids Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  40. 40. 40Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Managing Costs Geotextiles Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Provide a separation layer between Subgrade and Ballast Prevents the migration of fines E.g. pumping-upward and contaminating the ballast and surfacing materials. Thinner layer of ballast is required.
  41. 41. 41Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Overhanging vegetation Shade (water temperature / Hiding) Nutrients (debris, bugs, insects etc) Habitat for insects and bugs Protection for animals/rodents & access to waterway Large and medium boulders for; Resting places out of water energy flow Hiding places from predators Root systems providing; Bank erosion control Bottom scour(deeper water) Habitat for Animals, rodents, aquatic species Floodplain for; Energy dissipation in high-water events Deposition of beneficial sediments Gravel bars for fish values (multiple-graded material) Waterways Key Environmental Elements InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  42. 42. 42Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Miss-direction of water - Culvert; location / inlet / outlet Ditches - Controlling energy Ditches when is it better not to have a ditch. Lack of armour (what constitutes good armour) Seepage and piping water from cut slopes (piping water and internal sediment transport) Water management Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  43. 43. 43Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation ! Ponding water behind the road ! Water hydrology and types of erosion; Sheet, Rilling and Gullying ! Sediment generation from; Road surface, Ditchlines, Cut slopes, Fill slopes ! Vegetation as tool for control in the movement of sediment (see bioengineering exercise) ! Sediment Control Silt fences, Hay bales, Settling ponds, Check dams (see Planning for Installation, Maintenance and Removal of Silt Fence) Water management InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  44. 44. 44Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Use control device BEFORE sediment enters a waterway (ditchline or stream) Do not use in running water such as a ditch or stream! Sediment ControlSediment Control Silt fenceSilt fence Hay balesHay bales InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Water management
  45. 45. 45Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Check-dams Correct hay bale use. Horseshoe shape is critical Ensure to provide erosion protection (armour) at discharge Trapped Sediment Vegetated Regular Inspection and Maintenance Required
  46. 46. 46Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation B 50 Water managementWater management InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  47. 47. 47Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Monitor and Maintain!!! Removal of accumulated sediment when 1/2 height on silt fence Plan for removal Of silt fence Of accumulated sediment Sediment Control Silt fences, Hay bales See powerPoint; Silt fence/Hay bales Water managementWater managementInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  48. 48. 48Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Common issues Culvert; location / Sizing / Length Culvert; poor base preparation (materials and compaction) Culvert; poor materials used for; Backfill/ditchblock/armour Rip-rap placement Fillslope materials encroachment Ditchline discharge location Erodible fill stream/wetland/lake Provisions for silt and sediment control Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation Water Crossings InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  49. 49. 49Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Identification of natural drainages for culvert locations Actual culvert location Natural drainage
  50. 50. 50Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation 26 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Provisions for silt and sediment control See PowerPoint: Stream Crossing Water Management and See PowerPoint: Armoured Fords
  51. 51. 51Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Crossing installation Skew, Ditch block, Structure length, base compaction, _________ Armour(inlet, outlet & discharge) Quality and compaction of backfill Were detailed plans followed during installation? Prioritize crossings to investigate / not investigate Water Crossings Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  52. 52. 52Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Log culverts
  53. 53. 53Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Culvert shape Bridge design
  54. 54. 54Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road deactivation should take into consideration: a) provisions for safe fish passage and protection of fish habitat at the crossing, and up and downstream of the structure; and b) provisions for control of silt and sediment at stream crossings. Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation Water Crossings InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  55. 55. 55Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Erosion Control Sediment
  56. 56. 56Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Retains moistureRetains moisture Raindrop protectionRaindrop protection Wind protectionWind protection Retains warmthRetains warmth Decay provides nutrientsDecay provides nutrients Seed rooting protectionSeed rooting protection InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Erosion Control Mulch
  57. 57. 57Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Cut Slope - sediment generator Oyster River, Glacial till. Continuous sediment generating source and costly road maintenance problem. Oversteep Continually failing, will not re- vegetate until it reaches a stable angle of repose. InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  58. 58. 58Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Issues Perched material - berms Natural angle of repose Buried organics /LWD on steeper slopes Duff layer under fill acting as a slip layer Placing of fill material that may be easily erodible Best to; Key in fill material for road support Slope Stability - Fill slopes Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation River Bio-Bio
