IBS, INCORPORATED Index Screw & Bolt · PDF fileIndex Screw & Bolt Anchors A Anchors...
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The Mark of Our Quality is in Our Service08-07-17 Y-1
IndexScrew & Bolt Anchors
Anchor Applications Guide Y-5Anchor Types & Designs Y-6, Y-7General Information Y-2
AssortmentsElectrician'sConcrete ScrewAnchor Y-26General Contractor'sConcrete ScrewAnchor Y-26Rapidrive Anchor Screws Assortment Y-12Top 10 Concrete Screws with Drills & Installation Y-27
Single Unit CalkingOpen End Y-9
HHollow Wall Anchors
Auger Anchors Y-15E-Z Anchors Y-13Heavy Duty Toggle Anchors Y-16Poly-Toggle Screw Anchors Y-20Rapidrive Anchor Screws Y-10Toggle Bolts Y-19Toggle Wings Y-19
MMasonry Fastening System Y-24Masonry Fastening Systems
SDS Drill Bits Y-25Tool Kit for Concrete Screws Y-25
OOne Step Anchors
Nylon Nail-In Anchors Y-21Zamac Nail-In Anchors Y-21
Bantum Plugs Y-8Lag Shields Y-9Poly-Toggle Screw Anchors Y-20Rapidrive Anchor Screws Y-10Super Plastic Anchors Y-8
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The information on the following pages is designed to be used as a reference in selecting anchors and fas-teners. It is intended to provide the user with practical information for the most common applications. It is not possible to include information on all applications and data for all construction materials. It is the responsibility of the user to verify the accuracy of the text and the data contained in this handbook as it pertains to each unique application.
Information on this and the following pages obtained from Rawl Catalog #0013 1989 The Rawlplug Company, Inc.
Selection and Specification of AnchorsUntil the beginning of this century, an anchor was a piece of wood or a plug of lead carved to size and wedged into a hole, into which a nail or screw was driven. These early anchors were then followed by lead and fiber anchors with hollow cores which were mass produced in a variety of sizes to match hole sizes and screw sizes.
A multitude of anchor types have been developed in subsequent years leading to todays proliferation of choices. But while this variety of choices does provide a better match up of anchors to specific needs, it also makes the selection process that much more difficult.
For that reason, before selecting the type, size and number of anchors to be used for any given applica-tion, all of the following factors should be taken into consideration.
Base MaterialThe strength of the masonry material is a key factor in selecting an anchor. Maximum anchor performance requires that the material in which the anchor is in-stalled can also sustain the load to which the anchor will be subjected. Anchors installed in stone and dense concrete can withstand far greaterpullout loads than the same anchor installed in lightweight concrete, block or brick. Medium-heavy to heavy loads cannot be safely installed in soft materials such as stucco, grout, plaster or plasterboard. Materials should be fully cured prior toanchor installation.
The length, width, and thickness of the base material should be considered. Normally, the width should be at least twice the recommended edge distance. The depth of anchor embedment should not exceed 80% of the base material thickness.
Material Composition of Anchors
IBS offers a selection of anchors to meet the requirements of most applications. When reviewing the basic considerations for selection of an anchor, the material from which the anchor is manufactured should be considered. The IBS anchor selection guide lists the basic material from which each anchor is manufactured.
Anchors selected should be manufactured from a material which is suitable for their intended use. For example, anchors manufactured from a material with a melting point of less than 1000 F are not normally recommended for overhead applications. Examples of these materials would include zinc (Zamac), lead, plastic and adhesives. A steel anchor usually meets the requirements of most fire codes. IBS offers several Factory Mutual Approved anchors for use in fire resistantconstruction.
Consideration should also be given to the strength of the anchor material in relation to the applied loads, including bending. The bolts used in conjunction with an anchor should be capable of sustaining the applied loads.
