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  • Department of Product and Production Development CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Gothenburg, Sweden 2017

    Industrialization of Additive Manufacturing Development of an Additive Manufacturing Design Guide for Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion Master’s thesis in Product Development

    JOHAN SÖNEGÅRD MARIA WARHOLM

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    Industrialization of Additive Manufacturing Development of Additive Manufacturing Design Guide for Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    JOHAN SÖNEGÅRD MARIA WARHOLM

    Department of Product and Production Development CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

    Gothenburg, Sweden 2017

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    Industrialization of Additive Manufacturing Development of Additive Manufacturing Design Guide for Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion JOHAN SÖNEGÅRD MARIA WARHOLM

    © JOHAN SÖNEGÅRD AND MARIA WARHOLM, 2017

    Examiner: Lars Lindkvist Associate Professor, Division Product development, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology Supervisor: Hans Sjöberg Research Engineer, Division Production Systems, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology

    Department of Product and Production Development Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden 2017 SE-412 96 Göteborg Sweden Telephone + 46 (0)31-772 1000

    A photo of four aluminum benchmark models can be seen on the front cover. These were manufactured in an EOS M290 machine using the standard machine parameters. More about the models can be read in Chapter 6 Benchmark model.

    Chalmers Reproservice Gothenburg, Sweden 2017

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    Industrialization of Additive Manufacturing Development of Additive Manufacturing Design Guide for Metal Laser Powder Bed Fusion JOHAN SÖNEGÅRD MARIA WARHOLM Department of Product and Production Development Chalmers University of Technology

    ABSTRACT

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a relatively new manufacturing method that adds material instead of subtracting it as the traditional manufacturing methods do. The AM technology started with melting plastic and creating structures in three dimensions. However, this master’s thesis focuses on the AM technology where metals can be used as material and more specifically the laser powder bed fusion process. More and more companies have found an interest in the possibilities AM provides but there are also limitations that are important to be aware of to fully utilize the potential of the technology.

    The thesis was conducted with Saab AB Surveillance and the aim was to find and gather as much knowledge as possible regarding design rules for the laser powder bed AM method with a focus on aluminum. This was done through literature research and interviews that showed there are many general guidelines that apply to all metals. The result was collected in a document with the purpose for designers with limited or no previous knowledge about design for AM to read it and then be able to understand enough about the process to start designing self-supporting parts. To verify the design rules, a benchmark model was designed. The model was manufactured in an EOS M290 machine in aluminum and the result showed that more extreme features can be built than the theory indicated. Based on the results the model was redesigned and a new version was manufactured.

    Keywords: Additive manufacturing, 3D-printing, design guidelines, Product Development, DfAM, design for additive manufacturing, powder bed fusion

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We would like to thank everybody that has been helping us with the thesis. Special thanks to our supervisor at Chalmers Hans Sjöberg, Research Engineer, Division Production Systems, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology. Thanks to our examiner Lars Lindkvist, Associate Professor, Division Product development, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology.

    Many people at Saab AB Surveillance have helped us achieve the final result, especially Pamelina Olsson who has been our supervisor at Saab AB Surveillance. Martin Blennius for sharing great ideas and his knowledge about AM, Christer Bjurek for his support and everybody who gave feedback on different parts of the report to make it even better.

    Thanks to Karolina Johansson and Torbjörn Holmstedt at Lasertech LSH AB who helped us understanding the printing process better and for helping us with feedback on the benchmark model.

    The last thanks goes out to everyone we interviewed for taking their time answering our questions and made this thesis possible.

    Johan Sönegård Maria Warholm

    Gothenburg, June 2017

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    Table of Contents

    1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................1

    Background ..............................................................................................................21.1

    Purpose ....................................................................................................................31.2

    Delimitations ............................................................................................................31.3

    Problem analysis and research questions ...................................................................41.4

    Ethical, legislative and environmental aspects ..........................................................41.5

    2 Method ............................................................................................................................7

    Literature study ........................................................................................................72.1

    Interviews.................................................................................................................82.2

    Benchmark model ....................................................................................................92.3

    Feedback ..................................................................................................................92.4

    3 Frame of references ....................................................................................................... 11

    Additive manufacturing .......................................................................................... 113.1

    Evaluation and Transformation for Additive Manufacturing (ETAM) ..................... 153.2

    4 Interviews...................................................................................................................... 17

    Designers ............................................................................................................... 174.1

    The manufacturers .................................................................................................. 204.2

    5 A Designer’s Handbook for Metal Additive Manufacturing ........................................... 23

    What is additive manufacturing .............................................................................. 235.1

    What to know before designing .............................................................................. 245.2

    Design rules and guidelines .................................................................................... 255.3

    Pre- and post-processing ......................................................................................... 295.4

    Examples ................................................................................................................ 295.5

    Future work and notes ............................................................................................ 295.6

    Recommended reading ........................................................................................... 295.7

    6 Benchmark model ......................................................................................................... 31

    Features .................................................................................................................. 316.1

    The process ............................................................................................................ 316.2

    First print ............................................................................................................... 326.3

    Final version ........................................................................................................... 376.4

    Second print ........................................................................................................... 386.5

    7 Discussion ..................................................................................................................... 43

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    Literature ................................................................................................................ 437.1

    Interviews............................................................................................................... 437.2

    Implementing the new guidelines ........................................................................... 457.3

    Benchmark model .................................................................................................. 457.4

    8 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 47

    Design method ...............................