  59. 59. 59Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Cut Slope - sediment generator - Solutions Remove failing headscarp: Eg. Explosives / Spider excavator (see PowerPoint: Removing Headscarps for Cut-slope Stabilization ) Slope back to angle of repose (Seldom is a viable solution) Provide internal drainage (Gravel / Synthetics / Live pole drains) Cut off water source (surface / subsurface) (see PowerPoint Contour Drainage for Slope Stabilization Install full or partial retaining wall (buttressing) (reduce apparent slope angle) Use Bio-engineering techniques for stabilization assistance (see PowerPoint BioEngineering and also handout material)
  60. 60. 60Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation CASE STUDY (35mm slide presentation) Foley Creek FSR Engineered Fill Slope using Geogrids Slope Stability - Fill Slopes Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  61. 61. 61Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Slope Stability - Cut Slopes Natural angle of repose Consolidated and unconsolidated material Over-steepening V/S sloping back Some materials behave better when vertical Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  62. 62. 62Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Geogrid Cut Slope - buttressing Existing slope line 100+% New stable slope angle ~60% Live willow stakes Conifers Gabion baskets three high Decreased ditchline size (or eliminated) Geogrid Drainage underneath gabion baskets. Eg. installation of a French Drain. Note: may need to also install a pipe to provide extra carrying capacity! Drainage under road. Eg. installation of multiple culverts, Rock Drains or a Blanket Drain where there is a need to not concentrate water energy. Typical slope treatment for stabilization using gabion baskets to reduce apparent slope angle and using bioengineering techniques in conjunction to effect a green solution that will provide for slope stability and effective sediment control. Live willow-wattling. Note: Stakes installed 90 to slope Headscarp removed
  63. 63. 63Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation French Drains (rock- drains) InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  64. 64. 64Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Climate Climate areas Eg. Maritime, Hyper- maritime etc. Local climatic patterns Slope aspects Microclimates Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  65. 65. 65Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Road Maintenance Brushing Maintaining ditchlines Culvert maintenance Road surfacing materials Compaction Grading practices Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  66. 66. 66Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Soil Disturbance Harvesting Resource extraction Skid trails Planting Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  67. 67. 67Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Grass seeding and fertilizing - - Quality control (Dry and Hydro seeding) Erosion control blankets VS Bonded fiber matrix Planting of Conifers or Hardwoods for stabilization Inspection and Investigation Revegetation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  68. 68. 68Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Revegetation Inspection and Investigation Need for on-going inspection Infill planting Periodic re-fertilizing B 77 InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  69. 69. 69Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation 36 Cut and fill slope support. Live staking, Wattling, Brush layering, Instream erosion protection Bank protection Water seepage management Live pole drains Bio-engineering Inspection and Investigation Optional 35mm Slides Tray 2 See: InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  70. 70. 70Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation 37 Sediment control and Sediment traps Live staking, Wattling, Brush layering Combining bio-engineering with hard engineering Bio-engineering Inspection and Investigation Optional 35mm Slides Tray 2 See: InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  71. 71. 71Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Types and common failureTypes and common failure problemsproblems OPTIONALOPTIONAL -- Refer to handoutRefer to handout and / orand / or OptionalOptional powerpointpowerpoint presentationpresentation LandformsLandforms Rock identification keyRock identification key The effects of the Ice ages on ChileThe effects of the Ice ages on Chile (diagrams of ice flows)(diagrams of ice flows) Fault linesFault lines Groundwater resourcesGroundwater resources Tectonic platesTectonic plates ROCK Inspection and Investigation . InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  72. 72. 72Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation ROCKROCK BlastingBlasting Understanding blasting recordsUnderstanding blasting records Class exerciseClass exercise Class and Field discussion onClass and Field discussion on examples of;examples of; Good / Bad blasting controlGood / Bad blasting control FlyrockFlyrock (minimizing)(minimizing) OverbreakOverbreak (controlling overbreak)(controlling overbreak) Option: Play blasting CDOption: Play blasting CD InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  73. 73. 73Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Mineral soils Organic soils Knowledge of soils Organic / Mineral How they were derived How do they affect road stability? How do they affect slope stability? Seek professional advise on soils stability Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  74. 74. 74Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation I hear the fish are biting,,, we should wet a line this weekend! The most effective method of avoiding landslide problems is to avoid building roads in areas that are likely to be unstable use geotechnical advise. InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  75. 75. 75Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Karst Formations Sensitive landscape Cave Protection InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Pozo de las nimas Foto Rodolfo Rogelio Rocha PiedraPiedra calizacaliza cavernacaverna
