In vitro anti-cancer activity of Piper betel leaf extract on HA -29 and its anti-oxidant activity

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@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www ISSN No: 245 Inte R In vitro anti-cancer activ its Dinesh M. D 1 , Neethu George 1 1 Department of Microbiolo 2 &3 Department of Microbiolo 2 & ABSTRACT Wayanad is a land with a luxury of flo These repositories could be utilized by t those who are interested. Here we used t leafs collected from Wayanad district, K Colon cancer which is one of the be neoplasms from genetic perspective. Ye second most common cause of cancer indicating the some of its cancer eradicated by current therapies. It is some herbs protect the body from enhancing detoxic functions of the detoxification, anti-oxidation, anti-m diabetic, cardiovascular, anti-infla immunomodulatory, anti-ulcer, hepato- anti-infective properties of betel leaves In this study we examined inhibition o proliferation by piper betel leaves. The 98.4442µl/ml possess good anticancer a colon cancer cell lines (HT- 29). Th activity of piper betel leaf extract also an Keywords: cancer, medicinal plants, cel I. INTRODUCTION Nature is a repository of remedies for health care issues. The importanc thoroughly studied and reported in dive natural compounds derived from d especially plants. The abundance and plants and the relatively negligible sid been the marked features of plants w properties. There are many plants and compounds widely employed for treatm life threatening diseases like cancer but w w.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 56 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volum ernational Journal of Trend in Sc Research and Development (IJT International Open Access Journ vity of Piper betel leaf extract o s anti-oxidant activity 1 , Abdul Bari. K. K 1 , Hima K. U 2 , S. Meen ogy, Pazhassiraja College, Pulpally, Wayanad, K ogy, Nehru Arts and Science College, Thirumala &3 Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India ora and fauna. the reaserchers the Piper betel Kerala against est understood et it remain the r related death, cells are not reported that m cancer by e body. The mutation, anti- ammatory / -protective and also explored. of HA- 29 cell e LD 50 value activity against he anti-oxidant nalyzed. ll lines. r many of the ce has been erse aspects for diverse origin miscellany of de effects has with medicinal d plant origin ment of many without proper documentation and evidences. The traditional kn medicinal property of a uniq been kept as a secret amon individuals and possibility of without proper sharing may r forever. Moreover deforestati human interventions would c some invaluable plant variet There is an urgent need for pr preservation of medicinally i the globe for a better survival light of rapid rate of defo biodiversity. Betel leaves are in common chewing element. There are Piper betel is a well know Piperacea family of plants. T have immense medicinal prop to the biochemical compo capacities. The composition a piper leaves vary according t and climate. They are known treatment of oral cancer o maintain the concentration of We know that ascorbic acid is which may help to reduce and accumulation in the body. T feature of piper betel leaf is b them for cancer treatment es addition to this, bacteric properties are also being repo n 2018 Page: 289 me - 2 | Issue 4 cientific TSRD) nal on HA -29 and natchisundaram 3 Kerala, India ayampalayam, scientific supporting nowledge regarding the que variety of plant has ng a limited number of f losing the information result in the loss of data ion and the profit based cause the devastation of ties from the universe. roper documentation and important plants across l of human being in the orestation and loss of use for centuries as a different varieties and wn vine belongs to the These Piper betel leaves perties which is inherent osition and functional and concentration of t he to season, plant variety n to use as an agent for owing their ability to f ascorbic acid in saliva. s an evident antioxidant, d control the free radical This unique antioxidant being exploited for using specially oral cancer. In cidal and aphrodisiac orted for the piper leaf.

