Inclusion Pros and Cons

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BY JANNA ABO-GEORGE & TIFFANY RABNER THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY EDUC - 246 SPRING 2010 Inclusion: Support For & Against Click on the “Speaker” on each slide for audio commentary

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Inclusion Pros and Cons

Transcript of Inclusion Pros and Cons

  • 1. BY JANNA ABO-GEORGE & TIFFANY RABNER THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY EDUC - 246 SPRING 2010 Inclusion: Support For & AgainstClick on the Speaker on each slide for audio commentary

2. Agenda

  • Introduction
  • Support For Inclusion
  • Support Against Inclusion
  • Conclusion
  • Resources

3. Introduction

  • What is Inclusion?
    • Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate a child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.It involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services) (Causton-Theoharis & Theoharis, 2009, p. 43).
  • In the past, schools did not always address the issues of the varied learning styles of children, rather they focused on a one-size fits all curriculum and that is why inclusion has been promoted in the most recent years.
  • It is this idea of a one size fits all classroom that is the downfall of the inclusion movement. Special education legislation and research has recognized the need for specialized services and placements so that a student can receive what is their free appropriate public education.

4. Support for Inclusion One Childs Story *Click on picture above to view video content 5. Support For Inclusion

  • Response to accommodating all students in the most appropriate educational setting.
  • Demands more local control in schools and classrooms and less bureaucracy in the state and district, and a focus on collaboration and a teaming of experts.
  • Celebrates diversity and has the philosophy of addressing the individualized needs of all students.
  • Implements many teaching strategies that are proven to be effective in education, through academic and social aspects such as cooperative learning, constructivist activities, and problem solving (Holahan & Costenbader, 2000).

6. Academic Improvements Through Inclusion Rea, McLaughlin, & Walther-Thomas (2002) % of Students Receiving C or Better in Respective Classes 7. Academic Improvements Through Inclusion Waldron & Cole (2000)% of Students Grades Improving Over 1-year Period 8. Social Improvements Through Inclusion Cole & Meyer (1991) Research Topics Results

  • Social Competence
  • Students in inclusive model demonstrated more progress in social competence, communication skills, self-regulation, and choice
  • Behavior
  • Students with disabilities improved in ability to manage their own behavior in social situations
  • Social Skills
  • Students with disabilities who were in segregated classrooms showed a regression in social skills

9. Social Improvements Through Inclusion Owen-DeSchryver, Carr, Cale, & Blakeley-Smith (2008) Research Topics Results

  • Peer tutoring overall impact
  • Peer tutoring has shown to have a positive impact as social tutors on students with disabilities
  • Peer tutoring impact on communication & academic skills
  • Proven to be effective in teaching communication and academics to students with disabilities
  • Peer tutoring impact on everyday life
  • Students with disabilities have shown to use social strategies learned in peer-tutoring in everyday life

10. Support Against Inclusion

  • Mainstreaming
  • versus
  • Full Inclusion

11. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

  • School districts and States make a Free Appropriate Public Education available to students.
  • Each student has an Individualized Education Plan which specifies the students needs, educational goals and services to be provided.
  • Students with disabilities are to be educated with their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent possible.

(Apling,& Jones, 2002) 12. Brown v. Board of Education

  • In the field of public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal(Russo, 1996, p. 1040).

13. Effect on Non-Disabled peers

  • Early Childhood Longitudinal StudyKindergarten Cohort (ECLSK) data is used.
  • Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are focus of study.
  • Limitations
    • The presence of a student with EBD in a classroom is not random
    • Unable to control for variations in teacher scoring
  • Results
    • Student with EBD scored significantly lower than typical peers
    • The negative spill over effect on non-disabled peers is similar in size to the Hispanic-White achievement gap.

(Fletcher, 2009) 14. Socialization Over Education?

  • The purposes of IDEA include ensuring that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education (FAPE) that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet theirunique needs and prepare them for further education, employment and independent living (U.S. Department of Education, 2007, sect. 1).

15. Student Perspective on Inclusion 16. Conclusion 17. Resources

  • Apling, Richard, & Jones, Nancy Lee. (2002). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview ofmajor provisions.Crs report for congress . Retrieved (2010, February 10) from
  • Causton-Theoharis, J., & Theoharis, G. (2009). Creating inclusive schools for all students.Education Digest: Essential ReadingsCondensed for Quick Review ,74 (6), 43-47.
  • Clark, Gary M., Field, Sharon, Patton, James, Brolin, Donn E., & Sitlington, Patricia L. (1994). Life skills instruction: anecessary component for all students with disabilities a position statement of the division on career development andtransition.Career Development for Exceptional Individuals , 17(2), doi: 10.1177/088572889401700202
  • Cole, D. A. & Meyer, L. H. (1991). Social integration and severe disabilities: A longitudinal analysis of child outcomes.Journal ofSpecial Education, 25,340-351.
  • Fletcher, Jason. (2009). The Effects of Inclusion on Classmates of Students with Special Needs: The Case of Serious EmotionalProblems. Retrieved from ERIC database. (EJ849859)

18. Resources contd

  • Gorramdoll. (2009, August 13). Should Disabled Kids Be Educated With Non-Disabled Kids? [Video file]. Retrieved from
  • Halles5. (2008, March 8). Inclusion at work in elementary school [Video file]. Retrieved from
  • Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Markman, J. M., Rivkin, S. G. (2001). Does Peer Ability Affect Student Achievement?Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED476941)
  • Holahan, A., & Costenbader, V. (2000). A comparison of developmental gains for preschool children with disabilities in inclusiveand self-contained classrooms.Topics in Early Childhood Special Education ,20 (4), 224-35.
  • McCarty, Kristine. (2006). Full Inclusion: The Benefits and Disadvantages of Inclusive Schooling An Overview. Retrieved fromERIC database. (ED496074)
  • Najjar, J. (2006). Is Inclusion missing the whole idea?.Education Law and Policy Forum , 2. Retrieved from

19. Resources contd

  • Rea, P. J. , McLaughlin, V. L. & Walther-Thomas, C. (2002).Outcomes for students with learning disabilities in inclusive andpullout programs.Exceptional Children, 68 (2). 203-22.
  • Russo, Charles. (Ed.). (2006).The Law of public education . N.Y.C., N.Y.: Foundation Press.
  • Owen-DeSchryver, J., Carr, E., Cale, S., & Blakeley-Smith, A. (2008). Promoting social interactions between studentswith autism spectrum disorders and their peers in inclusive school settings.Focus on Autism and Other DevelopmentalDisabilities ,23 (1), p. 15-28.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (2007).Idea regulations: secondary transition Retrieved from,root,dynamic,TopicalBrief,17,
  • Waldron, N. & Cole, C. (2000).The Indiana Inclusion Study Year One Final Report.Bloomington, IN: Indiana Institute onDisability & Community.
  • Wilson-Younger, Dylinda. (2009). Inclusion: Who Really Benefits? Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED507203)