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  • 1. Course SHS Program in Cognitive Psychology Spring 2007 Human-Robot Interaction User-centred design of social robots Aude G Billard Learning Algorithms and Systems Laboratory - LASA EPFL,Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanne, Switzerland [email_address]

2. The Aesthetic of the Body Why isAestheticimportant? 3. The Aesthetic of the Body It is a truism that people will be more inclined to interact with attractive faces than with unattractive ones.Typical appealing features are large eyes, symmetric and round faces, pink cheeks and big eyelashes.Dolls faces versus Monsters faces? C. DiSalvo, F. Gemperle, J. Forlizzi, and S. Kiesler. All robots are not created equal: The design and perception of humanoid robot heads. In Proc. Designing Interactive Systems, pages 321: 326, 2002. 4. The Aesthetic of the Body

  • 19 th -20 thCentury:Automata
  • (Automated toys)
    • Mimicking the body and behavior of an animals
    • Only one single behavior
    • Completely preprogrammed in the mechanics
    • Theaestheticwas very important pieces of art

5. SDR-3X, Sony Dream Robot 50cm, 5 Kg, 24 DOFs OS: Aperios, OPEN-R,16MB memory stick CCD Color Camera, Microphone (x2), IR distance,Acceleration,Touch Detection (x8), Speaker Walking Speed, 15m per minute HOAP-1Fujitsu Laboratory Ltd. 48 cm, 6 kg, 20 DOF,OS: RT-Linux USB 1.0 (12Mbps) PINOKitano ERATO Project, Tokyo Sound and Vision Mini-Humanoids 6. Baby RobotsMy Real Baby (2000) IRobot Corp, Boston, USA Robota (1997-2002) Univ. of Edinburgh 1997-1998,EPFL (Switzerland) 1998-1999 DIDEL SA (Switzerland) 1999-2007 CSI, Paris, France 2000-2002 USC, Los Angeles,2001-2002 7. The Aesthetic of the Body "uncanny valley"[Mori 1970] 8. The Aesthetic of the Face Surprisingly, however, many of the humanoid robots developed so far have more in common with monsters than with dolls.Maverick, 2001 RIKEN & USC Berthoc, 2006 Univ. Bielefeld 9. The Aesthetic of the Face Another set of attempts University of Pisa&Jet Propulsion Lab Kobayashi / Ishiguros Lab Science University of Tokyo, 2001 10. Human-like body

  • BiPed Locomotion

Kawato Erato Project, ATR, Kyoto, Japan YFX Studios, Japan, USA

  • Binocular Vision
  • Anthropomorphic Hands
  • Anthropomorphic Arms

University of Karslruhe, GermanyBIP 2000, CRNS, France

  • Anthropomorphic Head

11. The Aesthetic of the Body Repliee R1: Ishiguros lab, Osaka Univ. This android has 9 degree of freedom in her head.Shecan move her eyes, eyelids, mouth, and neck. Its body is covered with silicone, so the skin feels humanlike. And it has 4 high sensitivity skin sensors under the skin. 12. The Aesthetic of the Body Repliee R2: Ishiguros lab, Osaka Univ. Facial expressions of the adult android: 13 of the 42 actuators are used in the head. Humanlike facial expressions are realized by the motion of the eyes and mouth. 13. The Aesthetic of the Body Together with the company Kokoro,Ishiguros lab at Osaka Univhas developed a new life-like android calledActroid DER2 . This android looks very human and talks and moves its head, arms, hands, and body. This android is available for rental now at the rate of $3,500 for 5 days. 14. The Aesthetic of the Face And, finally, he cloned himself! Geminoid,Ishiguros Lab, Osaka University Hiroshi Ishiguro would say that his Geminoid is like a twin! 15. The Aesthetic of the Face The realism of the facial expressions are as important as the overall aesthetic of the face 16. Expressing Emotions The Kismet Robot, C. Breazael, MIT, 1999 SadHappySurprised Designing Robots Faces 17. Expressing Emotions Feelix robot by L. Canamero, MIT, 1999 From left to right and top to bottom: neutral, anger, sadness, fear, happiness, and surprise. Designing Robots Faces L. Canamero , J Fredslund, I show you how I like you-can you read it in my face, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A,, 2001 18. Designing Robots Faces Mike Blow, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Andrew Appleby, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, David Lee,The Art of Designing Robot Faces - Dimensions for Human-Robot Interaction , Proc. AMC/IEEE HRI06, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 2006, pp. 331 - 332.