description

Wayanad is a land with a luxury of flora and fauna. These repositories could be utilized by the reaserchers those who are interested. Here we used the Piper betel leafs collected from Wayanad district, Kerala against Colon cancer which is one of the best understood neoplasms from genetic perspective. Yet it remain the second most common cause of cancer related death, indicating the some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. It is reported that some herbs protect the body from cancer by enhancing detoxic functions of the body. The detoxification, anti oxidation, anti mutation, anti diabetic, cardiovascular, anti inflammatory immunomodulatory, anti ulcer, hepato protective and anti infective properties of betel leaves also explored. In this study we examined inhibition of HA 29 cell proliferation by piper betel leaves. The LD 50 value 98.4442µl ml possess good anticancer activity against colon cancer cell lines HT 29 . The anti oxidant activity of piper betel leaf extract also analyzed. Dinesh M. D | Neethu George | Abdul Bari. K. K | Hima K. U | S. Meenatchisundaram "In vitro anti-cancer activity of Piper betel leaf extract on HA -29 and its anti-oxidant activity" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-2 | Issue-4 , June 2018, URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd12926.pdf Paper URL: http://www.ijtsrd.com/biological-science/microbiology/12926/in-vitro-anti-cancer-activity-of-piper-betel-leaf-extract-on-ha--29-and-its-anti-oxidant-activity/dinesh-m-d

Transcript of In vitro anti-cancer activity of Piper betel leaf extract on HA -29 and its anti-oxidant activity

Page 1: In vitro anti-cancer activity of Piper betel leaf extract on HA -29 and its anti-oxidant activity

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com

ISSN No: 2456

InternationalResearch

In vitro anti-cancer activity of Piper bits anti

Dinesh M. D1, Neethu George1

1Department of Microbiology, Pazhassiraja College, Pulpally, Wayanad, Kerala, 2 &3Department of Microbiology,

2 &

ABSTRACT Wayanad is a land with a luxury of flora and fauna. These repositories could be utilized by the reaserchers those who are interested. Here we used the Piper betel leafs collected from Wayanad district, Kerala against Colon cancer which is one of the best understood neoplasms from genetic perspective. Yet it remain the second most common cause of cancer related death, indicating the some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. It is reported that some herbs protect the body from cancer by enhancing detoxic functions of the body. The detoxification, anti-oxidation, anti-mutation, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatoryimmunomodulatory, anti-ulcer, hepato-anti-infective properties of betel leaves also explored. In this study we examined inhibition of HAproliferation by piper betel leaves. The LD 50 value 98.4442µl/ml possess good anticancer activity against colon cancer cell lines (HT- 29). The antiactivity of piper betel leaf extract also analyzed.

Keywords: cancer, medicinal plants, cell lines.

I. INTRODUCTION Nature is a repository of remedies for many of the health care issues. The importance has been thoroughly studied and reported in diverse aspects for natural compounds derived from diverse origin especially plants. The abundance and miscellany of plants and the relatively negligible side effects has been the marked features of plants with medicinal properties. There are many plants and plant origin compounds widely employed for treatment of many life threatening diseases like cancer but without

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal

cancer activity of Piper betel leaf extract on HA its anti-oxidant activity

1, Abdul Bari. K. K1, Hima K. U2, S. Meenatchisundaram

Department of Microbiology, Pazhassiraja College, Pulpally, Wayanad, Kerala, Department of Microbiology, Nehru Arts and Science College, Thirumalayampalayam,

&3Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Wayanad is a land with a luxury of flora and fauna. lized by the reaserchers

those who are interested. Here we used the Piper betel leafs collected from Wayanad district, Kerala against Colon cancer which is one of the best understood neoplasms from genetic perspective. Yet it remain the

cause of cancer related death, indicating the some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. It is reported that some herbs protect the body from cancer by enhancing detoxic functions of the body. The

mutation, anti-inflammatory /

-protective and infective properties of betel leaves also explored.

In this study we examined inhibition of HA- 29 cell es. The LD 50 value

98.4442µl/ml possess good anticancer activity against 29). The anti-oxidant

activity of piper betel leaf extract also analyzed.

cancer, medicinal plants, cell lines.

