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Exposure to Prejudice and its Impact on Attitudes to Muslims, Jews and Aboriginals in Canada

Identity, Faith. Learning and Interfaith Relations in Canada Presentation for Interfaith and Belonging Canadian Race Relations Foundation JACK JEDWAB ASSOCIATION FOR CANADIAN STUDIES October 16, 2012

Methodology Conducted by the firm Leger Marketing for the Association for Canadian Studies and the Canadian Race Relations Foundation, was done via web panel with 1522 respondents between March 17 and March 19, 2012. Across the country an equivalent phone survey would have a margin of error of 2.9 points 19 times out of 20) Attachment to religion lowest across identities-increases amongst 65 plus TotalA manA woman18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +FrenchEnglishOtherTotal Weight1522735787179247297307226267332877297TotNumb 1522813709115206313392223273428954132Canada84%83%86%79%80%82%88%87%89%54%95%89%Prov88%87%88%83%85%85%87%90%94%91%88%82%My Lang Group 78%75%81%62%78%77%82%80%85%84%80%65%My Ethnic Community 51%50%53%40%49%58%55%47%54%57%50%47%My Religious Group 38%34%41%29%32%40%34%37%52%26%39%45%Importance of religion and belief in God is lowest amongst youth AgreeTotalA manA woman18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +Religion is an important part of my life 42%37%46%30%38%43%38%42%56%God exists67%64%71%56%63%71%66%65%79%Good Deeds are rewarded 76%71%81%77%72%76%77%77%79%Bad Deeds are punished 63%58%67%72%65%61%60%63%58%A higher power governs the world 58%54%62%52%55%60%54%55%69%There is life after death63%58%68%60%61%64%61%62%70%Francophones least likely to believe that a high power governs AgreeTotalFrenchEnglishOtherMaritimesQCONMB/SKABBCReligion is an important part of my life 42%33%44%43%47%33%45%54%43%37%God exists67%64%68%69%70%62%70%79%67%62%Good Deeds are rewarded 76%77%77%75%82%78%76%82%75%70%Bad Deeds are punished 63%54%64%68%70%56%66%65%60%60%A higher power governs the world 58%45%60%67%62%46%62%73%66%52%There is life after death63%62%65%57%60%60%65%69%67%59%Canadians can practice freely but rights of women may be affected AGREETotalA manA woman18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +FrenchEnglishOtherPeople can practise their religion freely in Canada91%93%90%91%94%91%91%91%90%84%94%94%Religion inevitably poses a threat to women's rights45%44%45%49%44%40%42%49%45%55%43%35%Religion brings people together more than it divides them47%44%49%42%43%47%44%43%58%40%48%51%I want to learn more about religions other than my own49%48%49%46%56%51%42%48%48%40%55%41%Yes to Religious Pluralism, ButAGREETotalA manA woman18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +FrenchEnglishOtherThere is room for a variety of religions in Canada82%84%81%84%83%80%83%84%79%74%82%91%We have to take steps to protect our Canadian religious traditions from outside influences51%48%54%41%53%46%45%53%69%65%51%38%Francophones least likely to believe that religion can resolve personal problems Do you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with the following: / Religion can help address personal problemsFrenchEnglishOtherStrongly agree9.7%21.8%29.6%Somewhat agree41.4%43.7%34.7%Somewhat disagree26.0%20.4%24.6%Strongly disagree23.0%14.1%11.1%It is leaders and not religious people that lack trust Total Trust TotalA manA woman18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +People that are religious67%63%70%66%66%64%66%67%72%People that are not religious/Atheists73%71%75%79%72%77%71%68%73%Clergy/Religious Leaders48%46%51%39%47%43%47%50%62%Those who believe that God exists are most likely to trust religious leaders God existsClergy/Religious LeadersStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeTrusted a lot18.4%5.5%4.0%5.0%Somewhat trusted45.3%44.1%31.6%17.4%Trusted a little25.9%35.3%42.7%33.1%Not trusted at all10.4%15.0%21.7%44.6%Those who consider religion as important in their lives are far more inclined to affirmGods existence (see table below) and far more likely to agree that good deeds will be rewardedReligion is an important