  76. 76. 76Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Karst Formations InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  77. 77. 77Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Easily damaged by: Contamination Fire Heavy equipment Altered hydrology Karst Formations
  78. 78. 78Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation 44 Road related disturbances Inspection and Investigation FillslopesFillslopes CutslopesCutslopes MidslopesMidslopesSee PowerPoint: RED FLAGS InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  79. 79. 79Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Locating the clues; Telltale signs to find the route of the water that may have been associated with the event. Signs that materials may have been left at risk(eg oversteepend cut or fill slope material, large berms) Possible human actions that may have a relationship to the failure (before and after the event) Sub-standard construction practices or maintenance practices that may have led to the failure Poor timing of operations Ie. wrong season Failure to secure the site in anticipation of expected rainfall. Road related disturbances Fillslopes, Cutslopes & Midslope Inspection and Investigation See PowerPoint: Red Flags InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  80. 80. 80Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Looking for clues after mitigative actions have been taken When clues have been obliterated by mitigative or remedial works -Persisting with further & more intensive investigative techniques -Broadening the investigation area -Inclusion of experts Road related disturbances Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  81. 81. 81Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Chemical contamination Looking for the possible sources of suspected water and/or ground contamination Shop sites Field work-sites Fuel & Oil storage-sites Disposal sites Transport spills Outlining the extent of the contaminated area Kay & Associates Contamination Inspection and Investigation InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  82. 82. 82Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Using spill kit Using pads Use protective gloves & eyeware Soak up oil by placing on surface When saturated (full of oil), place in leak-proof bags and container. Dispose of in an approved manner see handout for more detailed instructions InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  83. 83. 83Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Using booms Prior to start of work, place across stream in quietest possible water downstream from the worksite. HINT - If water is turbulent, angle the boom across stream and direct oil to a back-water. HINT - Allow for rise and fall of water flow. In the event of a spill, use pads to absorb oil. Using spill kitInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  84. 84. 84Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation RavelingRaveling Solutions?Solutions? Recognizing thatRecognizing that remedial works canremedial works can sometimes be moresometimes be more detrimental than andetrimental than an existing situationexisting situation a) Sloping back . b) Toe support . c) Engineered retaining wall. d) Water management . InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  85. 85. 85Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation When there are prolonged periods of saturation BEFORE ! sediments are started to be transported Others ____rain on snow__ ? When there are expected periods of high saturation Wet weather shut down indicators InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  86. 86. 86Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Shut Down Guidelines STOP work; During prolonged saturation periods During intense weather systems Before negative effects are experienced When you can not follow the plan interpretation situation changed site materials changed conditions incorrect materials
  87. 87. 87Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigationRoads are an integral part of the harvesting phaseRoads are an integral part of the harvesting phase
  88. 88. 88Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation CONSIDER; When to seek advice from a professional Water quality sampling Evidence gathering Photo Video Interviews Professional best practicesInspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  89. 89. 89Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Culvert Inspection BREAKOUT SESSION See excerpts from Culvert Inspection training course
  90. 90. 90Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation FIELD DAY General notes to all attendees; The field portion can be physically intensive. Recommended to bring; Brown bag lunch Appropriate clothing for anticipated weather Rain gear & Appropriate boots Visi-vest or cruisers vest Hard hat Optional Sunto(inclinometer), Binoculars, notebook Safety; We will be driving on and working on active haul roads, please observe all safety precautions. Please observe standard safety procedures for MOF InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  91. 91. 91Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Never tell people how to do things Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity General George S Patton. InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation
  92. 92. 92Kay Associates InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Kay Associates End,End, Instructor: Eric L Kay Copyright November 1998 - 2015 Inspection and InvestigationInspection and Investigation for Forest Roadsfor Forest Roads InspectionandInvestigationInspectionandInvestigation Telephone: 1 250 337-5095 [email protected]