Indus River Valley Civilization Indus River Valley Civilization.

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  • Indus River Valley Civilization

  • Indus River Valley Civilization

    Directions: Using pages 170-174 in your text , the attached reading, and your own knowledge, classify the information about the Indus River Valley Civilization (Harappan). In the first column list the FACTS that scientists know about the civilization and in the second column list the CONCLUSIONS scientists have reached.

    Words: suggests, think, must have, probably, concluded

  • FACTSCONCLUSIONS

  • FactsLargest of early civilizations(2500BC-1500BC)Developed in river valleysurbanLarge citiesHarappa/Mohenjo DaroStreets checkerboard patternWalled fortressUniform brickAreas of large buildingsAreas two storied buildings Bathing Facilitiessewer systemFragments of clothFarmedFigurines of bulls & womenClay Seals (carving pictographs) found in MesopotamiaCities built and rebuilt over timeConclusionsMay have developed from hunting & gathering to agriculturalWell organized govt with building codes urban planningHarappa/Mohenjo DaroCapital cities of strong empireDistricts: govt, workshops for craftsmen, and residentialCollected food as form of taxFirst to grow cotton/domesticate chickensWorshipped Mother goddess, cattle importantWriting system to identify goodsTraded with several civilizationsGradual decline: at first thought invaders NOW environmental changes - video

  • Roots of Indus Valley CivilizationEarliest civilizations in Indus Valley was discovered in 1856 by a railroad crew.HarappaMohenjo-Dara or Hill of the DeadBoth cities shared urban design and architectural features.3 miles in circumference with populations of 40,000

  • Indus Valley Civilization Vast territory united in homogeneous culture suggests strong centralized government, integrated economy and good internal communications

  • Mohenjo-Daro and HarappaTo the north is a citadel or raised area.In Mohenjo-Daro, the citadel is built on an architectural platform about 45 feet above the plain.On the summit was a huge communal bath.Next to the large bath was a huge open spacea granary where food was stored from possible floods.Fortified walls mark the southeast corner.

  • Elaborate Public Baths

  • Bath areaMohenjo-daro (2600-1900 BCE). Almost every house unit at Mohenjo-daro was equipped with a private bathing area with drains to take the dirty water out into a larger drain that emptied into a sewage drain. Many of these bathing areas had water-tight floors to keep moisture from seeping into the other rooms nearby or below.

  • This brick structure had a hole in the top that was connected to a small drain leading out of the base into a rectangular basin. Early excavators suggested this might have been a toilet.

  • A small well was located in the southeast corner (top right) and circular brick depressions were set into the floor, presumably to hold pottery vessels. The early excavators suggested that the room might have been a dyer's workshop.

  • Standard Weights and Measures

  • The famous "Dancing girl" found in Mohenjo-daro is an artifact that is some 4,500 years old. The 10.8 cm long bronze statue of the dancing girl was found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo-daro.

  • Writing

    Indus inscriptions are found only on small objects, mostly stone seals and on pottery. About 3700 inscriptions are presently known. The inscriptions are all extremely brief, averaging not more than about five signs in a text. Longer inscriptions might have been written on palm leaves or cloth which have perished.

  • Unicorn Sealmost common motif on Indus seals

  • Early Civilizations of India

  • AssignmentRead pages 170 -174Complete page 174 #2, 3, 5 only

  • Dravidians:people of Southern India who may be descended from the ancient Indus River Valley settlers

  • Aryans or Indo-AryansAryan race Theory - discreditedMade popular by Arthur de Gobineaufamous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races1850sTheories now discredited

  • Aryans: more correctly Indo-AryansAryan race Theory - discreditedracial grouping late 19th century to the mid 20th century to describe peoples of Indo-European Eurasian heritage Derived from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race used by Nazis and others to support claims of supremacy