Nature is a repository of remedies for many of the health care issues. The importance has been thoroughly studied and reported in diverse aspects for natural compounds derived from diverse origin especially plants. The abundance and miscellany of

d the relatively negligible side effects has been the marked features of plants with medicinal properties. There are many plants and plant origin compounds widely employed for treatment of many life threatening diseases like cancer but without

proper documentation and scientific supporting evidences. The traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal property of a unique variety of plant has been kept as a secret among a limited number of individuals and possibility of losing the information without proper sharing may result in the loss of data forever. Moreover deforestation and the profit based human interventions would cause the devastation of some invaluable plant varieties from the universe. There is an urgent need for proper documentation and preservation of medicinally important plants across the globe for a better survival of human being in the light of rapid rate of deforestation and loss of biodiversity.

Betel leaves are in common use for centuries as a chewing element. There are different varietiPiper betel is a well known vine belongs to the Piperacea family of plants. These have immense medicinal properties which is inherent to the biochemical composition and functional capacities. The composition and concentration of tpiper leaves vary according to season, plant variety and climate. They are known to use as an agent for treatment of oral cancer owing their ability to maintain the concentration of ascorbic acid in saliva. We know that ascorbic acid is an evident antiowhich may help to reduce and control the free radical accumulation in the body. This unique antioxidant feature of piper betel leaf is being exploited for using them for cancer treatment especially oral cancer. In addition to this, bactericidal andproperties are also being reported for the piper leaf.

Jun 2018 Page: 289

www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 4

Scientific (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal

etel leaf extract on HA -29 and

Meenatchisundaram3 Department of Microbiology, Pazhassiraja College, Pulpally, Wayanad, Kerala, India

Nehru Arts and Science College, Thirumalayampalayam,

entation and scientific supporting evidences. The traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal property of a unique variety of plant has been kept as a secret among a limited number of individuals and possibility of losing the information

haring may result in the loss of data forever. Moreover deforestation and the profit based human interventions would cause the devastation of some invaluable plant varieties from the universe. There is an urgent need for proper documentation and

on of medicinally important plants across the globe for a better survival of human being in the

rapid rate of deforestation and loss of

Betel leaves are in common use for centuries as a chewing element. There are different varieties and

is a well known vine belongs to the Piperacea family of plants. These Piper betel leaves have immense medicinal properties which is inherent to the biochemical composition and functional capacities. The composition and concentration of the piper leaves vary according to season, plant variety and climate. They are known to use as an agent for treatment of oral cancer owing their ability to maintain the concentration of ascorbic acid in saliva. We know that ascorbic acid is an evident antioxidant, which may help to reduce and control the free radical accumulation in the body. This unique antioxidant feature of piper betel leaf is being exploited for using them for cancer treatment especially oral cancer. In addition to this, bactericidal and aphrodisiac properties are also being reported for the piper leaf.

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

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Chewing them may reduce the load of bacteria in mouth causing the bad breath and hence much popular among the common people. The gastro protective property of the betel leaf extract has also been reported (Dinesh et al., 2016) and exploration of the still inherent but unidentified properties of the leaf extract would be of great concern from a public health viewpoint. Here in this study we investigate the ant oxidant and anti cancer properties of betel leaf extracts in different cell lines by in vitro.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Collection of Medicinal Plants and extract preparation Medicinal plants Piper betel leafs commonly known as betel leafs collected from in and around Wayanad Region, Kerala, South India. The plant was identified genuinely from Vanamoolika Herabal research Foundation, Wayanad and the extracts were prepared by the method of Uhegbu et al. (2005) using distilled water as the solvent.

2.2. Phytochemical Studies of Plant Extracts The crude plant extract (Hot and Cold) was subjected to phytochemical analysis for noticing the chemical composites in it.

