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Insects as

sustainable feed



Commissione ASPAFonti proteiche innovative


Edible species: 2037

2 billion people

Ketchup: 30 uova di insetto ogni 100 g

Mais in scatola: 2 larve di insetto ogni 100 g

Mirtilli:2 vermi ogni 100 bacche

Burro di arachidi: 50 frammenti di insetti ogni 100 g

Polvere di Curry: 100 frammenti di insetti ogni 100 g

Semi di sesamo: 5% di semi infestati

Caff: 10% di chicchi infestasti



1/3 produzione alimenti

naturali (impollinazione)

500 g/anno


Insects as Feed

Insects = Mini-livestock = rearing animals

Raw materials for feeds: Fish Poultry Pigs


EU produce only the 30% of the proteins for animalfeed (70% reliance from Brazil, Argentina, USA)

Animal feeds

2011: The EU Parliament adopted a resolution to address the EUs protein deficit,stating that urgent action is needed to replace imported protein crops withalternative and additional European sources

26 mt = by-products derived fromvegetable oil production (mainly SBM)

Trend towards an increase of this deficit

The EU Protein Deficit

aquaculture = 44.14% (73,8 mt)

Global production 2014 (capture + aquaculture): 168 mt

Growth aquaculture: increased demand for FM

168 mt

73,8 mt

?? 1






FAO (2014): 16,3 mt of wild caught fish processed into FM & FO

Animal feeds(fish other livestock)

+ SBM and other protein sources

2050: meat (poultry / pork / bovine) and milk products will double while

fish products (aquaculture) will be triplicated

IFIF, 2014., 2011. World Livestock 2011 Livestock in Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome





Nutritional value Nutritional value variable:

species, metamorphic stage (age), rearing substrate processing technology (drying, defatting, )

high level of proteins (up to 70% DM) rich in EAA (comparable to FM, better than SBM) high energy (fat: 16,5 - 44% DM) (similar to veg no PUFA) micronutrients

copper iron magnesium manganese phosphorous

selenium zinc riboflavin biotin

Insect chemical composition (%DM)

Hermetia illucens


Tenebrio molitor


Musca domestica



42,1 7,0 26,0 20,6

48,1 5,1 40,0 3,1

50,4 13,8 18,9 10,1

70,8 15,7 15,5 7,7


Mass production: fat extraction

Sustainability Bio-converters: turning low value organic

side streams (waste, by-products, ) intoproteins

Rapid growth, controlled reproduction, mass production

Efficient FCR

Part of livestock diets Less land area needed

25 t/ha/8 10 days1000 t /ha/year125 - 150 t protein

25 t/ha/year0.9 t protein

ProteInsect, 2016

Dir. 2008/98/CE

Mass production

FeedFoodAntimicrobial (Lauric acid)

Chitin Water treatment Chemical industry pharmaceutic AMP



EU Waste & by-products

FAO (2011), Economist (2014)

Dir. 2008/98/CE

EU food waste


89 mt / year (180 kg per capita)

Expected to rise to 126 mt /y by 2020

1.4 billion tonnes of manure


Circular economy zero waste



Where MagMeal is substituted for

fishmeal, every tonne used allows three

tonnes of fish to remain in our

oceans. At full capacity our Philippi

factory will produce enough MagMeal

to substitute for 15 million wild caughtfish per year

Fishmeal is a carbon intensive feed

ingredient. The distance between the

trawlers that ply the Antarctic seas to

capture the fish, to its eventual point of

use in the USA, Europe and Asia is

typically 10,000 kilometers.

MagMeal can be made where it is

needed and has an environmental cost

saving of $2,000 per tonne comparedto its Fishmeal alternative

OUR IMPACTOur business was created with a vision to recycle waste

nutrients and make protein at point of need, using local

waste at a global scale. Our mission is to reinvent our

unsustainable use of fishmeal and deliver naturalalternative ingredients that can start saving our seas.

