Innovative Medium-Speed Drivetrain Design Program and ... · Surface mount, permanent magnet o...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    11-Oct-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Innovative Medium-Speed Drivetrain Design Program and ... · Surface mount, permanent magnet o...

  • NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    Innovative Medium-Speed Drivetrain Design Program and Dynamometer Testing

    American Wind Energy Association WINDPOWER 2015

    May 19‒21, 2015

    Orlando, Florida

    Jonathan Keller (National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL])

    Chris Halse (Romax Technology)

    PR-5000-64269

  • 2

    Next-Generation Drivetrain (NGD) Concept The NGD is a medium-speed, medium-voltage drivetrain, featuring advances in the gearbox and power converter that increase efficiency, reliability, and annual energy production (AEP) while also reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) and cost of energy (COE)

    NREL's research on the NGD has two phases:

    • Phase I investigated NGD benefits; findings included a 5% increase in AEP and 13% decrease in COE at 5 megawatts (MW)

    • Phase II has designed, built, and will test key drivetrain technologies.

    70%

    75%

    80%

    85%

    90%

    95%

    100%

    0% 50% 100%

    Driv

    etra

    in e

    ffic

    ienc

    y (%

    )

    Rotor power (%)

    Next-generation drivetrain

    Three-stage, doubly fed drivetrain

    +10% +5.6%

    Concept of a NGD wind turbine. Illustration by Al Hicks, NREL

    Comparisons of drivetrain cost and efficiency at 5 MW Illustration by Al Hicks, NREL

  • 3

    NGD Technology Impacts

    • Gearbox o Increased reliability from single-stage gearbox and journal bearings o Increased capacity from multiple planets and flex pins

    • Generator o Decreased manufacturing cost from concentrated winding o Decreased O&M costs from segmented stator

    • Power Converter o Increased reliability of drivetrain with utility fault control algorithms o Reduced curtailment time with utility fault control algorithms o Increased efficiency from hybrid silicon carbide modules o Increased efficiency from medium-voltage design o Decreased capital costs from medium-voltage design

    – Reduced pendant cable size – Reduced/eliminated tower cooling requirement.

    Benefits to turbines from NGD technology include:

  • 4

    U.S. Department of Energy FOA # DE-FOA-0000439

    National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL

    Funding

    Prime contractor

    Subcontractors

    NGD mechanical design team

    NGD Project Structure for Phase II

    DNV GL

    Cinch LLC

    CREE

    Powerex

    Romax Technology

    Miba

    Vattenfall

  • 5

    NGD Mechanical Innovations

    • Single-stage gearbox o Four-point mounting configuration o Four planets mounted on flex pins o Journal bearings support planets o Ferrium C61 premium gear steel

    • Medium-speed generator o Medium voltage o Surface mount, permanent magnet o Concentrated windings

    – Edge-wound coils and salient poles – Low cogging torque

    o Uptower maintenance – Segmented stator – Rotor and stator extraction tools.

    Drivetrain architecture features: Blue: To be tested in phase II Gray: Part of phase I paper study only

    The 650-kilowatt technology test bed. Illustration by Josh Bauer, NREL

  • 6

    Single-Stage Gearbox Design

    • Nominal torque (353 kilonewton meters [kNm])

    • Extreme torque (1,059 kNm).

    Critical design conditions

    Gearbox design:

    Frictional contact m = 0.14

    Frictional contact m = 0.14

    Interference = 0.06 mm

    Rough contact Interference = 0.16 millimeters (mm)

    • Two tapered roller main bearings • Cantilevered flex pins support planets • Oil passes through carrier and pins • Sun gear drives generator rotor.

    Left: A magnified model showing contact surfaces. Right: A side view of the NGD gearbox. Illustrations by Romax Technology

  • 7

    Flex Pin Design Benefits Planet Mesh Misalignment Pin and Spindle Stress

    “Neck” in flex pin reduces mesh misalignment Tooth microgeometry centers tooth loads

    von Mises stresses within acceptable limits at pin-spindle and pin-carrier interfaces.

    Illustration by Romax Technology

    Gearbox models demonstrating reduced misalignment. Illustrations by Romax Technology

  • 8

    Medium-Speed Generator Design

    Salient pole design and the prepotted edge-wound concentrated winding. Illustrations by Global Energy Concepts

    Generator rotor. Photo by Jon Keller, NREL 33343

    Generator stator. Photo by Jon Keller, NREL 33345

    Reference: Walford, C., Lybarger, K, Lettenmaier, T, and Roberts, D. Medium-Speed Drivetrain Test Report: September 1, 2002 -- December 30, 2007, 2012. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51175.pdf

  • 9

    Medium-Speed Generator Design

    Uptower stator extraction. Illustration by Global Energy Concepts

    Uptower rotor extraction. Illustrations by Global Energy Concepts Stator segment replacement in the NWTC's dynamometer facility.