2.3. Anti-oxidant properties of Betel leaf extract - Phosphomolybdenum assay (Total antioxidant capacity) Total antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by phosphomolybdate method using ascorbic acid as standard. The assay is based on the reduction of Mo (VI)-Mo (V) by the extract and subsequent formation of a green phosphate/MO (V) complex at acidic Ph. An aliquant of 0.1 ml extract was combined with 3ml of reagent solution (0.6 M Sulphuric acid, 28Mm sodium phosphate and 4 mM ammonium molybdate). The tubes containing the reaction solution were incubated at 95 degree C for 90 min. After the samples had cooled to room temperature, the absorbance of the solution was measured at 695nm against the blank. Methanol (0.1 ml) in the place of extract is used as the blank. Ascorbic acid equivalent were calculated using standard graph of AA. The experiment was conducted in triplicates and values were expressed as the equivalent of ascorbic acid per mg of extract.

2.4. In vitro Anti proliferative effect and cytotoxic determination by MTT assay The anti- cancer activity of Piper betel leaf extracts on HT- 29 was studied in Biogenix research centre,

Trivandrum, Kerala in order to determine the cell viability after plant extract introduction that measures membrane integrity and effect of the plant extract on cell growth.

The cell line was obtained from National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), Pune, India and grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagles Medium (EMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cell line was cultured in 25 cm2 tissue culture flask with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, L-glutamine, sodium bicarbonate and antibiotic solution containing: Penicillin (100U/ml), Streptomycin (100µg/ml), and Amphoteracin B (2.5µg/ml). Cultured cell lines were maintained at 370 C, 5% CO2, 95% air and 100% relative humidity. Maintenance cultures were passaged weekly, and the culture medium was changed twice a week (Mosmann, 1983; Monks et al., 1991).

2.4.1. Cell Treatment Procedure Two days old confluent monolayer of cells were trypsinized and the cells were suspended in 10% growth medium, 100µl cell suspension (5x104 cells/well) was seeded in 96 well tissue culture plate and incubated at 37ºC in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. 1 mg of Piper betel Lyophilized leaf powder was added to 1ml of DMEM and dissolved completely by cyclomixer. After that the extract solution was filtered through 0.22 µm Millipore syringe filter to ensure the sterility.

After 24 hours the growth medium was removed, freshly prepared plant extracts in 5% DMEM were five times serially diluted by two fold dilution (100µg, 50µg, 25µg, 12.5µg, 6.25µg in 100µl of 5% MEM) and each concentration of 100µl were added in triplicates to the respective wells and incubated at 37ºC in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. The viability of cells were evaluated by direct observation of cells by Inverted phase contrast microscope and followed by MTT assay method.

2.4.2. Cytotoxicity Assay by Direct Microscopic observation: Entire plate was observed at an interval of each 24 hours; up to 72 hours in an inverted phase contrast tissue culture microscope (Olympus CKX41 with Optika Pro5 CCD camera) and microscopic observation were recorded as images. Any detectable changes in the morphology of the cells, such as rounding or shrinking of cells, granulation and

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vacuolization in the cytoplasm of the cells were considered as indicators of cytotoxicity.

2.4.3. Cytotoxicity Assay by MTT Assay Method: Fifteen mg of MTT (Sigma, M-5655) was reconstituted in 3 ml PBS until completely dissolved and sterilized by filter sterilization. After 24 hours of incubation period, the sample content in wells were removed and 30µl of reconstituted MTT solution was added to all test and cell control wells, the plate was gently shaken well, then incubated at 37ºC in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator for 4 hours. After the incubation period, the supernatant was removed and 100µl of MTT Solubilization Solution (DMSO was added and the wells were mixed gently by pipetting up and down in order to solubilise the formazan crystals. The absorbance values were measured by using microplate reader at a wavelength of 570 nm (Laura B. Talarico et al., 2004). The percentage of growth inhibition was calculated using the formula:

% Cell viability = Abs (sample)/Abs (control) x100.