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Anchor FunctioningAnchor functioning is based on one of the following categories: friction, compression, clamping, under-cutting, and adhesion. In some cases a combination of functions is used. Friction fasteners develop their load capacity by creating a friction force between the fastener and the base material. Fasteners of this type may be driven into the base material without predrilling and are suitable for light duty static loads. Clamping describes the category of anchors which is used to fasten to hollow base materials. Tension loads are sustained by spreading the load over a large bearing surface in the hollow walls while shear is resisted by the friction developed between the fix-ture and the base material. Most anchors function by developing a compression force against the wall of the drilled hole which resists the applied loads. This compression force is generated by a sleeve, ring, or wedge assembly which is actuated by a tapered cone, tapered plug, a nail or a screw depending upon the type. Undercut anchors expand into the base material at the bottom of the drilled hole. As they undercut the base material, a large load bearing surface is formed which can transfer greater loads to the base material. Adhesion involves bonding the anchor rod to the base material. This type of anchor can generally sustain the highest loads.
ExpansIon against the wall of the drilled hole.
UndERCUTTIng the masonry material at the base of the drilled hole.
IMpaCT or shock Load periodic load of substantial intensity.
sHEaR Load a load ap-plied at a right angle to the installed anchor.
sTaTIC or dead Load constant and unchanging.
dYnaMIC or Vibration Load intermittent and of varying intensity.
TEnsIon Load direct axial load applied to in-stalled anchor.
CoMBInEd Loada load applied to the anchor at any angle between 0 and 90.
CLaMpIng the item to be fastened to the masonry material.
FRICTIon between the fastener and the masonry material.
CElLlng usually direct axial (ten ion) load.
FLooR may be tension, shear or combined load. WaLL usually either
combined or shear load.
Loading ConditionsThe holding power required should be calculated to include not only the load factor, but also the way the load is transmitted to the anchor.The conditions of use should be reviewed. Will the installed anchors be used to support a static load, or will they be subjected to vibration and/or shock loads?
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Spacing RecommendationsThe load on an anchor is transmitted to the base material in which it is installed. Loading of anchors in closely spaced clusters of two or more can result in interaction of forces on the base material and lead to a reduction in anchor performance. The expansion anchor industry has established a minimum standard of 10 anchor diameters for spacing and 5 anchor diameters for edge distance to provide 100% anchor efficiency. Spacing may be reduced to 5 diameters with a 50% proportionate reduction in load.The installation conditions are often determined by the manufacturer of the fixture or equipment to be fastened. The equipment or fixture often contains a specific number of mounting holes of a given screw or bolt size at a fixed spacing.
Installation CostsA factor far less tangible than those previously dis-cussed is the total installation cost. This includes the cost of the anchor, the drills, the drilling equipment, and the labor involved. Some anchors take longer to install than others; some require greater skill; some require deeper holes to obtain the same load capacity; some require layout or hole spotting while others do not. Ultimately, the selection and specification of an anchor requires a review of the application require-ments such as the loading, base material, installation conditions, and other factors to assure maximum performance of the products. When properly selected, Industrial Bolt anchors can provide the best, most cost effective solution for most applications.
Corrosion GuideThe corrosive environment in which an anchor will be installed should be evaluated. The basic forms of corrosion can be described as chemical, electrochemi-cal and galvanic. In addition, the pH factor of the environment should also be considered. To assure adequate protection, a detailed knowledge of corro-sion is required to analyze the specific application.
Safety FactorsBecause of varying conditions of field installations a 4:1 safety factor (25% of the ultimate value) is the minimum accepted industry standard for static loads. Critical applications (vibratory loads, overhead instal-lations, etc.) may require a safety factor of as much as 10:1, or more.
Anchor Installation TorqueRecommended installation procedures are detailed on the product catalog pages which follow. The effect of fixture coatings, lubrication of the anchor components due to the use of sealants, etc., strength of the base material, and other factors which affect the torque/tension relationship should be considered. The instal-lation torque value used should be adjusted to suit the particular application.As an anchor is expanded by applying