The waste management chain is a

growing problem in many cities. Our new

standard 250 tonne per day waste bio

conversion factories will have a material

impact on local landfill sites. Each plant

will divert over 90,000 tonnes a year of

organic waste from stretched landfill

operations. We upcycle the nutrients in

organic food waste from our cities into

feed for growing larvae. Our industrial

facilities are typically much nearer cites,

cutting down transport costs. Reducing

organics to landfill will help stop the

degradation of aquifers and watertables through inevitable landfill leachate.

91000 ton organic waste / year 18125 ton wet larvae 5000 ton protein meal



EnviroFlight, LLC focus is on producing environmentally sustainable plant and animal feeds by processing waste distillers grains using black soldier fly larvae

fondata nel 2009

Substrates: traceable organics (grocery stores,food processors, stale dated includes fruits,

vegetables, bread, fish & seafood)

http://www.ynsect.com2017: 300 t TM meal/year

Adresse: An der Birkenpfuhlheide 1015837 Baruth / Mark+49 (0) 33704 675 50

Insektenproteine auf der Basis von Fliegenlarven

sind hochproteinreich und erfllen die

ernhrungsphysiologischen Ansprche karnivorer

(ruberischer) Fischarten, wie sie die meisten der

geschtzten Speisefische (Lachse, Steinbutt,

Forellen, Grouper, Snapper, Wolfsbarsch, Dorade,

Adlerfisch, Kabeljau etc.) darstellen. Auch fr die

Geflgelzucht und die Schweinemast sind

Insektenproteine sehr gut geeignet. Die

stoffwechselphysiologische Eignung eines solchen

Proteins fr Geflgel und Schweine steht auer

Frage. Auch fr Vgel, Reptilien, Hunde und

Katzen sind diese Eiweie, die reich an

essentiellen Aminosuren sind, bestens geeignet.

Somit stellt ein Futtermittel auf der Basis von

Insektenlarven eine geradezu optimale Alternative

zum Fischmehl dar.

Stratio meal

55-65% PG

10-15% EE



CIMI s.r.l.

EU legislation




Live larvae PATs Lipids Hydrolised proteins

Tenebrio molitorDried and cooked wastematerials from fruits,vegetables, and cereals.

40 90 weeks(Makkar et al., 2014)

(8-18 weeks; personal data)

Low in Ca (modulation throught substrate)

Hermetia illucens6 30 weeks

(Makkar et al., 2014)

Poultry, pig, and cattle manure,fish offal, carrion, Coffee bean pulp, vegetables,organic by-products,

Black soldier fly: from by-product to high qualityinsect protein

Organic side stream


Larvae biomass


Insect meal


Defatted insect meal


Oil (2.4%)

Entofood (2015)

Insects= Bioconverters

Musca domestica5 10 d / 45-50 d(optimal T : 35C)(Makkar et al., 2014)

All organic substrates

Mass production

FeedFoodAntimicrobial (Lauric acid)

Chitina Water treatment Chemical industry pharmaceutic AMP



Oil / Fat

Mass production

FeedFoodAntimicrobial (Lauric acid)

Chitin Water treatment Chemical industry pharmaceutic AMP





Insects for poultry

In substitution of SBM (GM) (FM) Meal inclusion levels up to 30%

Live larvae Rural poultry (Ghana): diet supplementation with 30-50 g/day MD larvae

Improvement of growing and reproductive parameters Laying hens: 20% larvae 80% diet

ADC & Metabolizable energy

De Marco et al., 2015

Bovera et al., 2016

Larvae meal:

Laying hens MD: 5% inclusion (50% FM sub): no negative effects on egg production and

shell strength (!! 100% sub = decrease in egg production) (Agundabiade et al., 2007) HI: 17% inclusion (total SBM sub) (Marono et al., 2017)

Better FCR but lower FI Lower % of L class eggs

HI: up to 24% inclusion (100% SBM sub) (Maurer et al., 2016) No differences for FI & egg production

Larvae meal:

Broilers MD:

up to 25% of inclusion: no n