3. Result The medicinal plants were collected from in and around wayanad region and hot and cold extracts were prepared using distilled water as solvent. Preliminary screening and identification of bioactive chemical element in the Piper betel were carried out in both extracts. (Table - 1)

The quantitative phosphor molybdenum method was utilized to evaluate the total anti-oxidant capacity of the Piper betel leaf extract. The reducing power of the compound is associated with electron donating capacity and serves as an indicator of anti-oxidant activity with different in the digree of M0 reduction between extract used .Experiment indicated Piper betel leaf extract showing high degree of anti-oxidant capacity than the ethanol extract. The anticancer activity of Piper betel leaf extracts on colon cell lines were studied in Biogenix Research Centre Trivandrum, Kerala. Addition of higher concentration of leaf extract, the viability of cells reminded almost as the primary concentration. The LD- 50 value was calculated as 98.4442µl/ml (colon cell lines) of extracts needed for the 50% of cell death. Results indicated that Piper betel extract had significant activity against on cancer cell lines. (Table – 2).

Table: 1 - Phytochemical result

Tests Extracts (Piper betel leafs )

Hot extract Cold extract

Saponin _ _

Tannin _ _

Anthraqunone _ _

Flavanoid + +

Salkowsky _ +

Phenol _ _

Amino acids + +

Sugars _ _

Reducing sugars _ _

Proteins _ +

Abbreviation: - + (Positive) - (Negative)

Table- 2: In vitro anticancer activity of Piper betel leaf extracts against colon cancer cell lines (HT29) - Percentage of cell viability (MTT Assay). The % Cell viability was determined by using the following formula. % Cell viability = Abs (sample)/Abs (control) x100.

LD 50 value – 98.4442µl/ml (ED50plus software v1.0)

4. Discussion

Colon cancer is one of the best understood neoplasms from genetic perspective. Yet it remain the second most common cause of cancer related death, indicating the some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. Sanjal Alam et al., (2013) reported that role of herbal in cancer management and he concluded that some herbs protect the body from cancer by enhancing de-toxic functions of the body.

Sample volume (µl)

Average OD at 540nm

Percentage Viability

Control 1.4526 SAMPLE - B 6.25 1.3864 95.44265 12.5 1.3271333 91.36261 25 1.2343 84.97177 50 0.9623 66.24673 100 0.7574 52.14099

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Use of betel Leafs was known for centuries for its curative properties. In Chinese folk medicine betel leaves are used for the treatment of various disorders and claimed to have detoxification, anti-oxidation, and anti-mutation properties. There are number of research experiments on betel leafs where the leaf extract, fractions, and purified compounds are found to play a role in oral hygiene, and to have various properties including anti-diabetic, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory, anti-ulcer, hepato-protective, anti-infective, etc., Patents were also awarded for some of the biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer (Kumar N, et al., 2010). Chewing betel leaves takes a delivery of endeavor and moving parts to salivary gland. It stimulates the release of saliva which is the first step of digestion, as various enzymes in it break down food; create it easy to digest like ginger, figs, fennel etc. Betel leaves has too shown to prevent oral cancer by maintaining the levels of ascorbic acid in the saliva .Ascorbic acid is an excellent source of antioxidant, which helps decrease the free radicals in the body, accordingly preventing cancer.

Piper betel leaf show anti-oxidant activity inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increase activities of catalase and super oxide dismutase. Piper betel is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. Anti-proliferative activity of aqueous se extract of piper betel leaf on KB and HeLa cell line , the aim of the study was assessed the effect of the aqueous extract of piper betel plant on the proliferation of cancerous cell lines , that is KB and HeLa cell lines using cytotoxicity assay ( Fathilah et al., 2010). Cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of piper betel leaf was evaluated using murine (carcinoma and melanoma B-16 cells) cancer cell line by employing MTT assay and Trypan blue dye exclusion method were examined (Roy and vijayalaxmi et al.,2013).

In our present study LD- 50 98.4442µl/ml possess good anticancer activity against colon cancer cell lines (HT- 29). Further investigations are needed for identification and purification of the specific anti-cancer components from these plants.

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