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Transcript of I 7 marketing

  • 1. Sesi 7 Understanding Marketing Processes and Consumer Behavior Copyright 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2. Key Topics

  • Definition of marketing
  • The external marketing environment
  • Segmentation and target marketing
  • The consumer buying process
  • Organizational markets and buying behavior
  • Consumer and industrial products
  • Branding and packaging

3. What Is Marketing?

  • Planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives

Finding a need and filling it! OR 4. Nature of Marketing

  • To create value by allowing people and organizations to obtain what they need and want

5. The Exchange Relationship

  • Exchange:
    • The act of giving up something (money, credit, labor, goods) in return for something else (goods, services, or ideas)

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 6. The Exchange Process: Giving UpOne Thing in Return for Another Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 7. Marketing Creates Utility

  • Utility--a products ability to satisfy human needs and wants
    • Place
    • Time
    • Ownership
    • Form

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 8. Functions of Marketing

  • Buying
  • Selling
  • Transporting
  • Storing
  • Grading
  • Financing
  • Marketing research
  • Risk taking

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 9. The Marketing Concept

  • The idea that an organization should try to satisfy customers needs through coordinated activities that allow it to achieve its own goals (profit)

Did You Know?Trying to determine a customers true needsis difficult because no one fully understandswhat motivates people to buy. Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 10. Evolution of the Marketing Concept

  • The production orientation
    • During the second half of the 19th century
  • The sales orientation
    • By the early part of the 20th century
  • The marketing orientation
    • By the 1950s

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 11. Marketing Orientation

  • Requires organizations to:
    • Gather information about customer needs
    • Share that information throughout the entire firm
    • Use that information to help build long-term relationships with customers

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 12. Developing Marketing Strategy

  • Marketing strategy:
    • A plan of action for developing pricing, distributing and promoting products that meet the needs of specific customers
  • Two major components:
    • Selecting a target market
    • Developing the appropriate marketing mix

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 13. Selecting a Target Market

  • Market
    • A group of people who have a need, purchasing power, and the desire and authority to spend money on goods, services, and ideas
  • Target market
    • A more specific group of consumers on whose needs and wants a company focuses its marketing effort

12- Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 14. Total-Market Approach

  • The marketer tries to appeal to everyone and assumes that all buyers have the same needs

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 15. Target Market Strategies Total-Market Approach Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 16. Market Segmentation

  • Market Segmentation:
    • A strategy to divide the total market into groups of people who have relatively similar product needs

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 17. Market Segment

  • A collection of individuals, groups, or organizations who share one or more characteristics and have similar product needs and desires

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 18. Bases for Segmenting Markets

  • Demographic
  • Geographic
  • Psychographic
  • Behavioristic

Did You Know?During its first year of operation, sales of Coca-Cola averaged just nine drinks per day for total first-year sales of $50. Today, Coca-Cola products are consumed at the rate of one billion drinks per day. Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 19. The Keys to Successful Market Segmentation

  • Consumers product needs must be heterogeneous
  • Segments must be identifiable and divisible
  • The market must be divided so segment sales, cost, and profit can be compared
  • One segment must have enough profit potential to justify a special marketing strategy
  • The chosen segment must be reached by the firm with a particular marketing strategy

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 20. Marketing Mix: The Four Ps (Distribution) P roduct P ricing P romotion P lace 21. Developing the Marketing Mix Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 22. Product

  • A good, service, or idea that has tangible and intangible attributes that provide satisfaction and benefit to consumers
    • Products should be sold at a profit

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 23. Price

  • A value placed on a product or service that is exchanged between a buyer and seller

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 24. Distribution

  • Making products available to consumers in the quantities and locations desired

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 25. Promotion

  • A persuasive form of communication that attempts to expedite a marketing exchange by influencing individuals and organizations to accept goods, services, and ideas

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 26. The Promotional Mix Advertising Personal Selling Sales Promotions Public Relations 27. Marketing Research & Information Systems

  • Marketing research
    • A systematic, objective process of getting customer information to guide marketing decisions
  • Marketing information system
    • A framework for assessing information about customers from internal and external sources

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 28. Collecting Data

  • Primary data
    • Marketing information that is observed, recorded, or collected directly from respondents
  • Secondary data
    • Information that is compiled inside or outside an organization for some purpose other than changing the current situation

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 29. Buying Behavior

  • The decision processes and actions of people who purchase and use products

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 30. Psychological Variables of Buying Behavior

  • Perception
  • Motivation
  • Learning
  • Attitude
  • Personality

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 31. Social Variables ofBuying Behavior

  • Social roles
  • Reference groups
  • Social classes
  • Culture

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 32. The Marketing Environment

  • External forces that directly or indirectly influence the development of marketingstrategies
    • Political
    • Legal
    • Regulatory
    • Social
    • Competitive
    • Economic, and technological

Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 33. The Marketing Mix and theMarketing Environment Copyright 2006by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 34. REVIEW

  • Jelaskan bagaimana supply dan demand dapat mempengaruhi jumlah produksi maupun distribusi