part of my lifeGod existsStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeStrongly agree95.7%56.4%22.2%6.9%Somewhat agree3.3%41.2%52.0%18.3%Somewhat disagree.7%2.1%23.6%30.2%Strongly disagree.3%.3%2.2%44.6%Religion is an important part of my lifeGood deeds are rewardedStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeStrongly agree58.0%26.9%17.6%12.9%Somewhat agree36.4%56.3%59.6%48.0%Somewhat disagree4.9%13.8%17.6%21.5%Strongly disagree.7%3.1%5.1%17.7%Young Canadians least likely to trust religious leaders Total Trust TotalA manA woman18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +People that are religious67%63%70%66%66%64%66%67%72%People that are not religious/Atheists73%71%75%79%72%77%71%68%73%Clergy/Religious Leaders48%46%51%39%47%43%47%50%62%Those who want to learn more about other religions more likely to agree that religion unifies I want to learn more about religions other than my ownReligion brings people together more than it divides themStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeStrongly agree27.1%39.1%20.0%13.8%Somewhat agree11.4%45.7%28.9%14.0%Somewhat disagree8.8%34.4%34.9%21.9%Strongly disagree10.3%22.5%18.3%48.9%Those who want to learn more about other religions more positive about Muslims I want to learn more about religions other than my ownDo you have a very positive, somewhat positive, somewhat negative or very negative opinion of the following: / MuslimsStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeVery positive30.1%39.9%9.2%20.8%Somewhat positive14.4%45.2%24.8%15.6%Somewhat negative8.8%32.0%31.7%27.4%Very negative5.7%17.4%34.8%42.2%Those who want to learn more about other religions more positive about Jews I want to learn more about religions other than my ownDo you have a very positive, somewhat positive, somewhat negative or very negative opinion of the following: / JewsStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeVery positive21.7%43.4%18.1%16.8%Somewhat positive12.0%36.6%28.5%22.9%Somewhat negative9.7%28.6%31.8%30.0%Very negative4.2%15.5%25.4%54.9%Those who want to learn more about other religions more positive about MC Policy I want to learn more about religions other than my ownDo you have a very positive, somewhat positive, somewhat negative or very negative opinion of the following: / Canadian Multicultural PolicyStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeVery positive30.6%34.1%20.5%14.8%Somewhat positive10.7%40.9%29.3%19.2%Somewhat negative9.2%34.5%25.6%30.7%Very negative6.3%22.7%29.5%41.5%Those who want to learn more about other religions more trusting of Muslims I want to learn more about religions other than my ownThe following can be trusted a lot, somewhat trusted, trusted a little or not trusted at all: / MuslimsStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeTrusted a lot41.8%34.2%6.8%17.1%Somewhat trusted14.6%44.0%24.3%17.1%Trusted a little7.1%35.6%34.5%22.8%Not trusted at all3.7%21.5%28.9%46.0%Those who want to learn more about other religions more trusting of Jews I want to learn more about religions other than my ownThe following can be trusted a lot, somewhat trusted, trusted a little or not trusted at all: / JewsStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeTrusted a lot29.8%38.3%13.6%18.3%Somewhat trusted11.4%41.0%27.3%20.3%Trusted a little6.8%27.7%37.8%27.7%Not trusted at all5.0%20.1%20.9%54.0%Those supporting interfaith dialogue more likely to agree that religion unifies Government should provide funds to support dialogue to resolve problems between religious communitiesReligion brings people together more than it divides themStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeStrongly agree19.6%29.5%30.4%20.5%Somewhat agree5.2%30.4%43.0%21.5%Somewhat disagree4.9%21.4%41.5%32.2%Strongly disagree1.7%18.9%18.3%61.1%Muslims less trusted than other groups Total Trust Total 18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +Protestant 71%53%69%69%74%73%83%Catholics 70%63%67%66%68%73%83%Jews69%64%69%65%71%69%77%Aboriginals 64%66%66%64%66%59%60%Immigrants 63%73%63%62%62%57%62%Muslims 48%56%50%51%49%45%39%