  • Aryans or Indo-AryansMigrated into South Asia from north of Black and Caspian Seas - Around 1500 BCSanskrit meaning nobleTribes of the Indo-European peoplesPart of Linguistic family not a raceNomadic herdersSkillful warriors: iron weapons, archers, chariots (possibly)City-states ruled by rajahMay have contributed to collapse of Indus Valley Civilization

  • Map

  • Influenced Indian Culture:Long lasting effects of Indo-Aryansvillage lifeReligionsocial structure

  • Village LifeIndo-Aryans moved across Indo-Gangetic Plains and settled into villagesFarming and herdingValue on cattleThe word for war meant a desire for more cowsVedas: Rain is like cows milk and the sun is its calfGoverning: Rajahs: hereditary chief rule village

  • Vedas (Religious Influence)oral religious traditions of the Indo-Aryans4 Vedas: oldest Rig VedaEventually recorded in Sanskrit (written language developed by Indo-Aryans basis of Hindi)Basis of Hinduism (long lasting effect)

  • Varna (Social Structure) Sanskrit meaning color created a complex system of social orderSocial structure and classes of the Indo-AryansBrahmins: priestKshatriyas: warriorsVaisyas: land owners, merchants, herdersSudras: servants, peasants (p. 174 quote)evolved into caste (long lasting effect)Caste: rigid system of social ranking by birth

    *The civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt never disappeared completely. Hebrew and Greek accounts and surviving artifacts, like the pyramids kept them alive in popular imagination.The civilization of the Indus valley was lost almost entirely, so its excavation did not begin until the 1920s. Railroad crew in 1856 discovered thousands of old fire-baked bricks in the desert and use them to lay the road bed. Scattered among the old bricks workers discovered steatite stone seals marked with artistic designs.

    *The Indus civilization began with some major developments like the introduction of writing and a surprisingly uniform culture over the whole of the greater Indus valley. According to Parpola this development was due to increased maritime trade and closer cultural contacts with Mesopotamia and the Gulf region. There is now general agreement that Meluhha mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions refers to the land of the Indus. Parpola lays stress on the importance of Harappan contacts with West Asia, which provide relevant parallels and potential sources of information on the Harappan culture.

    **Cubical weights in graduated sizes. These weights conform to the standard Harappan binary weight system that was used in all of the settlements. The smallest weight in this series is 0.856 grams and the most common weight is approximately 13.7 grams, which is in the 16th ratio. In the large weights the system become a decimal increase where the largest weight is 100 times the weight of the 16th ratio in the binary system. These weights were found in recent excavations at Harappa and may have been used for controlling trade and possibly for collecting taxes. Harappa Archaeological Research Project

    *Cubical weights in graduated sizes. These weights conform to the standard Harappan binary weight system that was used in all of the settlements. The smallest weight in this series is 0.856 grams and the most common weight is approximately 13.7 grams, which is in the 16th ratio. In the large weights the system become a decimal increase where the largest weight is 100 times the weight of the 16th ratio in the binary system. These weights were found in recent excavations at Harappa and may have been used for controlling trade and possibly for collecting taxes. Harappa Archaeological Research Project

    *Large square unicorn seal (25.) with perforated boss on the back (26). The unicorn is the most common motif on Indus seals and appears to represent a mythical animal that Greek and Roman sources trace back to the Indian subcontinent. A relatively long inscription of eight symbols runs along the top of the seal. The elongated body and slender arching neck is typical of unicorn figurines, as are the tail with bushy end and the bovine hooves. This figure has a triple incised line depicting a pipal leaf shaped blanket or halter, while most unicorn figures have only a double incised line. The arching horn is depicted as if spiraling or ribbed, and the jowl is incised with multiple folds. A collar or additional folds encircle the throat. In front of the unicorn is a ritual offering stand with droplets of water or sacred liquid along the bottom of the bowl. The top portion of the stand depicts a square grid or sieve, that actually may have been a circular cylinder. Material: white fired glazed steatite Dimensions: 5.08 x 5.08 cm Mohenjo-daro, HR 743 National Museum, Karachi, NMP 50.192 Marshall 1931: pl. CIII, 8

    **