  • Kaspar has 8DOF head and two 6DOF arms.
  • Rational behind the development of Kaspar is:
  • consistency of appearance and complexity between the head, body and hands to aid natural interaction
  • minimal expressive features to create the impression of sociability

19. The Aesthetic of the Face Mike Blow, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Andrew Appleby, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, David Lee,The Art of Designing Robot Faces - Dimensions for Human-Robot Interaction , Proc. AMC/IEEE HRI06, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 2006, pp. 331 - 332. 20. Designing Robots Faces Mike Blow, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Andrew Appleby, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, David Lee,The Art of Designing Robot Faces - Dimensions for Human-Robot Interaction , Proc. AMC/IEEE HRI06, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 2006, pp. 331 - 332.e.g. a Photograph e.g. Comics faces e.g. Picassos cubic faces 21. Expressive Body Movements Keepon(Kozimas group, CRL, Japan) :Very simple but powerful design to convey joint attention and turn taking behavior 22. Keepon 's kinematic mechanism. Two gimbals are connected by four wires; the lower gimbal is driven by two motors.Another motor rotates the whole inner-structure; yet another drives the skull downward for bobbing. Expressive Body Movements 23. Attentive actionDirecting the head up/down and left/right so as to orient Keepon's face/body to a certain target in the environment. Keepon seems to be perceiving the target. This action includes eye-contact and joint attention.Emotive actionKeeping its attention in a certain direction, Keepon rocks its body from side to side and/or bobs its body up and down. Keepon seems to express emotions (like pleasure and excitement) about the target.Expressive Body Movements 24. Robota: Educational and Therapeutic Toy Designing Robot Toys 25. SDR-3X, SonyPrice: Luxury car (>$100000.-) Robota, DIDEL SAPrice: $2800.- My Real Baby,IRobot Corp Price:$100.- Robota fills a gap in the market: It is anaffordablehumanoid robot Teaching toy:It provides a nice basis for child-robot interaction Education:It hasdevelopment software , you can have several robots in a class room What is the use of Robota? 26. Design Issues behind Robota

  • Robotas Body:
  • Cuteness
  • Human-likeness, i.e. respecting the body proportion of a young child (between 16 and 20 months old),
  • Naturalness of the motions, i.e. the robots motions should be human-like.
  • Robotas Capabilities:
  • Provided with capabilities for interactions that a child of this age would display:
  • To recognize human faces and direct its gaze towards the user,
  • To understand and learn a restricted vocabulary
  • Simple imitation of the users motion

Designing Robot Toys 27. First Prototype

  • Univ of Edinburgh, 1998

Designing Robot Toys 28. Learning Dance Movements

  • Univ of Edinburgh, 1998

First Prototype Designing Robot Toys 29. LAMI - EPFL, 1999 In collaboration with Jean-Daniel Nicoud and Andre Guignard Second Prototype Designing Robot Toys 30. Second Prototype Billard, A.(2003)Robota: Clever Toy and Educational Tool . Robotics & Autonomous Systems, 42, 259-269.Designing Robot Toys 31. Robota The Product Designing Robot Toys PDA -Pocket-PC 400MHz, 64Mb Windows CE Embedded C++ Speech Processing CONVERSAY synthesis + recognition Touch Switches Kinesthetic Haptic Potentiometers Face and Motion Tracking CMOS FlyCam camera 32. Robota The Product Since 1999, Robota is a commercial product sold by DIDEL SA, Switzerland Designing Robot Toys 33.

  • Three degrees of freedom:
  • 1 for horizontal binocular motion
  • 2 for vertical motion (separate blinking)
  • Aesthetic: all components within the head

ROBOTAS EYES Pongas, D.,Guenter , F. , Guignard, A. andBillard, A.(2004)Development of a Miniature Pair of Eyes With Camera for the Humanoid Robot Robota . IEEE-RAS/RSJ International Conference on Humanoid Robots.Designing Robot Toys 34. ROBOTAS EYES Designing Robot Toys 35.

  • 2 USB Cameras
  • VGA (640X480)
  • 15 frames per second

Robotas eyes IEEE Conf. In Humanoid Robotics, HUMANOIDS04 Designing Robot Toys 36. Body and Brain must Match

  • It is fundamental that the robots cognitive capabilities match its physical appearance.
  • An adult-like humanoid robot will be expected to produceadult-like capabilities(understanding of speech and complex manipulation capabilities).
  • Conversely, if one interacts with ababy-like robot , one will probably havelower expectationson the robots speech and manipulation capabilities.

37. Designing the body and the brain of a robot

  • Why are the key criteria?
    • The robots body creates expectations in terms of the robots capabilities.
    • If these do not match, the robot loses some of its believability and of its appeal.
  • What are the main challenges?
    • To manage to endow the robot with complex facial and body expressions, while not loosing the aesthetic of the robot.