As observed below, some 43% of Canadians strongly agree that they have heard negative comments about Muslims over the past year compared with 31% in the case of Aboriginals and 25% in the case of Jews.

I have heard negative comments aboutin the past yearStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeMuslims 43.5%38.8%11.1%6.5%100.0%Aboriginals31.2%37.6%20.7%10.4%100.0%Jews24.7%34.4%26.4%14.5%100.0%People least likely to agree that discrimination towards black people not their fault If there is discrimination againstit is mainly their faultTotal 18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +Muslims42%28%41%38%39%39%62%Jews26%20%30%25%26%24%28%Black People 19%24%20%17%17%16%20%Most Canadians possess negative view of relations between Muslims and non-Muslims Relations Between Muslims and Non-MuslimsTotal MaritimesQCONMB/SKABBCTOTAL positive38%57%26%42%42%42%35%Very positive8%12%4%11%9%10%6%Somewhat positive30%45%22%31%33%32%29%TOTAL negative51%30%66%47%47%49%50%Somewhat negative33%23%38%32%27%30%41%Very negative18%7%28%15%20%19%9%I prefer not answering11%13%7%11%11%9%15%Young people more optimistic around relations between Muslims and non-Muslims Relations Between Muslims and Non-Muslims 18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +FrenchEnglishOtherTOTAL positive56%35%34%43%38%29%25%44%38%Very positive24%4%7%7%5%8%5%9%10%Somewhat positive32%31%27%35%34%22%20%35%28%TOTAL negative31%51%54%47%53%64%66%46%52%Somewhat negative20%37%41%30%30%38%38%31%34%Very negative11%14%14%17%24%26%28%14%17%I prefer not answering13%14%12%11%8%7%9%11%10%Those who were the most likely to have heard negative comments about Muslims were the most likely to hold negative opinions about them. But those with moderate exposure to such comments held negative views to the same degree as those who heard very little negative remarks about Muslims. Do you have a very positive, somewhat positive, somewhat negative or very negative opinion of the following: / Muslims I have heard negative comments about Muslims in the past yearSomewhat negativeVery negativeTotal Negative Strongly agree33.2%22.6%55.8%Somewhat agree29.6%7.3%36.9%Somewhat disagree17.3%12.5%29.8%Strongly disagree18.4%17.3%35.7%I have heard negative comments about Muslims in the past yearStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeAge 43.5%38.8%11.1%6.5%100.0%18-24 years of age48.9%38.3%6.1%6.7%100.0%25-34 years of age45.3%38.1%12.6%4.0%100.0%35-44 years of age37.2%38.3%18.5%6.0%100.0%45-54 years of age38.6%41.5%9.2%10.8%100.0%55-64 years of age44.9%33.0%15.4%6.6%100.0%65-74 years of age46.3%45.8%4.9%3.0%100.0%Negative comments about Muslims have been heard to roughly equal degrees across the age spectrum

When comparing the provinces, it is British Columbians that are least likely to report that they heard negative comments about Muslims with residents of Saskatchewan most likely to have heard them.

I have heard negative comments about Muslims in the past yearStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeAlberta46.2%41.0%10.3%2.6%100.0%British Columbia34.0%46.8%15.8%3.4%100.0%Manitoba40.0%34.5%7.3%18.2%100.0%New Brunswick41.7%33.3%11.1%13.9%100.0%Nova Scotia44.4%20.0%15.6%20.0%100.0%Ontario43.0%39.2%11.6%6.1%100.0%Quebec48.8%37.7%7.4%6.1%100.0%Saskatchewan55.3%34.0%4.3%6.4%100.0%Quebecers most negative about relations between Jews and non-Jews Relations Between Jews and Non-Jews Total MaritimesQCONMB/SKABBCTOTAL positive59%67%38%67%61%63%64%Very positive15%23%6%19%14%18%13%Somewhat positive44%43%32%49%47%45%51%TOTAL negative30%20%52%23%26%31%21%Somewhat negative23%18%36%18%20%22%20%Very negative7%2%16%5%6%9%1%I prefer not answering10%13%9%10%13%6%15%Young Canadians somewhat less likely to be positive about relations between Jews and non-Jews Relations Between Jews and Non-Jews 18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +FrenchEnglishOtherTOTAL positive69%50%55%57%59%68%39%67%62%Very positive23%13%12%14%11%19%8%17%17%Somewhat positive46%37%43%44%48%49%31%50%45%TOTAL negative19%36%31%31%34%28%51%23%27%Somewhat negative9%30%25%23%24%22%35%19%21%Very negative10%6%6%7%10%6%16%5%7%I prefer not answering11%14%14%12%7%4%10%10%11%In the case of Jews, those who were more exposed to negative comments were more likely to hold negative opinions about the group

Do you have a very positive, somewhat positive, somewhat negative or very negative opinion of the following: / Jews I have heard negative comments about Jews in the past yearSomewhat negativeVery negativeTotal Negative Strongly agree16.5%8.5%25.0%Somewhat agree18.9%3.1%22%Somewhat disagree10.4%2.5%12.9%Strongly disagree5.9%5.9%11.8%In the case of Jews, it is the youngest cohort that is somewhat more exposed to negative remarks.

I have heard negative comments about Jews in the past year Strongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeAge24.7%34.4%26.4%14.5%100.0%18-24 years of age34.8%30.9%18.0%16.3%100.0%25-34 years of age25.1%33.2%31.6%10.1%100.0%35-44 years of age25.9%29.3%30.0%14.8%100.0%45-54 years of age24.1%32.9%24.4%18.6%100.0%55-64 years of age23.5%31.4%31.9%13.3%100.0%65-74 years of age13.9%51.5%19.8%14.9%100.0%Manitobans were least likely to hear negative remarks about Jews which was most common in QuebecI have heard negative comments about Jews in the past yearStrongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeTotal Alberta23.7%39.7%25.6%10.9%100.0%British Columbia15.3%28.6%39.4%16.7%100.0%Manitoba11.1%25.9%37.0%25.9%100.0%New Brunswick22.2%30.6%22.2%25.0%100.0%Nova Scotia28.3%21.7%17.4%32.6%100.0%Ontario26.1%33.2%26.6%14.1%100.0%Quebec30.1%40.6%18.2%11.0%100.0%Saskatchewan21.7%41.3%28.3%8.7%100.0%