    Photo by Lee Jay Fingersh, NREL 33350

    Reference: Walford, C., Lybarger, K, Lettenmaier, T, and Roberts, D. Medium-Speed Drivetrain Test Report: September 1, 2002 -- December 30, 2007, 2012. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51175.pdf

  • 10

    Key Instrumentation The NGD is instrumented to take extensive measurements of the gearbox and generator: • Within the gearbox: o Ring gear tooth load o Flex pin bending strain o Journal temperature o Oil supply pressure and temperature o Main bearing temp, oil sump temperature,

    oil cleanliness, and particles o Gearbox vibration

    • Within the generator: o Torque tube torque o Winding temperature, inside and outside

    end turns o In each quadrant, three-phase current and

    voltage.

    Two slip

    rings

    Red and green marks indicate where the NGD is instrumented. Illustration by Romax Technology

  • 11

    Single-Stage Gearbox Assembly

    Planet carrier and pins. Photo by Jesse Graeter, Romax Technology Planet spindles. Photo by Jesse Graeter, Romax Technology

  • 12

    Planet Pin Calibration

    Using a crane to apply load. Photo by Jon Keller, NREL 33342 Pin bending characterization, showing the schematic and the results of planet pin calibration. Illustrations

    by Romax Technology

  • 13

    Drivetrain Assembly

    Installing the ring gear. Photo by Jon Keller, NREL 33346 Installing the torque tube. Photo by Jon Keller, NREL 33347

  • 14

    NGD Testing Programs Journal bearings will be tested on the NWTC's dynamometer for: o Temperatures and wear o Normal power, start-stop, rotor idle,

    and rotor locked states o Torsional modes.

    NGD dynamometer torque and speed envelope

    Torque and response will be tested during grid events produced with NREL's controllable grid interface for: o Torsional mode active damping o Symmetrical and asymmetrical fault

    responses o Frequency deviation response.

  • 15

    Acknowledgments This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the U.S.

    Wind Power: Next Gen Drivetrain Development Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000439).

    Jonathan Keller, [email protected], (303) 384-7011

    Dynamometer test setup. Photo by Jon Keller, NREL 33349

    Innovative Medium-Speed Drivetrain Design Program and Dynamometer TestingNext-Generation Drivetrain (NGD) ConceptNGD Technology ImpactsNGD Project Structure for Phase II NGD Mechanical InnovationsSingle-Stage Gearbox DesignFlex Pin Design BenefitsMedium-Speed Generator DesignMedium-Speed Generator DesignKey InstrumentationSingle-Stage Gearbox AssemblyPlanet Pin CalibrationDrivetrain AssemblyNGD Testing ProgramsAcknowledgments

    /ColorConversionStrategy /LeaveColorUnchanged /ColorImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /ColorImageDepth -1 /ColorImageDict > /ColorImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /ColorImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /ColorImageFilter /DCTEncode /ColorImageMinDownsampleDepth 1 /ColorImageMinResolution 150 /ColorImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK /ColorImageResolution 150 /ColorSettingsFile () /CompatibilityLevel 1.7 /CompressObjects /Tags /CompressPages true /ConvertImagesToIndexed true /CreateJDFFile false /CreateJobTicket false /CropColorImages false /CropGrayImages false /CropMonoImages false /DSCReportingLevel 0 /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default /Description > /DetectBlends true /DetectCurves 0.10000 /DoThumbnails true /DownsampleColorImages true /DownsampleGrayImages true /DownsampleMonoImages true /EmbedAllFonts true /EmbedJobOptions true /EmbedOpenType false /EmitDSCWarnings false /EncodeColorImages true /EncodeGrayImages true /EncodeMonoImages true /EndPage -1 /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDict > /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /GrayImageMinDownsampleDepth 2 /GrayImageMinResolution 150 /GrayImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK /GrayImageResolution 150 /ImageMemory 1048576 /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /LockDistillerParams false /MaxSubsetPct 100 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDict > /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageMinResolution 1200 /MonoImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK /MonoImageResolution 1200 /Namespace [ (Adobe) (Common) (1.0) ] /NeverEmbed [ true ] /OPM 1 /Optimize true /OtherNamespaces [ > > /FormElements true /GenerateStructure true /IncludeBookmarks true /IncludeHyperlinks true /IncludeInteractive false /IncludeLayers false /IncludeProfiles true /MarksOffset 6 /MarksWeight 0.25000 /MultimediaHandling /UseObjectSettings /Namespace [ (Adobe) (CreativeSuite) (2.0) ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfileSelector /UseName /PageMarksFile /RomanDefault /PreserveEditing true /UntaggedCMYKHandling /LeaveUntagged /UntaggedRGBHandling /LeaveUntagged /UseDocumentBleed false >> ] /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0 0 0 0 ] /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXOutputConditionIdentifier (CGATS TR 001) /PDFXOutputIntentProfile (U.S. Web Coated \050SWOP\051 v2) /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXTrapped /False /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0 0 0 0 ] /ParseDSCComments true /ParseDSCCommentsForDocInfo true /ParseICCProfilesInComments true /PassThroughJPEGImages true /PreserveCopyPage true /PreserveDICMYKValues true /PreserveEPSInfo false /PreserveFlatness false /PreserveHalftoneInfo false /PreserveOPIComments false /PreserveOverprintSettings true /StartPage 1 /SubsetFonts true /TransferFunctionInfo /Apply /UCRandBGInfo /Remove /UsePrologue false /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1)>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice