II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned ... Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism...

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Transcript of II A 1 Paul Younger Keynote Address - Abandoned ... Avoca Copper Mines, Wicklow, Ireland Tourism...

  • 1

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Orphaned and Abandoned Mines: in pursuit of best practicein pursuit of best practice

    Paul L Younger C.Geol. C.Eng. FIChemE FCIWEM FIMMM

    HSBC Professor of Energy & Environment

    Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research & Outreach (HERO) Institute for Research on Environment & Sustainability (IRES)

    Newcastle University, UK. (paul.younger@ncl.ac.uk)

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Orphaned and Abandoned Mines

    = O&AM

  • 2

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Scope of talk … • Dimensions of the issue • Priority setting – policies, perspectives,

    pragmatism • Community engagement – who, what and

    why? • Partnership approaches – panacea or

    pain-in-the-rear? • Towards best practices

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Dimensions of the issue • Orphaned / abandoned mines:

    – A lethal legacy?: long-term environmental impacts

    – A precious patrimony?: community memory and the heritage ‘industry’

    – both of the above? (in Europe – often yes; elsewhere … ?)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 3

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Environmental impacts of O&AM: pathways

    • Air: dust-blown emissions: ingestion • Soil: direct ingestion / arable /

    pastoral use; land stability • Water: rivers (dissolved phase and

    sediments), aquifers, ecosystems, drinking water

    Effects generally highly localised

    Effects downstream: ≤ 100s of km Dimensions of

    the issue

    2

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Dust and Land Stability Issues

    Miami, Oklahoma (Tar Creek Superfund Site) Miami, Oklahoma (Tar Creek Superfund Site) –– PbPb/Zn /Zn orefieldorefield

    Dune Dune bedformsbedforms on windswept, on windswept, finefine--grained mine wastesgrained mine wastes

    Crown hole over deep Crown hole over deep mine roof collapsemine roof collapse

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 4

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    O&AM land instability: Impacts on Essential Infrastructure

    DolphingstoneDolphingstone, Edinburgh, East Coast Main Railway Line, Edinburgh, East Coast Main Railway Line

    CrownCrown--hole above ancient mine hole above ancient mine voids subject to recent change in voids subject to recent change in

    water table positionwater table position

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    O&AM Stability Issues objectively dangerous

    AberfanAberfan, , South South Wales, Wales,

    2121--1010--1966, 1966, 144 people 144 people killed (116 killed (116 of them of them school school

    children)children)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 5

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Environmental impacts of O&AM: frequency

    • Air: an issue only with Pb, As, Hg, Cd etc • Soil: areal impact of pollution dependent

    on markets (e.g. dairy herds etc) • Water: BY FAR THE MOST COMMON RECEPTOR AND VECTOR OF O&AM POLLUTION

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Impacts of O&AM on water environment: surface waters

    • Iron: most common pollutant (Mn, Zn, As often also mobile at pH ≈ 7)

    • Acidity, low pH: an issue where weathering is near-surface:- spoil heaps, old tailings, shallow workings

    • Other pollutants: e.g. SO4 – an issue where drinking water is abstracted downstream

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 6

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Typical iron-rich (‘ferruginous’) mine water discharges

    Ynysarwed, South Wales, UK - marginally acidic deep coal mine discharge, 250 mg/l Fe

    Skinningrove, Cleveland, UK - two strongly alkaline ironstone mine discharges, both with 17 mg/l Fe

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Major acidic discharge: Wheal Jane, Cornwall (UK), Jan 1992 (et seq.)

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 7

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Acidic mine waters in a dry environment: Brugspruit, Witbank Coalfield, S Africa

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Impacts of O&AM on water environment: ground waters

    • Remarkably few recorded cases of pollution of major (i.e. potable supply) aquifers: – Major early example: Sth. Durham UK – Several other cases now pending in

    Europe – Under-reporting to date: does it reflect

    slow onset of obvious aquifer pollution after mine abandonment (decades)?

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 8

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Water abstraction boreholes

    Discharge into the sea

    Evapo- transpirationInfiltrating

    rainwater

    Major recharge area

    Mine water upflow

    Runoff

    Diminished recharge over glacial drift

    Infiltrating rainwater

    Piezometric surface

    (confined)

    Permian: Magnesian Limestone Aquifer and minor basal units

    Glacial drift (Quaternary)

    Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous)

    Sea or river

    General groundwater flow direction

    Water table / piezometric surface

    KEY

    Water table (unconfined)

    Level of shallowest mine

    workings

    Water abstraction boreholes

    Discharge into the sea

    Evapo- transpirationInfiltrating

    rainwater

    Major recharge area

    Mine water upflow

    Runoff

    Diminished recharge over glacial drift

    Infiltrating rainwater

    Piezometric surface

    (confined)

    Permian: Magnesian Limestone Aquifer and minor basal units

    Glacial drift (Quaternary)

    Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous)

    Sea or river

    General groundwater flow direction

    Water table / piezometric surface

    KEY

    Water table (unconfined)

    Level of shallowest mine

    workings

    South Durham (UK): Aquifer Pollution From Underlying

    Abandoned Mines Dimensions of

    the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Spennymoor

    Bishop Auckland

    Shildon

    Darlington

    Stockton-on- Tees

    ¤ ¤

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    Middlesbrough

    Billingham

    Hartlepool

    Sedgefield

    Ferryhill

    ¤ ¤ ¤ Newton Aycliffe

    30.0 0 10.

    00

    100.00

    100.00

    300.00

    ¤

    SO42- concentration contour (mg/L)

    Water supply boreholes

    Observation boreholes

    Extent of the study area

    Extent of the mine workings

    Major settlements

    100. 00

    Spennymoor

    Bishop Auckland

    Shildon

    Darlington

    Stockton-on- Tees

    ¤ ¤

    ¤ ¤

    ¤¤¤

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    ¤ ¤ ¤

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    Middlesbrough

    Billingham

    Hartlepool

    Sedgefield

    Ferryhill

    ¤ ¤ ¤ Newton Aycliffe

    30.0 0 10.

    00

    100.00

    100.00

    300.00

    ¤

    SO42- concentration contour (mg/L)

    Water supply boreholes

    Observation boreholes

    Extent of the study area

    Extent of the mine workings

    Major settlements

    100. 00

    Predicted plume migration to 2010

    Dimensions of the issue

  • 9

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Predictions of the calendar years in which specific public supply wells will exceed drinking

    water limit (250 mg/l SO4) for first time

    2019Hope House

    2057Waterloo Plantation

    2038Great Stainton

    2029Stillington

    2024Hopper House

    Year in which SO4 concentration predicted to first exceed 250 mg/l

    Public Supply Well

    Dimensions of the issue

    Keynote Address: NOAMI Workshop, Winnipeg, Oct 26th 2006

    Chair of Energy and Environment

    Heritage issues and O&AM

    • Mining is probably the second (certainly the third!) oldest profession

    • The earliest reliably-dated archaeological remains of mining keep getting ever more ancient (e.g. Bronze Age now widely- attested in NW Europe)

    • Conserv